Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Developmental trends and L1 effects in early L2 learners’ onset cluster production*

  • ANNE-MICHELLE TESSIER (a1), TAMARA SORENSON DUNCAN (a1) and JOHANNE PARADIS (a1)

Abstract

This study focuses on English onset cluster production in spontaneous speech samples of 10 children aged 5;04–6;09 from Chinese and Hindi/Punjabi first language (L1) backgrounds, each with less than a year of exposure to English. The results suggest commonalities between early second language (L2) learners and both monolingual and adult L2 learners in the location of cluster repair and the sometimes-exceptional treatment of s+stop clusters. We also provide evidence that accuracy rates and repairs used in early L2 cluster production show L1 influences. We conclude that early L2 learners represent a unique learner group, whose study is crucial to the understanding of phonological development.

Copyright

Corresponding author

Address for correspondence: Anne-Michelle Tessier, Department of Linguistics, Assiniboia Hall, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2E7, Canadaamtessier@ualberta.ca

Footnotes

Hide All
*

We would like to thank the families for graciously taking the time to participate in this study and for welcoming us into their homes, and the students who assisted with data collection and transcription: Emily Cliff, Philip Dilts, Lisa Elliot, Kristyn Emmerzael, and Dorothy Pinto. We also thank three anonymous reviewers and our editor, Jürgen Meisel, for thorough feedback which substantially improved this paper. We are grateful to the following funding agencies for their financial support of this research: Alberta Innovates Health Solutions (formerly the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research, 200800618-2), the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (27061500), Early Child Development Support Services, Edmonton, and the Alberta Centre for Child, Family and Community Research (090415INV) to Johanne Paradis, and the Office of the Vice-President, Research, University of Alberta (4A Research Award) to Anne-Michelle Tessier.

