Nisbet, Hugh, Experiences of a Jungle-Wallah, St Albans: Fisher, Knight, 1935, pp. 19–22
Brassey, Annie, The Last Voyage, London: Longmans, Green, 1889, pp. 130–131
Keck, Stephen L., ‘Picturesque Burma: British travel writing 1890–1914’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies (2004) 35, pp. 387–414
4 As the philosopher Thomas Nagel has argued, even while it may not be possible to know how it feels to be another animal, it can still be acknowledged that there is another set of experiences that another animal has.
Nagel, Thomas, ‘What is it like to be a bat?’, Philosophical Review (1974) 83, pp. 435–450
5 This position is increasingly the starting point for animal history. See these two recent historiographic overviews:
Skabelund, Aaron, ‘Animals and imperialism: recent historiographical trends’, History Compass (2013) 11, pp. 801–807
Specht, Joshua, ‘Animal history after its triumph: unexpected animals, evolutionary approaches, and the animal lens’, History Compass (2016) 14, pp. 326–336
Walker, Brett L., ‘Animals and the intimacy of history’, History and Theory (2013) 52(4), pp. 45–67
Fudge, Erica, ‘A left-handed blow: writing the history of animals’, in Rothfels, Nigel (ed.), Representing Animals, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2003, pp. 3–18
Fudge, Erica, ‘Milking other men's beasts’, History and Theory (2013) 52(4), pp. 13–28
Rangarajan, Mahesh, ‘Animals with rich histories: the case of the lions of Gir Forest, Gujarat, India’, History and Theory (2013) 52(4), pp. 109–127
Latour, Bruno, We Have Never Been Modern, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993
Haraway, Donna, Companion Species Manifesto, Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press, 2003
Barad, Karen, Meeting the Universe Halfway, Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2007
Nash, Linda, ‘The agency of nature or the nature of agency?’, Environmental History (2005) 10, pp. 67–69
Mitchell, Timothy, Rule of Experts, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002, pp. 18–51
Bryant, Raymond L., ‘Branding natural resources: science, violence and marketing in the making of teak’, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers (2013) 38, pp. 517–530
Tyler, Colin, ‘Performativity and the intellectual historian's re-enactment of written works’, Journal of the Philosophy of History (2009) 3, pp. 167–186
Lorimer, Jamie and Whatmore, Sarah, ‘After the “king of beasts”: Samuel Baker and the embodied historical geographies of elephant hunting in mid-nineteenth-century Ceylon’, Journal of Historical Geography (2009) 35, pp. 668–689
Miller, John, Empire and the Animal Body, London: Anthem Press, 2012
Swart, Sandra, ‘“But where's the bloody horse?” Textuality and corporeality in the “animal turn”’, Journal of Literary Studies (2007) 23, pp. 271–292
Kean, Hilda, ‘Challenges for historians writing animal human history: what is really enough?’, Anthrozoos: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions of People & Animals (2012) 25, pp. 57–72
Saha, Jonathan, ‘Among the beasts of Burma: animals and the politics of colonial sensibilities, c.1840–1950’, Journal of Social History (2015) 48, pp. 933–955
15 London Metropolitan Archives (hereafter LMA), Standard Chartered Bank Collection, CLC/207/MS40279, ‘Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Limited: annual statistics relating to teak production, use of elephants and shipping from Burmah to Siam’, n.d.
Bryant, Raymond L., The Political Ecology of Forestry in Burma, 1824–1994, London: Hurst, 1997, pp. 103–105
Macaulay, B.H., History of the Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation, Ltd., 1864–1910, London: Spottiswoode, Ballantyne and Co., 1934, p. 41
Pointon, A.C., The Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Limited 1863–1963, Southampton: Millbrook Press, 1964, p. 45
Haraway, Donna, When Species Meet, Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press, 2008, pp. 45–68
Collard, Rosemary-Claire and Dempsey, Jessica, ‘Life for sale? The politics of lively commodities’, Environment and Planning A (2013) 45, pp. 2682–2699
Barua, Maan, ‘Lively commodities and encounter value’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space (2016) 34, pp. 725–744
Shukin, Nicole, Animal Capital, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2009
Marx, Karl, Capital, vol. 1 (tr. Fowkes, Ben), New York: Vintage Books, 1977, pp. 425, 548.
Buller, Henry, ‘Animal geographies I’, Human Geography (2013) 38, pp. 308–318
; Buller, ‘Animal geographies II: methods’, Human Geography (2014) 39, pp. 374–384
Philo, Chris and Wilbert, Chris, ‘Animal spaces, beastly places: an introduction’, in Philo and Wilbert (eds.), Animal Spaces, Beastly Places: New Geographies of Human–Animal Relations, London: Routledge, 2000, pp. 1–36
24 For an overview of current understandings of elephants’ biology and ecology see
Sukumar, Raman, ‘A brief review of the status, distribution and biology of wild Asian elephants Elephas maximus
’, International Zoo Yearbook (2006) 40, pp. 1–8
Johnson, Elizabeth R., ‘Of lobsters, laboratories, and war: animal studies and the temporality of more-than-human encounters’, Environment and Planning D: Society and Space (2015) 33, pp. 296–313
26 British Library, London, India Office Records (hereafter IOR), MSS EUR/F575, ‘Ever your loving Mully: letters from Burma of Muriel Bowden to her mother Alice Britten in England 1922–24’ (ed. Ann Bowden and Ian Adams), 2008, 16 February 1922; 23 March 1922; 14 January 1923; 22 January 1923; 28 January 1924; IOR, MSS EUR/D1223/1, P.A.W. Howe, ‘Account of career with Steel Brothers, Burma 1929–42’, ‘2nd tour. Myintkyina. 1935’;
Evans, George H., Elephants and Their Diseases, Rangoon: Superintendent Government Printing, Burma, 1910, pp. 1–48
Williams, J.H., Elephant Bill, London: Hart-Davis, 1950, pp. 127, 133–5, 144–6;
Williams, S.M., Footprints of Elephant Bill, London: W. Kimber, 1962, p. 32
Ferrier, A.J., Care and Management of Elephants, London: Messrs. Steel Brothers and Co. Ltd, 1947, pp. 47–49
; for a fuller outline of kheddah operations that were most influential on state practices in British India see
Sanderson, G.P., Thirteen Years among the Wild Beasts of India, Edinburgh: John Grant, 1912, pp. 70–74
28 Ferrier, op. cit. (27), p. 47; and for an example of this arrangement see LMA, Standard Chartered Bank Collection, CLC/207/MS40474, ‘Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Limited: correspondence between Rangoon, Bombay and Mg Bah Oh regarding his elephant buying business in Burma’.
29 National Archives of India (hereafter NAI), Department of Revenue and Agriculture, Forests, Dec. 1909, Part A Proceedings, Nos. 48–70: ‘Arrangements for the elephant catching operations in Burma and for the future working of the Kheddah Department’.
Bradshaw, G.A., ‘Not by bread alone: Symbolic loss, trauma, and recovery in elephant communities’, Society & Animals (2004) 12, pp. 143–158
Bradshaw, G.A., Schore, Allan N., Brown, Janine L., Poole, Joyce H. and Moss, Cynthia J., ‘Elephant breakdown’, Nature (2005) 433, p. 807
Eardley-Wilmot, Sainthill, The Life of an Elephant, London: E. Arnold, 1912
Scott, J.G. and Mitton, Geraldine, The Life Story of an Elephant, London: A. & C. Black, 1930
Campbell, Reginald, Elephant King, New York: Richard R. Smith, 1930
Pollok, Fitzwilliam Thomas and Thom, W.S., Wild Sports of Burma and Assam, London: Hurst and Blackett, 1900, p. 128
; Evans, op. cit. (26), p. 11.
33 Evans, op. cit. (26), pp. 1–10.
34 For some key documents in the voluminous correspondence on this matter see National Archives of Myanmar (hereafter NAM), 1/1(B) 6541, 1908 File No 3S-2 Part I, ‘Proposed adoption of measures for the prevention of elephant stealing on the borders of Burma and Siam’; NAM, 1/1(A) 4647, 1927 File No 176 B26, ‘Forms of passes in respect of elephants taken across the frontier into Siam’.
35 For more on branding see Bryant, op. cit. (12), pp. 517–530.
Foucault, Michel, Discipline and Punish (tr. Sheridan, Alan), Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1979
37 For anthropological studies that recognize the mutually interactive aspects of elephant training see
Locke, Piers, ‘The ethnography of captive elephant management in Nepal: a synopsis’, Gajah (2011) 34, pp. 32–40
; Ursula Münster, ‘Working for the forest: the ambivalent intimacies of human–elephant collaboration in South Indian wildlife conservation’, Ethnos (2014), Online First, pp. 1–23.
Dooren, Van, Flight Ways: Life and Loss at the Edge of Extinction, New York: Colombia University Press, 2014, pp. 86–124
39 Howe, op. cit. (26), ‘Tales of elephant calves, their training etc. Bhamo 1932/3’; Williams, op. cit. (26), pp. 56–60.
40 A scheme of breeding was suggested based on accounts of breeding in Burma and Siam, but rejected by the government of India. See NAM, 1/1(A) 1400, 1868, File No 508, ‘Legislative interference to prevent the destruction of wild elephants in British Burma’.
41 Male elephants’ testicles are internal, making castration a difficult and invasive surgical intervention and selective breeding highly impractical. In addition, current evidence suggests that the labour regimes had a detrimental impact on elephant fertility. See
Mumby, Hannah S., Mar, Khyne U., Thitaram, Chatchote, Courtiol, Alexandre, Towiboon, Patcharapa, Min-Oo, Zaw, Htut-Aung, Ye, Brown, Janine L. and Lummaa, Virpi, ‘Stress and body condition are associated with climate and demography in Asian elephants’, Conservation Physiology (2015) 3, pp. 1–14
42 LMA, Standard Chartered Bank Collection, CLC/207/MS40475, ‘Bombay Burmah Trading Corporation Limited: correspondence between branches and director for veterinary research relating to anthrax in elephants’, ‘H.F. Burke to Lely, 23 Aug. 1933’.
43 Campbell, op. cit. (31);
Pfaff, G., Diseases of Elephants, Rangoon: Superintendent Government Printing, Burma, 1940, pp. 4–5
; Howe, op. cit. (39); Williams, op. cit. (26), pp. 74–80.
44 Howe, op. cit. (26), ‘The Story of Ngwe Maung, Bhamo 1933’.
45 Pfaff, op. cit. (43), pp. 4–8.
46 For more on this perception see Saha, op. cit. (14), pp. 933–955.
Gale, U Toke, Burmese Timber Elephant, Rangoon: Trade Corporation
Locke, Piers, ‘Explorations in ethnoelephantology: social, historical, and ecological intersections between Asian elephants and humans’, Environment and Society: Advances in Research (2013) 4, pp. 79–97
48 Pollok and Thom, op. cit. (32), pp. 115–116; Evans, op. cit. (26), pp. 49–51.
49 Williams, op. cit. (26), p. 86.
50 NAM, 1/15(E) 3626, 1912, File No 6E-20, ‘Opium: issue of opium licences for the treatment of sick elephants’; 1/15(E) 16402, 1913, File No 6E-7, ‘Opium: issue of opium licences for the treatment of sick elephants’; Pollok and Thom, op. cit. (32), p. 128. Cannabis was also used; see Pfaff, op. cit. (43), p. 21.
Wright, Ashley, Opium and Empire in Southeast Asia, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013
52 Williams, op. cit. (26), pp. 162–165.
53 Williams, op. cit. (26), pp. 32, 164. Some of these records, which continued through Japanese occupation and into independence, in the postcolonial period have been of use to evolutionary biologists attempting to study the Asiatic elephant population across several generations. see
Mumby, Hannah S., Mar, Khyne U., Hayward, Adam D., Htut, Win, Htut-Aung, Ye and Virpi, Lummaa, ‘Elephants born in the high stress season have faster reproductive ageing’, Nature Scientific Reports
5, Article number 13946 (2015).
54 The trope is apparent from
Evans, George H., Report on Burmese Elephants, Simla: G.C. Press, 1894
; to Williams, op. cit. (26), p. 320.
55 Campbell, op. cit. (31); Nisbet, op. cit. (1), pp. 19–24; Williams, op. cit. (26), p. 155;
Williams, J.H., Bandoola, London: Rupert Hart-Davies, 1953
; Howe, op. cit. (39).
56 See Williams's description of the case of the elephant Bandoola in Williams, op. cit. (26), passim.
58 Eardley-Wilmot, op. cit. (31).
59 Williams, op. cit. (26); Williams, op. cit. (55).
Saha, Jonathan, ‘Madness and the making of a colonial order in Burma’, Modern Asian Studies (2013) 47, pp. 406–435
61 Pollok and Thom, op. cit. (32), p. 42.
62 Williams, op. cit. (26).
Schiebinger, Londa, ‘Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural history’, American Historical Review (1993) 98, pp. 382–411
65 See Nisbet, op. cit. (1).
66 Evans, op. cit. (26);
Bor, N.L., ‘Musth in elephant’, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society (1928) 32, pp. 594–596
Ignatieff, Michael, A Just Measure of Pain, London: Macmillan, 1978
68 For some discussion of embodied and local knowledges and how they interacted with detached forms of scientific writing see
Sivasundaram, Sujit, ‘Trading knowledge: the East India Company's elephants in India and Britain’, Historical Journal (2005) 48, pp. 27–63
; Lorimer and Whatmore, op. cit. (13);
Chakrabarti, Pratik, ‘Beasts of burden: animals and laboratory research in colonial India’, History of Science (2010) 48, pp. 125–152
; for a more general discussion of the place of ‘native informants’ in the colonial archive see
Dirks, Nicholas B., ‘Colonial histories and native informants: biography of an archive’, in van der Veer, Peter and Breckenridge, Carol Appadurai (eds.), Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1993, pp. 279–312
69 U Toke Gale, op. cit. (47), pp. xi–xiii, 3–21; Sivasundaram, op. cit. (68).
Charney, Michael W., Powerful Learning, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Centers for South and Southeast Asian Studies, 2006
71 British Library, London, OR13915, ‘Burmese elephant manuscript, c.1850’.
73 Pfaff, op. cit. (43), pp. 20–21; Williams, op. cit. (26), pp. 97–98.
74 LMA, Standard Chartered Collection, CLC/B/207/MS40476/001, ‘Letters relating to diseases in elephants’, 15 Jan. 1927.
75 Evans, op. cit. (26), p. 35.
San, U Ba (tr.), Manual of Elephant Diseases, Rangoon: Sun Press, 1913
77 Pfaff, op. cit. (43); Ferrier, op. cit. (27).
78 Evans, op. cit. (26), pp. 16–19, 30, 36; Saha, op. cit. (14).
Scott, James George, The Burman, London: Macmillan, 1910
Keck, Stephen L., British Burma in the New Century, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
80 Scott and Mitton, op. cit. (31), pp. 7–8, 12, 17–18, 33.
81 For a wider discussion of these issues see
Driver, Felix, ‘Imagining the tropics: views and visions of the tropical world’, Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography (2004) 25, pp. 1–17
Smith, Mark M., ‘Producing sense, consuming sense, making sense: perils and prospects for sensory history’, Journal of Social History (2007) 40, pp. 841–858
Miller, John, Empire and the Animal Body: Violence, Identity and Ecology in Victorian Adventure Fiction, London: Anthem Press, 2012
82 Evans, op. cit. (26), pp. 20–22.
Casserly, Gordon, ‘Where do wild elephants die?’, Journal of Mammalogy (1924) 5, pp. 113–116
Flower, Major Stanley S. and Matthews, L. Harrison, ‘Further notes on the duration of life in mammals: V. The alleged and actual ages to which elephants live’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London (1948) 117, pp. 680–688
85 Scott and Mitton, op. cit. (31).
86 Pollok and Thom, op. cit. (32), pp. 127–128.
87 Evans, op. cit. (26), p. 9.
88 Mumby et al., op. cit. (53); Mumby et al., op. cit. (41);
Mumby, Hannah S., Chapman, Simon N., Crawley, Jennie A.H., Mar, Khyne U., Htut, Win, Soe, Thura Aung, Aung, Htoo H and Virpi, Lummaa, ‘Distinguishing between determinate and indeterminate growth in a long-lived mammal’, BMC Evolutionary Biology (2015) 15, pp. 214–222
Wiese, Robert J. and Willis, Kevin, ‘Calculation of longevity and life expectancy in captive elephants’, Zoo Biology (2004) 23, pp. 365–373
Mumby, Hannah S., Courtiol, Alexandre, Mar, Khyne U., and Lummaa, Virpi, ‘Climatic variation and age-specific survival in Asian Elephants from Myanmar’, Ecology (2013) 94, pp. 1131–1141
Naono, Atsuko, State of Vaccination, Hyderabad: Orient Blackswan, 2009
91 NAI, Office of Inspect General of Forests, Apr. 1902, Part B Proceedings, Nos 86–94, ‘Inoculations of elephants in Burma for anthrax’.
92 LMA, Standard Chartered Collection, CLC/B/207/MS40476/001, ‘Letters relating to diseases in elephants’, 27 January 1927.
93 In some ways this is surprising given the long history of exchange and interaction between Britain and Australia in developing vaccines for combating anthrax in domesticated animals and humans working with animal hides.
Stark, James F., ‘Anthrax and Australia in a global context: the international exchange of theories and practices with Britain and France, c.1850–1920’, Health and History (2012) 14, pp. 1–25
Brown, Karen, ‘Tropical medicine and animal diseases: Onderstepoort and the development of veterinary science in South Africa 1908–1950’, Journal of Southern African Studies (2005) 31, pp. 513–529
Gilfoyle, Daniel, ‘Anthrax in South Africa: economics, experiment and the mass vaccination of animals, c.1910–1945’, Medical History (2006) 50, pp. 465–490
95 LMA, Standard Chartered Collection, CLC/B/207/MS40476/001, ‘Letters relating to diseases in elephants’.
96 Ferrier, op. cit. (27), pp. 36–37; Pfaff, op. cit. (43).
Roy, Rohan Deb, ‘Nonhuman empires’, Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East (2015) 35, pp. 66–75
Rashkow, Ezra D., ‘Making subaltern shikaris: histories of the hunted in colonial central India’, South Asian History and Culture (2014) 5, pp. 292–313
Powell, Miles Alexander, ‘People in peril, environments at risk: coolies, tigers, and colonial Singapore's ecology of poverty’, Environment and History (2016) 22, pp. 455–482
Mikhail, Alan, ‘Unleashing the beast: animals, energy, and the economy of labor in Ottoman Egypt’, American Historical Review (2013) 118, pp. 317–348
Beattie, James, Melillo, Edward and O'Gorman, Emily, ‘Rethinking the British Empire through eco-cultural networks: materialist–cultural environmental history, relational connections and agency’, Environment and History (2014) 20, pp. 561–575
100 For some species-specific books covering European empires in Asia and Africa see
Bankoff, Greg and Swart, Sandra (eds.), Breeds of Empire: The ‘Invention’ of the Horse in Southeast Asia and Southern Africa, 1500–1950, Copenhagen: Nordic Institute of Asian Studies Press, 2007
Van Sittert, Lance and Swart, Sandra Scott (eds.), Canis Africanis: A Dog History of Southern Africa, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2007
Boomgaard, Peter, Frontiers of Fear: Tigers and People in the Malay World, 1600–1950, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008
Skabelund, Aaron Herald, Empire of Dogs: Canines, Japan, and the Making of the Modern Imperial World, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2011
Cribb, Robert, Gilbert, Helen and Tiffin, Helen, Wild Man from Borneo: A Cultural History of the Orangutan, Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2014
Hussain, Shafqat, ‘Forms of predation: tiger and markhor hunting in colonial governance’, Modern Asian Studies (2012) 46, pp. 1212–1238
Sharma, Varun and Agnimitra, Neera, ‘Making and unmaking the endangered in India (1880–present): understanding animal–criminal processes’, Conservation and Society (2015) 13, pp. 105–118
Mandala, Vijaya Ramadas, ‘The Raj and the paradoxes of wildlife conservation: British attitudes and expediencies’, Historical Journal (2015) 58, pp. 75–110
102 Sivasundaram, op. cit. (68), pp. 27–63.