Skip to main content
×
Home

Phonological coactivation in the bilinguals’ two languages: Evidence from the color naming task*

  • PEDRO MACIZO (a1)
Abstract

We evaluate whether bilinguals activate the phonology of their first language (L1) when they speak in their second language (L2). In Experiment 1, Spanish–English (L1–L2) bilinguals performed a color naming task in which they named the color of pictures in L2 while the phonological relationship between the color names and picture names in L1 was evaluated. The bilinguals were slower when color names and picture names were phonologically related in L1 relative to a control condition in which they were unrelated. The same pattern of results was obtained in Experiment 2 when bilinguals with less L2 proficiency were evaluated. These results suggest that bilinguals coactivated the phonology of their two languages and that the phonology in L1 influenced the production of speech in L2. This finding is explained in terms of cascade models of bilingual language production.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Pedro Macizo, Dpto. Psicología Experimental, Facultad de Psicología, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Cartuja s/n. 18071 Granada Spain pmacizo@ugr.es
Footnotes
Hide All
*

This study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (research project PSI2012–32287). We wish to thank Bradley Bloomfield, Natalia Paredes and Verónica Juárez for helping in testing participants.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Basnight-Brown D. M., & Altarriba J. (2007). Differences in semantic and translation priming across languages: The role of language direction and language dominance. Memory & Cognition, 35, 953965. doi:10.3758/BF03193468
Bloem I., & La Heij W. (2003). Semantic facilitation and semantic interference in word translation: Implications for models of lexical access in language production. Journal of Memory and Language, 48, 468488. doi: 10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00503-X
Bloem I., van den Boogaard S., & La Heij W. (2004). Semantic facilitation and semantic interference in language production: Further evidence for the conceptual selection model of lexical access. Journal of Memory and Language, 51, 307323. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2004.05.001
Caramazza A. (1997). How many levels of processing are there in lexical access? Cognitive Neuropsychology, 14, 177208. doi: 10.1080/026432997381664
Colomé A. (2001). Lexical activation in bilinguals' speech production: language-specific or language-independent? Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 721736. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2001.2793
Colomé A., & Miozzo M. (2010). Which words are activated during bilingual word production? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 36, 96109. doi: 10.1037/a0017677
Costa A. (2005). Lexical access in bilingual production. In Kroll J. F. & De Groot A. M. B. (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 308325). New York: Oxford University Press.
Costa A., Miozzo M., & Caramazza A. (1999). Lexical selection in bilinguals: Do words in the bilingual's two lexicons compete for selection? Journal of Memory and Language, 41, 365397. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1999. 2651
Costa A., Caramazza A., & Sebastián-Gallés N. (2000). The cognate facilitation effect: Implications for the models of lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 26, 12831296. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.26.5.1283
Damian M. F., & Dumay N. (2009). Exploring phonological encoding through repeated segments. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24, 685712. doi: 10.1080/01690960802351260
de Bot K. (1992). A bilingual production model: Levelt's speaking model adapted. Applied Linguistics, 13, 124. doi: 10.1093/applin/13.1.1
de Groot A. M. B., & Nas G. L. J. (1991). Lexical representation of cognates and noncognates in compound bilinguals. Journal of Memory and Language, 30, 90123. doi: 10.1016/0749-596X(91)90012-9
Dell G. S. (1986). A spreading-activation theory of retrieval in sentence production. Psychological Review, 93, 283321. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.93.3.283
Dell G. S., Schwartz M. F., Martin N., Saffran E. M., & Gagnon D.A. (1997). Lexical access in aphasic and nonaphasic speakers. Psychological Review, 104, 801838. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.104.4.801
Dumay N., & Damian M. F, (2011). A word-order constraint in single-word production?Failure to replicate Janssen, Alario, and Caramazza (2008). Psychological Science, 22, 559561. doi: 10.1177/0956797611401754
Elston-Güttler K. E., Gunter T. C., & Kotz S. A. (2005). Zooming into L2: Global language context and adjustment affect processing of interlingual homographs in sentences. Cognitive Brain Research, 25, 5770. doi:10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2005.04.007
Goldrick M. (2014). Phonological processing: The retrieval and encoding of word form information in speech production. In Goldrick M., Ferreira V., & Miozzo M. (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of language production (pp. 228244). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gollan T.H., & Acenas L.A. (2004). What is a TOT? Cognate and Translation Effects on Tip-of-the-Tongue states in Spanish–English and Tagalog–English Bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 30, 246269. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.30.1.246
Green D. W. (1998). Mental control of the bilingual lexico-semantic system. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 6781. doi: 10.1017/S1366728998000133
Griffin Z. M., & Bock K. (1998). Constraint, word frequency, and the relationship between lexical processing levels in spoken word production. Journal of Memory and Language, 38, 313338. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1997. 2547
Harley T. A. (1993). Phonological activation of semantic competitors during lexical access in speech production. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8, 291309. doi: 10.1080/01690969308406957
Hermans D. (2000). Word production in a foreign language. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Hermans D., Bongaerts T., de Bot K., & Schreuder R. (1998). Producing words in a foreign language: can speakers prevent interference from their first language? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 1, 213230. doi: 10.1017/S1366728998000364
Hermans D., Ormel E., Van den Besselaar R., & van Hell J. G. (2011). Lexical activation in bilinguals’ speech production is dynamic: How language ambiguous words can affect cross-language activation . Language and Cognitive Processes, 26, 16871709. doi: 10.1080/01690965.2010.530411
Jared D., & Kroll J. F. (2001). Do bilinguals activate phonological representations in one or both of their languages when naming words? Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 231. doi: 10.1006/jmla.2000.2747
Janssen N., Alario F. X., & Caramazza A. (2008). A word-order constraint on phonological activation. Psychological Science, 19, 216220. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2008.02070.x
Jescheniak J. D., Oppermann F., Hantsch A., Wagner V., Mädebach A., & Schriefers H. (2009). Do perceived context pictures automatically activate their phonological code? Experimental Psychology, 56, 5665. doi: 10.1027/1618-3169.56.1.56
Kroll J. F., Bobb S. C., & Wodniecka Z. (2006). Language selectivity is the exception, not the rule: Arguments against a fixed locus of language selection in bilingual speech. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 9, 119135. doi: 10.1017/S1366728906002483
Kroll J. F., Dijkstra A., Janssen N., & Schriefers H. (2000, November). Selecting the language in which to speak. Experiments on lexical access in bilingual production. Paper presented at the 41st Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, New Orleans, LA.
Kroll J. F., Michael E., Tokowicz N., & Dufour R. (2002). The development of lexical fluency in a second language. Second Language Research, 18, 137171. doi: 10.1191/0267658302sr201oa
Kuipers J. R., & La Heij W. (2009). The limitations of cascading in the speech production system. Language and Cognitive Processes, 24, 120135. doi: 10.1080/01690960802234177
La Heij W., & Boelens H. (2011). Color-object interference: Further tests of an executive control account. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 156169. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.007
La Heij W., Boelens H., & Kuipers J. R. (2010). Object interference in children's colour and position naming: Lexical interference or task-set competition? Language and Cognitive Processes, 25, 568588. doi: 10.1080/01690960903381174
Levelt W. J. M. (1989). Speaking: From intention to articulation. MA: The MIT Press.
Levelt W. J. M. (1999). Models of word production. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 223232. doi: 10.1016/S1364-6613(99)01319-4
Levelt W. J. M., Roelofs A., & Meyer A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, 175. doi: 10.1017/S0140525X99001776
Linck J. A., Kroll J. F., & Sunderman G. (2009). Losing access to the native language while immersed in a second language: Evidence for the role of inhibition in second language learning. Psychological Science, 20, 15071515. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02480.x
Macizo P., & Bajo M. T. (2006). Reading for repetition and reading for translation: Do they involve the same processes? Cognition, 99, 134. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2004.09.012
Macizo P., Bajo T., & Martín M. C. (2010). Inhibitory processes in bilingual language comprehension: Evidence from Spanish–English interlexical homographs. Journal of Memory and Language, 63, 232244. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2010.04.002
Macizo P., Bajo T., & Paolieri D. (2012). Language switching and language competition. Second Language Research, 28, 131149. doi: 10.1177/0267658311434893
Meyer A. S. (1996). Lexical access in phrase and sentence production: Results from picture–word interference experiments. Journal of Memory and Language, 35, 477496. doi: 10.1006/jmla.1996.0026
Meyer A. S., & Damian M. (2007). Activation of distractor names in the picture–picture interference paradigm. Memory and Cognition, 35, 494503. doi: 10.3758/BF03193289
Morsella E., & Miozzo M. (2002). Evidence for a cascade model of lexical access in speech production. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28, 555563. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.28.3.555
Navarrete E., & Costa A. (2005). Phonological activation of ignored pictures: Further evidence for a cascade model of lexical access. Journal of Memory and Language, 53, 359377. doi: 10.1016/j.jml.2005.05.001
Navarrete E., & Costa A. (2009). The distractor picture paradox in speech production: Evidence from the word translation task. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 38, 527547. doi: 10.1007/s10936-009-9119-1
Oppermann F., Jescheniak J. D., Schriefers H., & Görges F. (2010). Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 356370. doi: 10.1080/17470210902952480
Pérez M. A., & Navalón C. (2003). Normas españolas de 290 nuevos dibujos: Acuerdo en la denominación, concordancia de la imagen, familiaridad, complejidad visual y variabilidad de la imagen [Spanish norms of 290 new pictures: Naming agreement, picture agreement, familiarity, visual complexity and picture variability]. Psicológica, 24, 215241.
Poulisse N. & Bongaerts T. (1994). First language use in second language production. Applied Linguistics, 15, 3657. doi: 10.1093/applin/15.1.36
Rapp B., & Goldrick M. (2000). Discreteness and interactivity in spoken word production. Psychological Review, 107, 460499. doi: 10.1037/0033-295X.107.3.460
Roelofs A. (2008). Tracing attention and the activation flow in spoken word planning using eye movements. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34, 353368. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.34.2.353
Roselli M., Ardila A., Jurado M. B., & Salvatierra J. L. (2014). Cognate facilitation effect in balanced and non-balanced Spanish–English bilinguals using the Boston Naming Test. International Journal of Bilingualism, 18, 649662. doi: 10.1177/1367006912466313
Roux S., Bonin P., & Kandel S. (2013). The “BIG BIRD” of the “YELLOW YOUNG” man: Do nontarget properties cascade? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67, 763784. doi: 10.1080/17470218.2013.828317
Sánchez-Casas R., & García-Albea J. E. (2005). The representation of cognate and noncognate words on bilingual memory: Can cognate status be characterized as a special kind of morphological relation? In Kroll J. F. & Groot A. M. B. De (Eds.), Handbook of Bilingualism: Psycholinguistic Approaches (pp. 226250). New York: Oxford University Press.
Schneider W. (1995). Micro experimental laboratory. Pittsburg, PA: Psychology Software Tools.
Schneider W., Eschman A., & Zuccolotto A. (2002). E-Prime user's guide (Version 1.1). Pittsburg: Psychology Software Tools.
Schriefers H., Meyer A. S., & Levelt W. J. M. (1990). Exploring the time course of lexical access in production: Picture–word interference studies. Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 86102. doi: 10.1016/0749-596X(90)90011-N
Snodgrass J. G., & Vanderwart M. (1980). A standardized set of 260 pictures: Norms for name agreement, image agreement, familiarity, and visual complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory, 6, 174215. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.6.2.174
van Hell J. G., & Tanner D. (2012). Second language proficiency and cross-language lexical activation. Language Learning, 62, 148171. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00710.x
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 112 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 358 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.