Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Bilingual memory, to the extreme: Lexical processing in simultaneous interpreters

  • MICAELA SANTILLI (a1), MARTINA G. VILAS (a1) (a2), EZEQUIEL MIKULAN (a1) (a2), MIGUEL MARTORELL CARO (a1), EDINSON MUÑOZ (a3), LUCAS SEDEÑO (a1) (a2), AGUSTÍN IBÁÑEZ (a1) (a2) (a4) (a5) (a6) and ADOLFO M. GARCÍA (a1) (a2) (a7)...
Abstract

This study assessed whether bilingual memory is susceptible to the extreme processing demands of professional simultaneous interpreters (PSIs). Seventeen PSIs and 17 non-interpreter bilinguals completed word production, lexical retrieval, and verbal fluency tasks. PSIs exhibited enhanced fluency in their two languages, and they were faster to translate words in both directions. However, no significant differences emerged in picture naming or word reading. This suggests that lexical enhancements in PSIs are confined to their specifically trained abilities (vocabulary search, interlingual reformulation), with no concomitant changes in other word-processing mechanisms. Importantly, these differences seem to reflect specifically linguistic effects, as both samples were matched for relevant executive skills. Moreover, only word translation performance correlated with the PSIs’ years of interpreting experience. Therefore, despite their tight cooperation, different subcomponents within bilingual memory seem characterized by independent, usage-driven flexibility.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Adolfo M. García, Ph. D., Institute of Cognitive and Translational Neuroscience & CONICET, Pacheco de Melo 1860, C1126AAB, Buenos Aires, Argentina adolfomartingarcia@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All

*This work was partially supported by grants from CONICET; CONICYT/FONDECYT Regular (1170010); Programa Interdisciplinario de Investigación Experimental en Comunicación y Cognición (PIIECC), Facultad de Humanidades, USACH; Proyecto Basal USACH USA1398_ME112214; FONDAP 15150012; and the INECO Foundation.

Micaela Santilli and Martina G. Vilas are both lead authors of this work, with equal contribution.

Supplementary Material can be found online at https://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728918000378

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Abutalebi, J., Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2005). What can functional neuroimaging tell us about the bilingual brain. In Kroll, J. F. & Groot, A. M. B. De (eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches, pp. 497515. New York.
Amoruso, L., Ibáñez, A., Fonseca, B., Gadea, S., Sedeno, L., Sigman, M., García, A. M., Fraiman, R., & Fraiman, D. (2016). Variability in functional brain networks predicts expertise during action observation. Neuroimage. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2016.09.041
Amoruso, L., Sedeno, L., Huepe, D., Tomio, A., Kamienkowski, J., Hurtado, E., Cardona, J. F., Alvarez Gonzalez, M. A., Rieznik, A., Sigman, M., Manes, F., & Ibáñez, A. (2014). Time to Tango: expertise and contextual anticipation during action observation. Neuroimage, 98, 366385. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2014.05.005
Anderson, L. (1994). Simultaneous interpretation: Contextual and translational aspects. In Lambert, S. & Moser-Mercer, B. (eds.), Bridging the Gap: Empirical Research in Simultaneous Interpretation, pp. 101120. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Babcock, L., & Vallesi, A. (2015). Are simultaneous interpreters expert bilinguals, unique bilinguals, or both? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 115. doi: 10.1017/S1366728915000735
Bajo, M. T., Padilla, F., & Padilla, P. (2000). Comprehension processes in simultaneous interpreting. In Chesterman, A., Gallardo San Salvador, N., & Gambier, Y. (eds.), Translation in Context, pp. 127142. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Barik, H. C. (1975). Simultaneous interpretation: Qualitative and linguistic data. Language and Speech, 18, 272298.
Benton, A. L., & Hamsher, K. (1989). Multilingual Aphasia Examination (Second ed.). Iowa: Universiy of Iowa.
Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad, and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 311.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F., & Luk, G. (2008). Cognitive control and lexical access in younger and older bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology:Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 859873. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.34.4.859
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Grady, C., Chau, W., Ishii, R., Gunji, A., & Pantev, C. (2005). Effect of bilingualism on cognitive control in the Simon task: evidence from MEG. NeuroImage, 24, 4049.
Bialystok, E., Craik, F. I., Klein, R., & Viswanathan, M. (2004). Bilingualism, aging, and cognitive control: evidence from the Simon task. Psychology and aging, 19, 290.