Footnotes

References

Hide All
Adam, G. (2002). From variable to optimal grammar: Evidence from language acquisition and language change. PhD. dissertation, Tel-Aviv University.
Amastae, J. (1982). Aspects of the bilingual acquisition of English and Spanish. Jounral of the Linguistic Asscociation of the Southwest, 5, 519.
Anderson, J. (1987). The markedness differential hypothesis and syllable structure difficulty. In Ioup & Weinberger (eds.), pp. 279–291.
Anderson, R. T. (2004). Phonological acquisition in preschoolers learning a second language via immersion: A longitudinal study. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 18, 183210.
Aoyama, K., Guion, S., Flege, J. E., Yamada, T., & Akahane-Yamada, R. (2008). The first years in an L2 speaking environment: A comparison of Japanese children and adults learning American English. International Journal of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 46, 6190.
Bahri, H. (1973). Teach yourself Panjabi. Patiala: Punjabi University.
Baker, W., Trofimovich, P., Flege, J. E., Mack, M., & Halter, R. (2008). Child–adult difference in second language phonological learning: The role of cross-language similarity. Language and Speech, 51 (4), 317342.
Barlow, J. A. (2001a). The structure of /s/–sequences: Evidence from a disordered system. Journal of Child Language, 28, 291324.
Barlow, J. A. (2001b). A preliminary typology of initial clusters in acquisition. Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics, 15, 913.
Barlow, J. A. (2003) The stop–spirant alternation in Spanish: Converging evidence for a fortition account. Southwest Journal of Linguistics, 22 (1), 5186.
Barlow, J. A. (2005). Sonority effects in the production of consonant clusters by Spanish-speaking children. In Eddington, D. (ed.), Selected proceedings from the 6th Conference on the Acquisition of Spanish and Portuguese as First and Second Languages, pp. 114. Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Becker, M., & Tessier, A.M. (2011). Trajectories of faithfulness in child-specific phonology. Phonology, 28, 163196.
Best, C. (1995). A direct realist view of cross-language speech perception. In Strange (ed.), pp. 171–204.
Bharati, S. (1994). Aspects of the phonology of Hindi and English. New Delhi: Arnold.
Broselow, E. (1983). Nonobvious transfer: On predicting epenthesis errors. In Selinker, L. & Gass, S. (eds.), Language transfer in language learning, pp. 269280. Amsterdam & Philadelphia, PA: John Benjamins.
Broselow, E. (1984). An investigation of transfer in second language phonology. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 22, 253269. [Reprinted in 1987, in Ioup & Weinberger (eds.), pp. 261–278.]
Broselow, E. (1988). Prosodic phonology and the acquisition of a second language. In Flynn, S. & O'Neil, W. (eds.), Linguistic theory in second language acquisition, pp. 295308. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Broselow, E., Chen, S. I., & Wang, C. (1998). The emergence of the unmarked in second language phonology. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 20, 261280.
Broselow, E., & Finer, D. (1991). Parameter setting in second language phonology and syntax. Second Language Research, 7, 3559.
Chambless, D. (2006). Asymmetries in the acquisition of consonant clusters. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Chan, A. Y. W. (2010). An investigation into Cantonese ESL learners’ acquisition of English initial consonant clusters. Linguistics, 48, 99141.
Compton, A. J., & Streeter, M. (1977). Child phonology: Data collection and preliminary analysis. Papers and Reports on Child Language, 13, 99109.
Davidson, L. (2010). Phonetic bases of similarities in cross-language production: Evidence from English and Catalan. Journal of Phonetics, 38 (2), 272288.
Duanmu, S. (2000). The phonology of standard Chinese. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Dunn, L., & Dunn, L. (1997). The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (3rd edn., revised). Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service.
Eckman, F., & Iverson, G. (1993). Sonority and markedness among onset clusters in the interlanguage of ESL learners. Second Language Research, 9 (3), 234252.
Edwards, J., Beckman, M. E., & Munson, B. (2004). The interaction between vocabulary size and phonotactic probability effects on children's production accuracy and fluency in nonword repetition. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 47, 421436.
Escudero, P., & Boersma, P. (2004). Bridging the gap between L2 speech perception research and phonological theory. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 551585.
Fabiano-Smith, L., & Barlow, J. A. (2010). Interaction in bilingual phonological acquisition: Evidence from phonetic inventories. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 13, 8197.
Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. (2005). Phonological cross-linguistic effects in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. Journal of Multilingual Communication Disorders, 3 (1), 5663.
Fabiano-Smith, L., & Goldstein, B. (2010). Phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish–English speaking children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53, 160178.
Flege, J. (1995). Second-language speech learning: Theory, findings and problems. In Strange (ed.), pp. 233–273.
Flege, J. E., Munro, M. J., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995). Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97, 31253134.
Frisch, S. A., Large, N. R., & Pisoni, D. B. (2000). Perception of wordlikeliness: Effects of segment probability and length on processing of nonword sound patterns. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 481496.
Gierut, J. A. (2001). Complexity in phonological treatment: Clinical factors. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 32, 229241.
Gierut, J. A. (2007). Phonological complexity and language learnability. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 16, 617.
Gildersleeve-Neumann, C. E., Kester, E. S., Davis, B. L., & Peña, E. D. (2008). English speech sound development in preschool-aged children from bilingual English–Spanish environments. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 39, 314328.
Gilhool, A., Burrows, L., Goldstein, B., & Paradis, J. (2009, November). English phonological skills of English language learners. Poster presented at the Annual American Speech Language Hearing Association Convention, New Orleans, LA.
Gill, H. S., & Gleason, H. A. (1963). A reference grammar of Panjabi. Hartford, CT: Department of Linguistics, The Hartford Seminary Foundation.
Gnanadesikan, A. (2004). Markedness and faithfulness constraints in child phonology. In Kager et al. (eds.), pp. 73–108. [Ms. circulated in 1995.]
Goad, H. (2012). sC clusters are coda initial. The Linguistics Review, 29 (3), 335373.
Goad, H., & Rose, Y. (2004). Input elaboration, head faithfulness and evidence for representation in the acquisition of left-edge clusters in West Germanic. In Kager et al. (eds.), pp. 109–157.
