Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Parsing and Working Memory in Bilingual Sentence Processing

  • IAN CUNNINGS (a1)
Abstract

A growing body of research has investigated bilingual sentence processing. How to account for differences in native (L1) and non-native (L2) processing is controversial. Some explain L1/L2 differences in terms of different parsing mechanisms, and the hypothesis that L2 learners adopt ‘shallow’ parsing has received considerable attention. Others assume L1/L2 processing is similar, and explain L1/L2 differences in terms of capacity-based limitations being exceeded during L2 processing. More generally, the role that working memory plays in language acquisition and processing has garnered increasing interest. Based on research investigating L2 sentence processing, I claim that a primary source of L1/L2 differences lies in the ability to retrieve information constructed during sentence processing from memory. In contrast to describing L1/L2 differences in terms of shallow parsing or capacity limitations, I argue that L2 speakers are more susceptible to retrieval interference when successful comprehension requires access to information from memory.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Dr Ian Cunnings, School of Psychology and Clinical Language Sciences, University of Reading, Reading, UK, RG6 7BE i.cunnings@reading.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Aldwayan S., Fiorentino R., & Gabriele A. (2010). Evidence of syntactic constraints in the processing of wh-movement: A study of Najdi Arabic learners of English. In VanPatten B. & Jegerski J. (eds.). Research in Second Language Processing and Parsing, pp. 6586. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Alemán-Bañón J., Fiorentino R., & Gabriele A. (2014). Morphosyntactic processing in advanced second language (L2) learners: An event-related potential investigation of the effects of L1-L2 similarity and structural distance. Second Language Research, 30, 275306.
Baddeley A. (1986). Working memory. Oxford: OUP.
Baddeley A. (2000). The episodic buffer: A new component of working memory? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 417423.
Baddeley A. (2007). Working Memory, Thought, and Action. Oxford: OUP.
Baddeley A., & Hitch G. (1974). Working memory. In Bower G. (ed.). The Psychology of Learning and Motivation; Advances in Research and Theory, New York: Academic Press.
Badecker W., & Straub K. (2002). The processing role of structural constraints on the interpretation of pronouns and anaphors. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 28, 748769.
Belletti A., Bennati E., & Sorace A. (2007). Theoretical and developmental issues in the syntax of subjects: Evidence from near-native Italian. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 25, 657689.
Bertenshaw N. (2009). The application of binding constraints by Japanese L2 learners of English. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Essex, UK.
Bowden H., Steinhauer K., Sanz C., & Ullman M. (2013). Native-like brain processing of syntax can be attained by university foreign language learners. Neuropsychologia, 51, 24922511.
Chen L., Shu H., Liu Y., Zhao J., & Li P. (2007). ERP signatures of subject-verb agreement in L2 learning. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 161174.
Christianson K., Hollingworth A., Halliwell J., & Ferreira F. (2001). Thematic roles assigned along the garden path linger. Cognitive Psychology, 42, 368407.
Clackson K., Felser C., & Clahsen H. (2011). Children's processing of reflexives and pronouns in English: Evidence from eye-movements during listening. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 128144.
Clahsen H., & Felser C. (2006a). How native-like is non-native language processing? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 564570.
Clahsen H., & Felser C. (2006b). Grammatical processing in language learners. Applied Psycholinguistics, 27, 342.
Chamorro G., Sorace A., & Sturt P. (2015). What is the source of L1 attrition? The effect of recent L1 re-exposure on Spanish speakers under L1 attrition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. Available online, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1366728915000152
Chomsky N. (1981). Lectures on Government and Binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky N. (1995). The Minimalist Program. Cambridge: MA. MIT Press.
Chow W-Y., Lewis S., & Phillips C. (2014). Immediate sensitivity to structural constraints in pronoun resolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 630. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00630
Clifton C., Kennison S., & Albrecht J. (1997). Reading the words her, his, and him: Implications for parsing principles based on frequency and structure. Journal of Memory and Language, 36, 276292.
Coughlin C., & Tremblay A. (2013). Proficiency and working memory based explanations for non-native speakers’ sensitivity to agreement in sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistis, 34, 615646.
Cowan N. (2001). The magical number 4 in short-term memory: A reconsideration of mental storage capacity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 24, 87185.
Cuetos F., & Mitchell D. (1988). Cross-linguistic differences in parsing: Restrictions on the use of the late closure strategy in Spanish. Cognition, 30, 73105.
Cunnings I., & Felser C. (2013). The role of working memory in the processing of reflexives. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 188219.
Cunnings I., & Felser C. (2014). Plausibility and filled gap effects in native and non-native sentence processing. Poster presented at AMLaP 2014, University of Edinburgh, UK.
Cunnings I., Batterham C., Felser C., & Clahsen H. (2010). ‘Constraints on L2 learners’ processing of wh- dependencies: Evidence from eye-movements’ in VanPatten B. & Jegerski J. (Eds.), Second Language Processing and Parsing I, pp 87110. Amsterdam, John Benjamins.
Cunnings I., Fotiadou G., & Tsimpli I. (under review). Anaphora resolution and reanalysis during L2 sentence processing: Evidence from the visual world paradigm. Ms., University of Reading.
Cunnings I., & Sturt P. (2014). Coargumenthood and the processing of reflexives. Journal of Memory and Language, 75, 117139.
Dallas A., DeDe G., & Nicol J. (2013). An event-related potential (ERP) investigation of filler-gap processing in native and second language speakers. Language Learning, 63, 766799.
Dallas A., & Kaan E. (2008). Second language processing of filler-gap dependencies in late learners. Language and Linguistics Compass, 2, 372388.
Daneman M., & Carpenter P. (1980). Individual differences in working memory and reading. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 19, 450466.
Dillon B., Mishler A., Sloggett S., & Phillips C. (2013). Contrasting intrusions profiles for agreement and anaphora: Experimental and modelling evidence. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 85103.
Dussias P. (2003). Syntactic ambiguity resolution in second language learners: Some effects of bilinguality on L1 and L2 processing strategies. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 529557.
Dussias P., & Cramer Scaltz T. (2008). Spanish–English L2 speakers’ use of subcategorization bias information in the resolution of temporary ambiguity during second language reading. Acta Psychologica, 128, 501513.
Dussias P., & Sagarra N. (2007). The effect of exposure on syntactic parsing in Spanish-English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10, 101116.
Ellert M. (2013). Resolving ambiguous pronouns in a second language: A visual-world eye-tracking study with Dutch learners of German. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 51, 171197.
Felser C. (2015). Native vs. non-native processing of discontinuous dependencies. Second Language, 14, 519.
Felser C. (2016). Binding and coreference in non-native language processing. In Holler A. & Suckow K. (eds.), Empirical perspectives on anaphora resolution: Information structural evidence in the race for salience, pp. 229253. Berlin: De Gruyter.
Felser C. & Cunnings I. (2012). Processing reflexives in English as a second language: The role of structural and discourse-level constraints. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 571603.
Felser C., Cunnings I., Batterham C., & Clahsen H. (2012). The timing of island effects in nonnative sentence processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34, 6798.
Felser C., Roberts L., Marinis T. & Gross R. (2003). The processing of ambiguous sentences by first and second language learners of English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 453489.
Felser C., & Roberts L. (2007). Processing wh-dependencies in a second language: A cross-modal priming study. Second Language Research, 23, 936.
Felser C., Sato M., & Bertenshaw N. (2009). The on-line application of Binding Principle A in English as a second language. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12, 485502.
Ferreira F., Bailey K., & Ferraro V. (2002). Good enough representations in language comprehension. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 1115.
Ferreira F., & Patson N. (2007). The good enough approach to language comprehension. Language and Linguistics Compass, 1, 7183.
Foote R. (2011). Integrated knowledge of agreement in early and late English-Spanish bilinguals. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 187220.
Foucart A., & Frenck-Mestre C. (2012). Can late L2 learners acquire new grammatical features? Evidence from ERPs and eye-tracking. Journal of Memory and Language, 66, 226248.
Frazier L., & Clifton C. (1989). Successive cyclicity in the grammar and the parser. Language and Cognitive Processes, 4, 93126.
Frazier L., & Clifton C. (1996). Construal. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Frenck-Mestre C., & Pynte J. (1997). Syntactic ambiguity resolution while reading in second and native languages. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 50, 119148.
Gibson E. (1998). Linguistic complexity: Locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition, 68, 176.
Gibson E., Pearlmutter N., Canseco-Gonzalez E., & Hickok G. (1996). Recency preferences in the human sentence processing mechanism. Cognition, 59, 2359.
Gibson E., & Warren T. (2004). Reading-time evidence for intermediate linguistic structure in long-distance dependencies. Syntax, 7, 5578.
Gilboy E., Sopena J., Clifton C., & Frazier L. (1995). Argument structure and association preferences in Spanish and English compound NPs. Cognition, 54, 131167.
Gordon P., Hendrick R., & Johnson M. (2001). Memory interference during sentence processing. Psychological Science, 13, 425430.
Harrington M., & Sawyer M. (1992). Working memory capacity and L2 reading skill. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 14, 2538.
Hartsuiker R. (2015). Why it is pointless to ask under which specific circumstances the bilingual advantage occurs. Cortex, 73, 336337.
Hofmeister P., & Sag I. (2010). Cognitive constraints and island effects. Language, 86, 366415.
Hopp H. (2006). Syntactic features and reanalysis in near-native processing. Second Language Research, 22, 369397.
Hopp H. (2010). Ultimate attainment in L2 inflectional morphology: Performance similarities between non-native and native speakers. Lingua, 120, 901931.
Hopp H. (2014). Working memory effects in the L2 processing of ambiguous relative clauses. Language Acquisition, 21, 250278.
Hopp H. (2015). Individual differences in the second language processing of object-subject ambiguities. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36, 129173.
Jackson C. (2008). Proficiency level and the interaction of lexical and morphosyntatic information during L2 sentence processing. Language Learning, 58, 875909.
Jacob G., & Felser C. (2016). Reanalysis and semantic persistence in native and non-native garden-path recovery. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 69, 907925.
Jäger L., Benz L., Roeser J., Dillon B., & Vasishth S. (2015). Teasing apart retrieval and encoding interference in the processing of anaphors. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 506. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00506
Jegerski J. (2012). The processing of subject–object ambiguities in native and near-native Mexican Spanish. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15, 721735.
Jiang N. (2004). Morphological insensitivity in second language processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 25, 603634.
Jiang N. (2007). Selective integration of linguistic knowledge in adult second language learning. Language Learning, 57, 133.
Juffs A. (2004). Representation, processing and working memory in a second language. Transactions of the Philological Society, 102, 199225.
Juffs A. (1998). Main verb vs reduced relative clause ambiguity resolution in second language sentence processing. Language Learning, 48, 107147.
Juffs A., & Harrington M. (1996). Garden path sentences and error data in second language processing research. Language Learning, 46, 283323.
Juffs A., & Harrington M. (2011). Aspects of working memory in L2 Learning. Language Teaching: Reviews and Studies, 42, 137166.
Just M., & Carpenter P. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. The Psychological Review, 99, 122149.
Just M., Carpenter T., & Keller A. (1996). The capacity theory of comprehension: New frontiers of evidence and arguments. The Psychological Review, 103, 773780.
Kaan E. (2014). Predictive sentence processing in L2 and L2. What is different? Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 4, 257–82.
Kaan E., Ballantyne J., & Wijnen F. (2015). Effects of reading speed on second-language sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 36, 799830.
Kan I., Teubner-Rhodes Drummey A., Nutile L., Krupa L., & Novick J. (2013). To adapt or not to adapt: The question of domain-general cognitive control. Cognition, 129, 637651.
Kazanina N., Lau E., Lieberman M., Yoshida M., & Phillips C. (2007). The effect of syntactic constraints on the processing of backward anaphora. Journal of Memory and Language, 56, 384409.
Keating G. (2009). Sensitivity to violations of gender agreement in native and nonnative Spanish: An eye-movement investigation. Language Learning, 59, 503535.
Keating G. (2010). The effects of linear distance and working memory on the processing of gender agreement in Spanish. In VanPatten B. & Jegerski J. (Eds.), Research in second language processing and parsing, pp. 113134. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kennison S. (2003). Comprehending the pronouns her, him, and his: Implications for theories of referential processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 49, 335352.
Kim E., Baek S., & Tremblay A. (2015). The role of island constraints in second language sentence processing. Language Acquisition, 22, 384416.
Kluender R., & Kutas M. (1993). Subjacency as a processing phenomenon. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8, 573633.
Kwon N., Cunnings I., & Lesmana M. (2013). Time Course of Reference Resolution by Early and Late Bilinguals. Poster presented at AMLAP, Aix-Marseille Université, France.
Lewis R., & Vasishth S. (2005). An activation-based model of sentence processing as skilled memory retrieval. Cognitive Science, 29, 375419.
Lewis R., Vasishth S., & Van Dyke J. (2006). Computation principles of working memory in sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 447454.
Lewis S., & Phillips C. (2015). Aligning grammatical theories and language processing models. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 44, 2746.
Linck J., Osthus P., Koeth J., & Bunting M. (2014). Working memory and second language comprehension and production: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic bulletin and Review, 21, 861883.
Marinis T., Roberts L, Felser C., & Clahsen H. (2005). Gaps in second language sentence processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 5378.
Martin A., & McElree B. (2009). Memory operations that support language comprehension: Evidence from verb-phrase ellipsis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, Cognition, 35, 12311239.
Martin A., & McElree B. (2008). A content-addressable pointer mechanism underlies comprehension of verb-phrase ellipsis. Journal of Memory and Language, 58, 879906.
Martin A., & McElree B. (2011). Direct-access retrieval during sentence comprehension: Evidence from Sluicing. Journal of Memory and Language, 64, 327343.
McElree B. (2000). Sentence comprehension is mediated by content-addressable memory structures. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 29, 111123.
McElree B. (2006). Accessing recent events. In Ross B. (ed.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation, Volume 46. San Diego: Academic Press.
McElree B., Foraker S., & Dyer L. (2003). Memory structures that subserve sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 6791.
McDonald J. (2006). Beyond the critical period: Processing-based explanations for poor grammaticality judgement performance by late second language learners. Journal of Memory and Language, 55, 381401.
Miller A. (2014). Accessing and maintaining referent in L2 processing of wh-dependencies. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 4, 167191.
Miller A. (2015). Intermediate traces and intermediate learners: Evidence for the use of intermediate traces during sentence processing in second language French. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 37, 487516.
Nicol J., & Swinney D. (1989). The role of structure in coreference assignment during sentence comprehension. Journal of Psycholinguistics Research, 18, 520.
Novick J., Hussey E., Teubner-Rhodes S., Harbison I., & Bunting M. (2014). Clearing the garden-path: Improving sentence processing through cognitive control training. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29, 186217.
Omaki A., & Schulz B. (2011). Filler-gap dependencies and island constraints in second-language sentence processing. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 563588.
Pan H., & Felser C. (2011). Referential context effects in L2 ambiguity resolution: Evidence from self-paced reading. Lingua, 121, 221236.
Pan H., Schimke S., & Felser C. (2015). Referential context effects in non-native relative clause ambiguity resolution. International Journal of Bilingualism, 19, 298313.
Papadopoulou D., & Clahsen H. (2003). Parsing strategies in L1 and L2 sentence processing: A study of relative clause attachment in Greek. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25, 501528.
Papadopoulou D., Peristeri E., Plemenou E., Marinis T., & Tsimpli I. (2015). Pronoun ambiguity resolution in Greek: Evidence from monolinguals adults and children. Lingua, 155, 98120.
Patterson C., Trompelt H., & Felser C. (2014). The online application of binding condition B in native and non-native pronoun resolution. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 147. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00147
Pearlmutter N., Garnsey S., & Bock K. (1999). Agreement processes in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 427456.
Phillips C. (2013). Some arguments and non-arguments for reductionist accounts of syntactic phenomena. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 156187.
Pozzan L., & Trueswell J. (2016). Second language processing and revision of garden-path sentences: a visual world study. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 19, 636643.
Pliatsikas C., & Marinis T. (2013) Processing empty categories in a second language: When naturalistic exposure fills the (intermediate) gap. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16, 167182.
Rah A., & Adone D. (2010). Processing of the reduced relative clause versus main verb ambiguity in L2 learners at different proficiency levels. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 32, 79109.
Reinhart T., & Reuland E. (1993). Reflexivity. Linguistic Inquiry, 24, 657720.
Roberts L., & Felser C. (2011). Plausibility and recovery from garden-paths in second-language sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 299331.
Roberts L., Gullberg M., & Indefrey P. (2008). Online pronoun resolution in L2 discourse: L1 influence and general learner effects. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 30, 333357.
Rodriguez G. (2008). Second language sentence processing: Is it fundamentally different?. Unpublished PhD dissertation. University of Pittsburgh, USA.
Ross J. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
Sagarra N. (2013). Working memory in second language acquisition. In Chapelle C. (ed.) The Encyclopaedia of Applied Linguistics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
Sagarra N., & Herschensohn J. (2010). The role of proficiency and working memory in gender and number agreement processing in L1 and L2 Spanish. Lingua, 120, 20222039.
Sagarra N., & Herschensohn J. (2011). Proficiency and animacy effects on L2 gender agreement processes during comprehension. Language Learning, 120, 20222039.
Sagarra N., & Herschensohn J. (2013). Processing of gender and number agreement in late Spanish bilinguals. International Journal of Bilingualism, 17, 607627.
Shen E., Staub A., & Sanders L. (2013). Event-related brain potential evidence that local nouns affect subject-verb agreement processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28, 498524.
Slattery T., Sturt P., Christianson K., Yoshida M., & Ferreira F. (2013). Lingering misinterpretations of garden path sentences arise from competing syntactic representations. Journal of Memory and Language, 69, 104120.
Sorace A. (2011). Pinning down the concept of ‘interface’ in bilingualism. Linguistic Approaches to Bilingualism, 1, 133.
Sorace A. & Filiaci F. (2006). Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian. Second Language Research, 22, 339368.
Sprouse J., Wagers M., & Phillips C. (2012). A test of the relation between working memory capacity and syntactic island effects. Language, 88, 82123.
Stowe L. (1986). Parsing wh- constructions: Evidence for on-line gap location. Language and Cognitive Processes, 1, 227245.
Swets B., Desmet T., Clifton C., & Ferreira F. (2008). Underspecification of syntactic ambiguities: Evidence from self-paced reading. Memory and Cognition, 36, 201216.
Swets B., Desmet T., Hambrick D., & Ferreira F. (2007). The role of working memory in syntactic ambiguity resolution: A psychometric approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 136, 6481.
Sturt P. (2003). The time-course of the application of binding constraints in reference resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 542562.
Tanner D., Nicol J., & Brehm L. (2014). The time course of feature interference in agreement comprehension: Multiple mechanisms and asymmetrical attraction. Journal of Memory and Language, 76, 195215.
Tanner D., Nicol J., Herschensohn J., & Osterhout L. (2012) Electrophysiological markers of interference and structural facilitation in native and nonnative agreement processing. In Biller A., Chung A., & Kimball A. (eds.), Proceedings of the 36th Boston University Conference on Language Development, pp. 594–606. Somerville: Cascadilla.
Traxler M., & Pickering M. (1996). Plausibility and the processing of unbounded dependencies: An eye-tracking study. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 542562.
Traxler M., Pickering M., & Clifton C. (1998). Adjunct attachment is not a form of lexical ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 558592.
Tsimpli I., Sorace A., Heycock C., & Filiaci F. (2004). First language attrition and syntactic subjects: A study of Greek and Italian near-native speakers of English. International Journal of Bilingualism, 8, 257277.
Ullman M. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4, 105122.
Ullman M. (2005). A cognitive neuroscience perspective on second language acquisition: The declarative/procedural model. In Sanz C. (ed.), Mind and Context in Adult Second Language Acquisition, pp. 141178. Washington, Georgetown University Press.
Ullman M. (2015). The declarative/procedural model: A neurobiologically motivated theory of first and second language. In VanPatten B. & Williams J. (eds.), Theories in Second Language Acquisition: An Introduction (2nd edition). New York: Routledge.
Van Dyke J., & Johns C. (2012). Memory interference as a determinant of language comprehension. Language and Linguistics Compass, 6, 193211.
Van Dyke J., Johns C., & Kukona A. (2014). Low working memory capacity is only spuriously related to poor reading comprehension. Cognition, 131, 373403.
Van Dyke J., & McElree B. (2011). Cue-dependent interference in comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 65, 247263.
Van Dyke J. (2007). Interference effects from grammaticality unavailable constituents during sentence processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 33, 407430.
Van Gompel R., & Liversedge S. (2003). The influence of morphological information on cataphoric pronoun assignment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 29, 128139.
Vuong L., & Martin R. (2014). Domain-specific executive control and the revision of misinterpretations in sentence comprehension. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29, 312325.
Wagers M., Lau E., & Phillips C. (2009). Agreement attraction in comprehension: representations and processes. Journal of Memory and Language, 61, 206237.
Wen Z., Mota M., & McNeill A. (2015). Working Memory in Second Language Acquisition and Processing. Multilingual Matters.
Williams J. (2006). Incremental interpretation in second language sentence processing. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 7188.
Williams J., Möbius P., & Kim C. (2001). Native and non-native processing of English wh-questions: Parsing strategies and plausibility constraints. Applied Psycholinguistics, 22, 509540.
Wilson F. (2009). Processing at the syntax-discourse interface in second language acquisition. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Edinburgh.
Witzel J., Witzel N., & Nicol J. (2012). Deeper than shallow: Evidence for structure-based parsing biases in second-language sentence processing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33, 419456.
Xiang M., Dillon B., & Phillips C. (2009). Illusory licensing effects across dependency types: ERP evidence. Brain & Language, 108, 4055.
Yoshida M., Kazanina N., Pablos L., & Sturt P. (2014) On the origin of islands. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 29, 761770.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 30
Total number of PDF views: 625 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1330 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.