Bilalić, M., McLeod, P., & Gobet, F. (2008). Inflexibility of experts—Reality or myth? Quantifying the Einstellung effect in chess masters. Cognitive Psychology, 56, 73102. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2007.02.001
Borius, P. Y., Giussani, C., Draper, L., & Roux, F. E. (2012). Sentence translation in proficient bilinguals: a direct electrostimulation brain mapping. Cortex, 48, 614622. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2011.01.011
Brysbaert, M., & Duyck, W. (2010). Is it time to leave behind the Revised Hierarchical Model of bilingual language processing after fifteen years of service? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 359371. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909990344
Calvo, N., Ibáñez, A., & García, A. M. (2016). The Impact of Bilingualism on Working Memory: A Null Effect on the Whole May Not Be So on the Parts. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 265. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00265
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. New York, NY: Routledge Academic.
Costa, A., & Santesteban, M. (2004). Lexical access in bilingual speech production: Evidence from language switching in highly proficient bilinguals and L2 learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 50, 491511.
Cycowicz, Y. M., Friedman, D., Rothstein, M., & Snodgrass, J. G. (1997). Picture naming by young children: norms for name agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 65, 171237. doi: 10.1006/jecp.1996.2356
Chee, M. W., Soon, C. S., & Lee, H. L. (2003). Common and segregated neuronal networks for different languages revealed using functional magnetic resonance adaptation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 8597. doi: 10.1162/089892903321107846
Chernov, G. V. (2004). Inference and Anticipation in Simultaneous Interpreting: A Probability-prediction Model. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins Publishing Company.
Chincotta, D., & Underwood, G. (1998). Simultaneous interpreters and the effect of concurrent articulation on immediate memory. Interpreting: International Journal of Research and Practice in Interpreting, 3, 120.
Christoffels, I., Degroot, A., & Kroll, J. (2006). Memory and language skills in simultaneous interpreters: The role of expertise and language proficiency. Journal of Memory and Language, 54, 324345. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2005.12.004
Christoffels, I. K., De Groot, A. M. B., & Waldorp, L. J. (2003). Basic skills in a complex task: A graphical model relating memory and lexical retrieval to simultaneous interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 6, 201211.
Davies, M. (2008a). Corpus del español: 100 millones de palabras, 1200s-1900s. Retrieved October 13, 2013 http://www.corpusdelespanol.org/
Davies, M. (2008b). The corpus of contemporary American English: 425 million words, 1990-present. Retrieved October 4, 2013 http://corpus.byu.edu/coca/
de Groot, A. M. B., Borgwaldt, S., Bos, M., & van den Eijnden, E. (2002). Lexical Decision and Word Naming in Bilinguals: Language Effects and Task Effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 47, 91124. doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2840
De Groot, A. M. B., & Christoffels, I. K. (2006). Language control in bilinguals: Monolingual tasks and simultaneous interpreting. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 189201.
De Vreese, L. P., Motta, M., & Toschi, A. (1988). Compulsive and paradoxical translation behaviour in a case of presenile dementia of the Alzheimer type. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 3, 233259. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0911-6044(88)90015-2
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5, 175197. doi: 10.1017/S1366728902003012
Dillinger, M. (1994). Comprehension during interpreting: What do interpreters know that bilinguals don't? The Interpreters' Newsletter, 3, 4158.
Dong, Y., Gui, S., & Macwhinney, B. (2005). Shared and separate meanings in the bilingual mental lexicon. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8, 221238. doi: 10.1017/S1366728905002270
Elmer, S., Hänggi, J., & Jäncke, L. (2014). Processing demands upon cognitive, linguistic, and articulatory functions promote grey matter plasticity in the adult multilingual brain: Insights from simultaneous interpreters. Cortex, 54, 179189. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2014.02.014
Elmer, S., & Kuhnis, J. (2016). Functional Connectivity in the Left Dorsal Stream Facilitates Simultaneous Language Translation: An EEG Study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10, 60. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2016.00060
Elmer, S., Meyer, M., & Jancke, L. (2010). Simultaneous interpreters as a model for neuronal adaptation in the domain of language processing. Brain Research, 1317, 147156. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.12.052
Fabbro, F., Gran, B., & Gran, L. (1991). Hemispheric specialization for semantic and syntactic components of language in simultaneous interpreters. Brain and Language, 41, 142.
Ferré, P., Sánchez-Casas, R., & Guasch, M. (2006). Can a horse be a donkey? Semantic and form interference effects in translation recognition in early and late proficient and nonproficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals. Language Learning, 56, 571608. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2006.00389.x
French, R. M., & Jacquet, M. (2004). Understanding bilingual memory: models and data. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 8, 8793. doi: 10.1016/j.tics.2003.12.011
Friesen, D. C., Luo, L., Luk, G., & Bialystok, E. (2015). Proficiency and control in verbal fluency performance across the lifespan for monolinguals and bilinguals. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 30, 238250. doi: 10.1080/23273798.2014.918630
García, A. M. (2013). Brain activity during translation: A review of the neuroimaging evidence as a testing ground for clinically-based hypotheses. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 26, 370383.
García, A. M. (2014). The interpreter advantage hypothesis: Preliminary data patterns and empirically motivated questions. Translation and Interpreting Studies, 9, 219238. doi: 10.1075/tis.9.2.04gar
García, A. M. (2015a). Psycholinguistic explorations of lexical translation equivalents: Thirty years of research and their implications for cognitive translatology. Translation Spaces, 4, 928.
García, A. M. (2015b). Translating with an injured brain: Neurolinguistic aspects of translation as revealed by bilinguals with cerebral lesions. Meta: Translators’ Journal, 60, 112134.
García, A. M., Ibáñez, A., Huepe, D., Houck, A. L., Michon, M., Lezama, C. G., Chadha, S., & Rivera-Rei, A. (2014). Word reading and translation in bilinguals: the impact of formal and informal translation expertise. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1302. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01302
García, A. M., & Ibáñez, A. (2016). Hands typing what hands do: Action-semantic integration dynamics throughout written verb production. Cognition, 149, 5666.
Gerver, D. (1975). A psychological approach to simultaneous interpretation. Meta: International Translator's Journal, 20, 119128.
Gerver, D. (1976). Empirical studies of simultaneous interpretation: A review and a model. In Briskin, R. W. (ed.), Translation: Applications and Research, pp. 165207. New York: Gardner Press.
Gollan, T. H., Weissberger, G. H., Runnqvist, E., Montoya, R. I., & Cera, C. M. (2012). Self-ratings of Spoken Language Dominance: A Multi-Lingual Naming Test (MINT) and Preliminary Norms for Young and Aging Spanish-English Bilinguals. Bilingualism, 15, 594615. doi: 10.1017/s1366728911000332
Green, C. S., & Bavelier, D. (2003). Action video game modifies visual selective attention. Nature, 423, 534537. doi: http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v423/n6939/suppinfo/nature01647_S1.html
Green, D. W., & Abutalebi, J. (2013). Language control in bilinguals: The adaptive control hypothesis. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 25, 515530.
Green, D. W., & Weib, L. (2014). A control process model of code-switching. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29, 499511.
Guasch, M., Sánchez-Casas, R., Ferré, P., & García-Albea, J. E. (2008). Translation performance of beginning, intermediate and proficient Spanish-Catalan bilinguals: Effects of form and semantic relations. The Mental Lexicon, 3, 289308. doi: 10.1075/ml.3.3.03gua
Heikoop, K. W., DeClerck, M., Los, S. A., & Koch, I. (2016). Dissociating language-switch costs from cue-switch costs in bilingual language switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 921927.
Hernández, M., Costa, A., Fuentes, L. J., Vivas, A. B., & Sebastián-Gallés, N. (2010). The impact of bilingualism on the executive control and orienting networks of attention. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 315325. doi: 10.1017/s1366728909990010
Hernández, M., Martin, C. D., Barceló, F., & Costa, A. (2013). Where is the bilingual advantage in task-switching? Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 257276. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2013.06.004
Hervais-Adelman, A., Moser-Mercer, B., Michel, C. M., & Golestani, N. (2014). fMRI of Simultaneous Interpretation Reveals the Neural Basis of Extreme Language Control. Cerebral Cortex, 25, 47274739. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu158
Hulstijn, J. H. (2012). The construct of language proficiency in the study of bilingualism from a cognitive perspective. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 422433. doi: 10.1017/S1366728911000678
Ibáñez, A. J., Macizo, P., & Bajo, M. T. (2010). Language access and language selection in professional translators. Acta Psychologica, 135, 257266. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2010.07.009
Klein, D., Zatorre, R. J., Chen, J. K., Milner, B., Crane, J., Belin, P., & Bouffard, M. (2006). Bilingual brain organization: a functional magnetic resonance adaptation study. Neuroimage, 31, 366375. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.12.012
Köpke, B., & Nespoulous, J.-L. (2006). Working memory performance in expert and novice interpreters. Interpreting, 8, 123. doi: doi:10.1075/intp.8.1.02kop
Kousaie, S., Sheppard, C., Lemieux, M., Monetta, L., & Taler, V. (2014). Executive function and bilingualism in young and older adults. Frontiers in Behavioural Neuroscience, 8, 250. doi: 10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00250
Kroll, J. F., Dussias, P. E., Bice, K., & Perrotti, L. (2015). Bilingualism, Mind, and Brain. Annual Review of Linguistics, 1, 377394. doi: doi:10.1146/annurev-linguist-030514-124937
Kroll, J. F., Michael, E., Tokowicz, N., & Dufour, R. (2002). The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18, 137171. doi: 10.1191/0267658302sr201oa
Kroll, J. F., & Stewart, E. (1994). Category interference in translation and picture naming: Evidence for asymmetric connections between bilingual memory representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 33, 149174.
Kroll, J. F., van Hell, J. G., Tokowicz, N., & Green, D. W. (2010). The Revised Hierarchical Model: A critical review and assessment. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 373381.
Langdon, H. W., Wiig, E. H., & Nielsen, N. P. (2005). Dual-Dimension Naming Speed and Language-Dominance Ratings by Bilingual Hispanic Adults. Bilingual Research Journal, 29, 319336. doi: 10.1080/15235882.2005.10162838
Linck, J. A., Osthus, P., Koeth, J. T., & Bunting, M. F. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: a meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, 21, 861883. doi: 10.3758/s13423-013-0565-2
Lucas, T. H., McKhann, G. M., & Ojemann, G. A. (2004). Functional separation of languages in the bilingual brain: a comparison of electrical stimulation language mapping in 25 bilingual patients and 117 monolingual control patients. Journal of Neurosurgery, 101, 449457. doi: 10.3171/jns.2004.101.3.0449
Malt, B. C., Li, P., Pavelnko, A., Zh, H., & Ameel, E. (2015). Bidirectional lexical interaction in late immersed Mandarin-English bilinguals. Jounal of Memory and Language, 82, 86104. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2015.03.001
Manoiloff, L., Artstein, M., Canavoso, M. B., Fernandez, L., & Segui, J. (2010). Expanded norms for 400 experimental pictures in an Argentinean Spanish-speaking population. Behaviour Research Methods, 42, 452460. doi: 10.3758/brm.42.2.452
Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K., & Kaushanskaya, M. (2007). The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): assessing language profiles in bilinguals and multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50, 940967. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2007/067)
Marian, V., Spivey, M., & Hirsch, J. (2003). Shared and separate systems in bilingual language processing: converging evidence from eyetracking and brain imaging. Brain and Language, 86, 7082.
Martin, A., Wiggs, C. L., Lalonde, F., & Mack, C. (1994). Word retrieval to letter and semantic cues: a double dissociation in normal subjects using interference tasks. Neuropsychologia, 32, 14871494.
McDowd, J., Hoffman, L., Rozek, E., Lyons, K. E., Pahwa, R., Burns, J., & Kemper, S. (2011). Understanding verbal fluency in healthy aging, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychology, 25, 210225. doi: 10.1037/a0021531
Montrul, S., & Foote, R. (2014). Age of acquisition interactions in bilingual lexical access: A study of the weaker language of L2 learners and heritage speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18, 274303. doi: 10.1177/1367006912443431
Nelson, H. (1976). A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe defects. Cortex, 12, 313324.
Ojemann, G. A., & Whitaker, H. A. (1978). The bilingual brain. Archives of Neurology, 35, 409412.
Padilla, F., Bajo, M. T., & Macizo, P. (2005). Articulatory suppression in language interpretation: Working memory capacity, dual tasking and word knowledge. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 8, 207219. doi: 10.1017/S1366728905002269
Paradis, M. (1993). Linguistic, psycholinguistic, and neurolinguistic aspects of “interference” in bilingual speakers: The activation threshold hypothesis. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 9, 133145.
Paradis, M. (1994). Towards a neurolinguistic theory of simultaneous translation: The framework. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 10, 319335.
Paradis, M. (2004). A Neurolinguistic Theory of Bilingualism. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Paradis, M., Goldblum, M. C., & Abidi, R. (1982). Alternate antagonism with paradoxical translation behavior in two bilingual aphasic patients. Brain and Language, 15, 5569. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(82)90046-3
Pekkanli, I. (2012). Translation and the Contemporary Language Teacher. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, 955959. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.230
Perani, D., Paulesu, E., Galles, N. S., Dupoux, E., Dehaene, S., Bettinardi, V., Cappa, S. F., Fazio, F., & Mehler, J. (1998). The bilingual brain Proficiency and age of acquisition of the second language. Brain, 121, 18411852.
Pillai, J. J., Araque, J. M., Allison, J. D., Sethuraman, S., Loring, D. W., Thiruvaiyaru, D., Ison, C. B., Balan, A., & Lavin, T. (2003). Functional MRI study of semantic and phonological language processing in bilingual subjects: preliminary findings. Neuroimage, 19, 565576.
Poarch, G. J., & van Hell, J. G. (2012). Executive functions and inhibitory control in multilingual children: evidence from second-language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113, 535551. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2012.06.013
Price, C. J., Green, D. W., & von Studnitz, R. (1999). A functional imaging study of translation and language switching. Brain, 122, 22212235.
Prior, A., & Macwhinney, B. (2009). A bilingual advantage in task switching. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13, 253262. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909990526
Proverbio, A. M., Leoni, G., & Zani, A. (2004). Language switching mechanisms in simultaneous interpreters: an ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 42, 16361656.
Rapport, R. L., Tan, C. T., & Whitaker, H. A. (1983). Language function and dysfunction among Chinese- and English-speaking polyglots: cortical stimulation, Wada testing, and clinical studies. Brain and Language, 18, 342366.
Rodriguez-Fornells, A., De Diego Balaguer, R., & Munte, T. F. (2006). Executive control in bilingual language processing. Language Learning, 56, 133190.
Roelofs, A., Piai, V., Garrido Rodriguez, G., & Chwilla, D. J. (2016). Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming. Cortex, 76, 116. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2015.12.003
Sandoval, T. C., Gollan, T. H., Ferreira, V. S., & Salmon, D. P. (2010). What causes the bilingual disadvantage in verbal fluency? The dual-task analogy. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13 (2), 231252. doi: 10.1017/S1366728909990514
Sasanuma, S., Sakuma, N., & Kitano, K. (1992). Reading kanji without semantics: Evidence from a longitudinal study of dementia. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 9, 465486. doi: 10.1080/02643299208252068
Signorelli, T. M., Haarmann, H. J., & Obler, L. K. (2011). Working memory in simultaneous interpreters: Effects of task and age. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16, 198212. doi: 10.1177/1367006911403200
Silverberg, S., & Samuel, A. G. (2004). The effect of age of second language acquisition on the representation and processing of second language words. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 381398. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2004.05.003
Slevca, L. R., Daveya, N. S., & Linck, J. A. (2016). A new look at “the hard problem” of bilingual lexical access: evidence for language-switch costs with univalent stimuli. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 28, 385395.
Spreen, O., & Strauss, E. (1991). A compendium of neuropsychological tests: Administration, norms and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press.
Stavrakaki, S., Megari, K., Kosmidis, M. H., Apostolidou, M., & Takou, E. (2012). Working memory and verbal fluency in simultaneous interpreters. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 34, 624633. doi: 10.1080/13803395.2012.667068
Sunderman, G., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). First language activation during second language lexical processing: An Investigation of Lexical Form, Meaning, and Grammatical Class. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 387422. doi: 10.1017/S0272263106060177
Talamas, A., Kroll, J. F., & Dufour, R. (1999). From form to meaning: Stages in the acquisition of second-language vocabulary. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 2, 4558.
Teichmann, M., Turc, G., Nogues, M., Ferrieux, S., & Dubois, B. (2012). A mental lexicon without semantics. Neurology, 79, 606607. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182635749
Torralva, T., Roca, M., Gleichgerrcht, E., Lopez, P., & Manes, F. (2009). INECO Frontal Screening (IFS): a brief, sensitive, and specific tool to assess executive functions in dementia. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 15, 777786. doi: 10.1017/s1355617709990415
Tzou, Y.-Z., Eslami, Z. R., Chen, H.-C., & Vaid, J. (2011). Effect of language proficiency and degree of formal training in simultaneous interpreting on working memory and interpreting performance: evidence from Mandarin–English speakers. International Journal of Bilingualism, 16, 213227. doi: 10.1177/1367006911403197
Van Hell, J. G., & De Groot, A. M. B. (1998). Conceptual representation in bilingual memory: Effects of concreteness and cognate status in word association. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 193211.
van Heuven, W. J. B., Dijkstra, T., & Grainger, J. (1998). Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 458483. doi: https://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1998.2584
Yudes, C., Macizo, P., & Bajo, T. (2011). The influence of expertise in simultaneous interpreting on non-verbal executive processes. Frontiers in Psychology, 2, 309. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00309
Yudes, C., Macizo, P., Morales, L., & Bajo, M. T. (2013). Comprehension and error monitoring in simultaneous interpreters. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34, 10391057. doi: 10.1017/S0142716412000112
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Santilli et al. supplementary material
Tables S1-S8c

 PDF (113 KB)
113 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score