Goldstein, B. (2004). Phonological development and disorders. In Goldstein, B. (ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish–English speakers (1st edn.), pp. 259285. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
Goldstein, B., & Washington, P. S. (2001). An initial investigation of phonological patterns in typically-developing 4-year-old Spanish–English bilingual children. Language, Speech and Hearing Sciences, 32, 153164.
Hall, N. (2002). Gestures and segments: Vowel intrusion as overlap. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Hancin-Bhatt, B., & Bhatt, R. M. (1997). Optimal L2 syllables: Interactions of transfer and developmental effects. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 331378.
Hoff, E. (2009). Language development. (4th edn.) Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Cenpage Learning.
Ingram, D. (1989). First language acquisition: Method, description and explanation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Ioup, G., & Weinberger, S. H. (eds.) (1987). Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.
Kager, R., Pater, J., & Zonneveld, W. (eds.) (2004). Constraints in phonological acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Karimi, S. (1987). Farsi speakers and the initial consonant cluster in English. In Ioup & Weinberger (eds.), pp. 305–318.
Keshavarz, M., & Ingram, D. (2002). The early phonological development of a Farsi–English bilingual child. International Journal of Bilingualism, 6, 255269.
Kirk, C., & Demuth, K. (2005). Asymmetries in the acquisition of word-initial and word-final consonant clusters. Journal of Child Language, 32, 709734.
Kwon, B. Y. (2006). Korean speakers’ production of English consonant clusters: Articulatory and perceptual accounts. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University.
Lewis, M. P. (ed.) 2009. Ethnologue: Languages of the world (16th edn.). Dallas, TX: SIL International. [http://www.ethnologue.com/, accessed April 29, 2012.]
Lléo, C., & Prinz, M. (1996). Consonant clusters in child phonology and the directionality of syllable structure assignment. Journal of Child Language, 23, 3156.
MacWhinney, B. (2000). The CHILDES project: Tools for analyzing talk (3rd edn.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Major, R. C. (1994). Chronological and stylistic aspects of second language acquisition of consonant clusters. Language Learning, 44, 655680.
McLeod, S., van Doorn, J., & Reed, V. A. (2001). Normal acquisition of consonant clusters. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 10, 99110.
Mehrota, R. C. (1980). Hindi phonology. Raipur, India: Bhashika Prakashan.
Munson, B. (2001). Phonological pattern frequency and speech production in adults and children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 778792.
Oh, G. E., Guion-Anderson, S., Aoyama, K., Flege, J. E., Akahane-Yamada, R., & Yamada, T. (2011). A one-year longitudinal study of English and Japanese vowel production by Japanese adults and children in an English-speaking setting. Journal of Phonetics, 39 (2), 156167.
Ohala, M. (1983). Aspects of Hindi phonology. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass.
Paradis, J. (2007). Second language acquisition in childhood. In Hoff, E. & Shatz, M. (eds.), Handbook of language development, 387406. Oxford: Blackwell.
Paradis, J. (2012). Cross-linguistic influence and code-switching. In Goldstein, B. (ed.), Bilingual language development and disorders in Spanish–English speakers (2nd edn.), pp. 7394. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Paradis, J., Emmerzael, K., & Sorenson Duncan, T. (2010). Assessment of English language learners: Using parent report on first language development. Journal of Communication Disorders, 43, 474497.
Paradis, J., Genesee, F., & Crago, M. (2011). Dual language development and disorders: A handbook on bilingualism and second language learning (2nd edn.). Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
Pater, J. (1996). Consequences of constraint ranking. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University.
Pater, J., & Barlow, J. A., (2003). Constraint conflict in cluster reduction. Journal of Child Language, 30, 487526.
Pierrehumbert, J. B. (2006). The next toolkit. Journal of Phonetics, 34, 516530.
Piper, T. (1984a). Observations on the second-language acquisition of the English sound system. Canadian Modern Language Review, 40, 542551.
Piper, T. (1984b). Phonological processes in ESL five year olds. TESL Canada Journal, 1, 7180.
Rose, Y. (2000). Headedness and prosodic licensing in the L1 acquisition of phonology. Ph.D. dissertation, McGill University.
Sato, C. J. (1984). Phonological processes in second language acquisition: Another look at interlanguage syllable structure. Language Learning, 34, 4357.
Schneider, P., Dubé, R. V., & Hayward, D. (2005). The Edmonton narrative norms instrument. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine. http://www.rehabmed.ualberta.ca/spa/enni (accessed September 2, 2007).
Schwartz, B. (2004). Why child L2 acquisition? In van Kampen, J. & Baauw, S. (eds.), Proceedings of Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition Conference 2003 (LOT Occasional Series 3), pp. 4766. Utrecht: LOT.
Singh, R. (1985). Prosodic adaptation in interphonology. Lingua, 67, 269282.
Smit, A. B. (1993). Phonologic error distributions in the Iowa–Nebraska Articulation Norms Project: Word-initial consonant clusters. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 36, 931947.
Smith, N. V. (1973). The acquisition of phonology: A case study. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Snow, C.E. (1987). Relevance of the notion of a critical period to language acquisition. In Bornstein, M. H. (ed.), Sensitive periods in development: Interdisciplinary perspectives, pp. 183209. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Snow, C. E., & Hoefnagel-Hoehle, M. (1977). Age differences in the pronunciation of foreign sounds. Language and Speech, 20 (4), 357365.
Snow, C. E., & Hoefnagel-Hoehle, M. (1978). The critical period for language acquisition: Evidence from second language learning. Child Development, 49, 11141128.
Sorenson Duncan, T. (2010). Emerging L2 consonant systems and performance on nonword repetition tasks. Msc. thesis, University of Alberta.
Strange, W. (ed.) (1995). Speech perception and linguistic experience: Issues in cross-language research. Timonium, MD: York Press.
Tarone, E. E. (1980). Some influences on the syllable structure of the interlanguage phonology. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 18, 139152.
Tessier, A.-M. (2007). Biases and stages in phonological acquisition. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Massachusetts Amherst.
Unsworth, S. (2005). On the syntax–semantics interface in Dutch: Adult and child L2 acquisition compared. International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, 42, 173187.

Keywords

Developmental trends and L1 effects in early L2 learners’ onset cluster production*

  • ANNE-MICHELLE TESSIER (a1), TAMARA SORENSON DUNCAN (a1) and JOHANNE PARADIS (a1)

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed