Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Reading a book in one or two languages? An eye movement study of cognate facilitation in L1 and L2 reading*

  • USCHI COP (a1), NICOLAS DIRIX (a1), EVA VAN ASSCHE (a1), DENIS DRIEGHE (a2) and WOUTER DUYCK (a1)...
Abstract

This study examined how noun reading by bilinguals is influenced by orthographic similarity with their translation equivalents in another language. Eye movements of Dutch–English bilinguals reading an entire novel in L1 and L2 were analyzed.

In L2, we found a facilitatory effect of orthographic overlap. Additional facilitation for identical cognates was found for later eye movement measures. This shows that the complex, semantic context of a novel does not eliminate cross-lingual activation in natural reading.

In L1 we detected non-identical cognate facilitation for first fixation durations of longer nouns. Identical cognate facilitation was found on total reading times for high frequent nouns. This study is the first to show cognate facilitation in L1 reading of narrative text. This shows that even when reading a novel in the mother tongue, lexical access is not restricted to the target language.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Address for correspondence: Nicolas Dirix, Department of Experimental Psychology, Ghent University, Henri Dunantlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. nicolas.dirix@ugent.be
Footnotes
Hide All
*

This research was supported by a grant from the FWO (Fonds voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek) and concerted research action BOF13/GOA/032 of Ghent University. We thank Dr. Søren Feodor Nielsen at Copenhagen Business School for the R-code for calculating the variance inflation factor (VIF).

Footnotes
References
Hide All
Baayen, R. H., Davidson, D. J., & Bates, D. M. (2008). Mixed-effects modeling with crossed random effects for subjects and items. Journal of Memory and Language, 59, 390412. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.12.005
Baguley, T. (2012). Serious Stats: A guide to advanced statistics for the behavioral sciences. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire, England; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Balling, L. W. (2013). Reading authentic texts: What counts as cognate? Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 16 (03), 637653. http://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728911000733
Barr, D. J., Levy, R., Scheepers, C., & Tily, H. J. (2013). Random effects structure for confirmatory hypothesis testing: Keep it maximal. Journal of Memory and Language, 68 (3), 255278. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2012.11.001
Box, G. E. P., & Cox, D. R. (1964). An analysis of transformations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 26 (2), 211252.
Brysbaert, M., & New, B. (2009). Moving beyond Kučera and Francis: A critical evaluation of current word frequency norms and the introduction of a new and improved word frequency measure for American English. Behavior Research Methods, 41 (4), 977990. doi:10.3758/brm.41.4.977
Bultena, S., Dijkstra, T., & Van Hell, J. G. (2013). Cognate and word class ambiguity effects in noun and verb processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28 (9), 13501377. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2012.718353
Bultena, S., Dijkstra, T., & Van Hell, J. G. (2014). Cognate effects in sentence context depend on word class, L2 proficiency, and task. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67 (6), 12141241. http://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2013.853090
Cop, U., Dirix, N., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2015). Presenting GECO: An Eye-Tracking Corpus of Monolingual and Bilingual Sentence Reading. Submitted for Publication.
Cop, U., Keuleers, E., Drieghe, D., & Duyck, W. (2015). Frequency effects in monolingual and bilingual natural reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 22, 12161234. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-015-0819-2
Cover, T. M., & Thomas, J. A. (1991). Elements of Information Theory. Wiley Series in Telecommunications. John Wiley & Sons: New York, NY, USA.
Cristoffanini, P., Kirsner, K., & Milech, D. (1986). Bilingual lexical representation: The status of Spanish–English cognates. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38, 367393.
Davis, C., Sánchez-Casas, R., García-Albea, J. E., Guasch, M., Molero, M., & Ferré, P. (2010). Masked translation priming: Varying language experience and word type with Spanish–English bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 13 (02), 137. http://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728909990393
De Groot, A. M. B. (2011). Language and cognition in bilinguals and multilinguals: An introduction. New York: Psychology Press.
Depessemier, P., & Andries, C. (2009). GL&SCHR. Test voor Gevorderd Lezen & SCHRijven. Antwerp, Belgium: Garant.
Diependaele, K., Lemhöfer, K., & Brysbaert, M. (2013). The word frequency effect in first-and second-language word recognition: a lexical entrenchment account. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66 (5), 843863.
Dijkstra, T., Grainger, J., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (1999). Recognition of Cognates and Interlingual Homographs: The Neglected Role of Phonology. Journal of Memory and Language, 41 (4), 496518.
Dijkstra, T., Miwa, K., Brummelhuis, B., Sappelli, M., & Baayen, H. (2010). How cross-language similarity and task demands affect cognate recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 62 (3), 284301. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2009.12.003
Dijkstra, T., Timmermans, M., & Schriefers, H. (2000). On being blinded by your other language: effects of task demands on inter-lingual homograph recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 42, 445464.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (1998). The BIA model and bilingual word recognition. In Grainger, J. & Jacobs, A. (Eds.), Localist Connectionist Approaches to Human Cognition (pp. 189225). New York: Mahwah.
Dijkstra, T., & van Heuven, W. J. B. (2002). The architecture of the bilingual word recognition system: From identification to decision. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 5 (03). http://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728902003012
Duyck, W. (2005). Translation and associative priming with cross-lingual pseudohomophones: Non-selective phonological activation in bilinguals. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 31, 13401359. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.31.6.1340
Duyck, W., Van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2007). Visual word recognition by bilinguals in a sentence context: Evidence for nonselective lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 33 (4), 663679. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.33.4.663
Fox, J., & Weisberg, S. (2010). An R Companion to Applied Regression. SAGE.
Frost, R. (1998). Toward a strong phonological theory of visual word recognition: True issues and false trails. Psychological Bulletin, 123 (1), 7199. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.123.1.71
Giraudo, H., & Grainger, J. (2003). A supralexical model for French derivational morphology. In Assink, E. M. H. & Sandra, D. (Eds.), Reading Complex Words: Cross-Language Studies (pp. 139157). Boston, MA: Springer US. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-3720-2_7
Grainger, J., O'Regan, J. K., Jacobs, A., & Segui, J. (1989). On the role of competing word units in visual word recognition:The neigborhood frequency effect. Perception and Psychophysics, 45, 189195.
Jared, D., & Kroll, J. F. (2001). Do bilinguals activate phonological representations in one or both of their languages when naming words? Journal of Memory and Language, 44, 231. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2000.2747
Keuleers, E., Brysbaert, M., & New, B. (2010). SUBTLEX-NL: A new measure for Dutch word frequency based on film subtitles. Behavior Research Methods, 42 (3), 643650. doi:10.3758/brm.42.3.643
Kirsner, K., Lalor, E., & Hird, K. (1993). The Bilingual Lexicon: Exercise, meaning and morphology. In Schreuder, R. & Weltens, B. (Eds.), The bilingual lexicon (pp. 215248). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Kroll, J. F., Dijkstra, T., Janssens, N., & Schriefers, H. (1999). Cross-language lexical activity during production: Evidence from cued picture naming. In Vandierendonck, A., Brysbaert, M., & Van der Goten, K. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th congress of the European society for cognitive psychology (p. 92). Ghent: ESCOP/Academic Press.
Kush, D., Johns, C. L., & Van Dyke, J. A. (2015). Identifying the role of phonology in sentence-level reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 79–80, 1829. doi:10.1016/j.jml.2014.11.001
Lalor, E., & Kirsner, K. (2000). Cross-lingual transfer effects between English and Italian cognates and non-cognates. International Journal of Bilingualism, 4, 385398.
Lemhöfer, K., & Broersma, M. (2012). Introducing LexTALE: A quick and valid Lexical Test for Advanced Learners of English. Behavior Research Methods, 44 (2), 325343. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13428-011-0146-0
Lemhöfer, K., Dijkstra, T., Schriefers, H., Baayen, R. H., Grainger, J., & Zwitserlood, P. (2008). Native language influences on word recognition in a second language: A megastudy. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 34 (1), 1231. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.34.1.12
Libben, M. R., & Titone, D. A. (2009). Bilingual lexical access in context: Evidence from eye movements during reading. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 35 (2), 381390. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0014875
Marian, V., Blumenfeld, H. K. & Kaushanskaya, M. (2007). The Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire (LEAP-Q): Assessing Language Profiles in Bilinguals and Multilinguals. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 50 (4), 940967. doi:10.1044/1092-4388(2007/067)
McClelland, J., & Rumelhart, D. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception. An account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375407.
Midgley, K. J., Holcomb, P. J., & Grainger, J. (2011). Effects of Cognate Status on Word Comprehension in Second Language Learners: An ERP Investigation. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23 (7), 16341647. doi:10.1162/jocn.2010.21463
Peeters, D., Dijkstra, T., & Grainger, J. (2013). The representation and processing of identical cognates by late bilinguals: RT and ERP effects. Journal of Memory and Language, 68 (4), 315332. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2012.12.003
Radach, R., Huestegge, L., & Reilly, R. (2008). The role of global top-down factors in local eye-movement control in reading. Psychological Research, 72 (6), 675688. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00426-008-0173-3
Rayner, K. (1998). Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124 (3), 372422.
Sánchez-Casas, R., Davis, C., & García-Albea, J. E. (1992). Bilingual Lexical Processing -Exploring the cognate non-cognate distinction. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 4 (4), 293310.
Sánchez-Casas, R., & García-Albea, J. E. (2005). The representation of cognate and noncognate words in bilingual memory. Can cognate status be characterized as a special kind of morphological relation? In Kroll, J. F. & de Groot, A. M. B. (Eds.), Handbook of bilingualism: Psycholinguistic approaches. (pp. 226250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Schepens, J., Dijkstra, T., & Grootjen, F. (2012). Distributions of cognates in Europe as based on Levenshtein distance. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 15 (01), 157166. http://doi.org/10.1017/S1366728910000623
Schwartz, A. I., & Kroll, J. F. (2006). Bilingual lexical activation in sentence context. Journal of Memory and Language, 55 (2), 197212. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.03.004
Snodgrass, J. G., & Mintzer, M. (1993). Neigborhood effects in isual word recognition: Facilitatory or inhibitory? Memory & Cognition, 21, 247266.
Titone, D., Libben, M., Mercier, J., Whitford, V., & Pivneva, I. (2011). Bilingual lexical access during L1 sentence reading: The effects of L2 knowledge, semantic constraint, and L1–L2 intermixing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 37 (6), 14121431. http://doi.org/10.1037/a0024492
Tokowicz, N., & Kroll, J. F. (2007). Number of meanings and concreteness: Consequences of ambiguity within and across languages. Language and Cognitive Processes, 22 (5), 727779. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690960601057068
Tokowicz, N., Kroll, J. F., de Groot, A. M. B., & Van Hell, J. G. (2002). Number-of-translation norms for Dutch–English translation pairs: A new tool for examining language production. Behavior Research Methods Instruments & Computers, 34 (3), 435451.
Van Assche, E., Drieghe, D., Duyck, W., Welvaert, M., & Hartsuiker, R. J. (2011). The influence of semantic constraints on bilingual word recognition during sentence reading. Journal of Memory and Language, 64 (1), 88107. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2010.08.006
Van Assche, E., Duyck, W., & Brysbaert, M. (2013). Verb processing by bilinguals in sentence contexts. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35 (02), 237259. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263112000873
Van Assche, E., Duyck, W., Hartsuiker, R. J., & Diependaele, K. (2009). Does bilingualism change native-language reading? Cognate effects in a sentence context. Psychological Science, 20 (8), 923927.
Van Hell, J. G., & de Groot, A. M. B. (2008). Sentence context modulates visual word recognition and translation in bilinguals. Acta Psychologica, 128 (3), 431451. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.03.010
Van Hell, J. G., & Dijkstra, T. (2002). Foreign language knowledge can influence native language performance in exclusively native contexts. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9 (4), 780789.
van Heuven, W. J. B., Dijkstra, T., & Grainger, J. (1998). Orthographic Neighborhood Effects in Bilingual Word Recognition. Journal of Memory and Language, 39, 458483.
Whitford, V., & Titone, D. (2012). Second-language experience modulates first- and second-language word frequency effects: Evidence from eye movement measures of natural paragraph reading. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19 (1), 7380. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-011-0179-5
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Bilingualism: Language and Cognition
  • ISSN: 1366-7289
  • EISSN: 1469-1841
  • URL: /core/journals/bilingualism-language-and-cognition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed