Acarturk, C, Konuk, E, Cetinkaya, M, et al. (2015) EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial. European Journal of Psychotraumatology, 6: 1–9.
Acarturk, C, Konuk, E, Cetinkaya, M, et al. (2016) The efficacy of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing for posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among Syrian refugees: results of a randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 46: 2583–93.
Alsaadi, SM, McAuley, JH, Hush, JM, et al. (2014) The bidirectional relationship between pain intensity and sleep disturbance/quality in patients with low back pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 30: 755–65.
Al-Smadi, AM, Tawalbeh, LI, Gammoh, OS, et al. (2017) The prevalence and the predictors of insomnia among refugees. Journal of Health Psychology, Jan 1: doi 10.1177/1359105316687631 [Epub ahead of print].
American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM-5). American Psychiatric Publishing.
Babson, KA, Feldner, MT (2010) Temporal relations between sleep problems and both traumatic event exposure and PTSD: a critical review of the empirical literature. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24: 1–15.
Baird, E, Williams, ACC, Hearn, L, et al. (2016) Interventions for treating persistent pain in survivors of torture. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 8: CD012051 (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012051.pub2).
Basishvili, T, Eliozishvili, M, Maisuradze, L, et al. (2012) Insomnia in a displaced population is related to war-associated remembered stress. Stress and Health, 28: 186–92.
Belleville, G, Guay, S, Marchand, A (2009) Impact of sleep disturbances on PTSD symptoms and perceived health. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 197: 126–32.
Boehnlein, JK, Kinzie, JD (2007) Pharmacologic reduction of CNS noradrenergic activity in PTSD: the case for clonidine and prazosin. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 13: 72–8.
Bogic, M, Njoku, A, Priebe, S (2015) Long-term mental health of war-refugees: a systematic literature review. BMC International Health and Human Rights, 15: 29.
Bolton, P, Lee, C, Haroz, EE, et al. (2014) A transdiagnostic community-based mental health treatment for comorbid disorders: development and outcomes of a randomized controlled trial among Burmese refugees in Thailand. PLoS Medicine, 11(11): e1001757.
Brady, B, Veljanova, I, Schabrun, S, et al. (2018) Integrating culturally informed approaches into physiotherapy assessment and treatment of chronic pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial. BMJ Open, 8(7): e021999.
Bryant, RA, Creamer, M, O'Donnell, M, et al. (2010) Sleep disturbance immediately prior to trauma predicts subsequent psychiatric disorder. Sleep, 33: 69–74.
Buhman, C, Mortensen, EL, Lundstrøm, S, et al. (2014) Symptoms, quality of life and level of functioning of traumatized refugees at psychiatric trauma clinic in Copenhagen. Torture, 24: 25–39.
Buhmann, CB, Nordentoft, M, Ekstroem, M, et al. (2016) The effect of flexible cognitive-behavioural therapy and medical treatment, including antidepressants on post-traumatic stress disorder and depression in traumatised refugees: pragmatic randomised controlled clinical trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 208: 252–9.
Coffey, GJ, Kaplan, I, Sampson, RC, et al. (2010) The meaning and mental health consequences of long-term immigration detention for people seeking asylum. Social Science & Medicine, 70: 2070–9.
Corvo, K, Peterson, J (2005) Post-traumatic stress symptoms, language acquisition, and self-sufficiency. Journal of Social Work, 5: 205–19.
Cregg, R, Giovanna, R, Gubbay, A, et al. (2013) Pharmacogenetics of analgesic drugs. British Journal of Pain, 7: 189–208.
Crumlish, N, Bracken, P (2011) Mental health and the asylum process. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine, 28: 57–60.
Davidson, GR, Murray, KE, Schweitzer, R (2008) Review of refugee mental health and wellbeing: Australian perspectives. Australian Psychologist, 43: 160–74.
Dean, L (2012) Codeine therapy and CYP2D6 genotype. In Medical Genetics Summaries (eds Pratt, V, McLeod, H, Rubinstein, W, et al). National Center for Biotechnology Information (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK100662). Accessed 28 Dec 2018.
Defrin, R, Lahav, Y, Solomon, Z (2017) Dysfunctional pain modulation in torture survivors: the mediating effect of PTSD. Journal of Pain, 18: 1–10.
Denk, F, McMahon, SB, Tracey, I (2014) Pain vulnerability: a neurobiological perspective. Nature Neuroscience, 17: 192–200.
Fairholme, CP, Manber, R (2015) Sleep, emotions, and emotion regulation: an overview. In Sleep and Affect: Assessment, Theory, and Clinical Implications (eds Babson, KA, Feldner, MT): 45–61. Elsevier.
Finan, PH, Goodin, BR, Smith, MT (2013) The association of sleep and pain: an update and a path forward. Journal of Pain, 14: 1539–52.
Galovski, TE, Monson, C, Bruce, SE, et al. (2009) Does cognitive–behavioral therapy for PTSD improve perceived health and sleep impairment? Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22: 197–204.
Generaal, E, Vogelzangs, N, Macfarlane, GJ, et al. (2016) Biological stress systems, adverse life events and the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain: a 6-year cohort study. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 75: 847–54.
Germain, A, Buysse, DJ, Nofzinger, E (2008) Sleep-specific mechanisms underlying posttraumatic stress disorder: integrative review and neurobiological hypotheses. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12: 185–95.
Germain, A (2013) Sleep disturbances as the hallmark of PTSD: where are we now? American Journal of Psychiatry, 170: 372–82.
Grace, PM, Hutchinson, MR, Maier, SF, et al. (2014) Pathological pain and the neuroimmune interface. Nature Reviews Immunology, 14: 217–31.
Harvey, AG, Bryant, RA (1998) The relationship between acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder: a prospective evaluation of motor vehicle accident survivors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66: 507–12.
Hasanović, M, Pajević, I, Sinanović, O (2017) Spiritual and religious Islamic perspectives of healing of posttraumatic stress disorder. Insights on the Depression and Anxiety, 1: 023–9.
Hensel-Dittmann, D, Schauer, M, Ruf, M, et al. (2011) Treatment of traumatized victims of war and torture: a randomized controlled comparison of narrative exposure therapy and stress inoculation training. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 80: 345–52.
Hijazi, AM, Lumley, MA, Ziadni, MS, et al. (2014) Brief narrative exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress in Iraqi refugees: a preliminary randomized clinical trial. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 27: 314–22.
Hinton, DE, Chhean, D, Pich, V, et al. (2005) A randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavior therapy for Cambodian refugees with treatment-resistant PTSD and panic attacks: a cross-over design. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18: 617–29.
Ho, RC, Ho, EC, Tai, BC, et al. (2014) Elderly suicide with and without a history of suicidal behavior: implications for suicide prevention and management. Archives of Suicide Research, 18: 363–75.
Janig, W, Chapman, C, Green, P (2006) Pain and body protection: sensory, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioural mechanisms in control of inflammation and hyperalgesia. In Proceedings of the 11th World Congress on Pain (eds Flor, H, Kalso, E, Dostrovsky, JO): 331–47. IASP Press.
Jespersen, KV, Vuust, P (2012) The effect of relaxation music listening on sleep quality in traumatized refugees: a pilot study. Journal of Music Therapy, 49: 205–29.
Jones, LE (2017) Stress, pain and recovery: neuro-immune-endocrine interactions and clinical practice. In Psychologically-Informed Physiotherapy: Embedding Psychosocial Perspectives within Clinical Management (ed Porter, S): 78–106. Elsevier.
Kahl, F, Frewer, A (2017) [Medical treatment of newly arrived refugees in Erlangen: a study of drug prescription rates focused on psychotropic drugs] [Article in German]. Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie, 67: 119–25.
Karsten, J, Hagenauw, LA, Kamphuis, J, et al. (2017) Low doses of mirtazapine or quetiapine for transient insomnia: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 31: 327–37.
Kienzler, H (2008) Debating war-trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in an interdisciplinary arena. Social Science & Medicine, 67: 218–27.
Kim, HJ, Yu, SH (2015) Effects of complex manual therapy on PTSD, pain, function, and balance of male torture survivors with chronic low back pain. Journal of Physical Therapy Science, 27: 2763–6.
Kinzie, JD, Sack, RL, Riley, CM (1994) The polysomnographic effects of clonidine on sleep disorders in posttraumatic stress disorder: a pilot study with Cambodian patients. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 182: 585–7.
Kirchheiner, J, Schmidt, H, Tzvetkov, M, et al. (2007) Pharmacokinetics of codeine and its metabolite morphine in ultra-rapid metabolizers due to CYP2D6 duplication. Pharmacogenomics Journal, 7: 257–65.
Koren, D, Arnon, I, Lavie, P, et al. (2002) Sleep complaints as early predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder: a 1-year prospective study of injured survivors of motor vehicle accidents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159: 855–7.
Krakow, B, Zadra, A (2010) Imagery rehearsal therapy: principles and practice. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 5: 289–98.
Lambert, JE, Alhassoon, OM (2015) Trauma-focused therapy for refugees: meta-analytic findings. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62: 28–37.
Lavie, P (2001) Sleep disturbances in the wake of traumatic events. New England Journal of Medicine, 345: 1825–32.
Leskin, GA, Woodward, SH, Young, HE, et al. (2002) Effects of comorbid diagnoses on sleep disturbance in PTSD. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 36: 449–52.
Lewis, JD (2002) Mirtazapine for PTSD nightmares. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159: 1948–9.
Li, SSY, Liddell, BJ, Nickerson, A (2016) The relationship between post-migration stress and psychological disorders in refugees and asylum seekers. Current Psychiatry Reports, 18(9): 82.
Lies, J, Drummond, SPA (2017) Prevalence study of sleep disturbance, mental health, and psychosocial concerns among asylum seekers and refugees. Journal of Sleep Research, 26(suppl 1): 45–6.
Liu-Barbaro, D, Stein, M (2015) Psychopharmacologic treatment of dissociative fugue and PTSD in an Ethiopian refugee. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 76: 958.
Lu, CY, Liu, X, Jiang, H, et al. (2017) Effects of traumatic stress induced in the juvenile period on the expression of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor type A subunits in adult rat brain. Neural Plasticity, 2017: 5715816.
Lu, Y, Ho, CS, McIntyre, RS, et al. (2018a) Agomelatine-induced modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the rat hippocampus. Life Sciences, 210: 177–84.
Lu, Y, Ho, CS, McIntyre, RS, et al. (2018b) Effects of vortioxetine and fluoxetine on the level of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factors (BDNF) in the hippocampus of chronic unpredictable mild stress-induced depressive rats. Brain Research Bulletin 142: 1–7.
Maher, MJ, Rego, SA, Asnis, GM (2006) Sleep disturbances in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder: epidemiology, impact and approaches to management. CNS Drugs, 20: 567–90.
McBeth, J, Lacey, RJ, Wilkie, R (2014) Predictors of new-onset widespread pain in older adults: results from a population-based prospective cohort study in the UK. Arthritis & Rheumatology, 66: 757–67.
McColl, H, McKenzie, K, Bhui, K (2008) Mental healthcare of asylum-seekers and refugees. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 14: 452–9.
Melzack, R, Katz, J (2013) Pain. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 4(1): 1–15.
Moeller-Bertram, T, Keltner, J, Strigo, IA (2012) Pain and post traumatic stress disorder – review of clinical and experimental evidence. Neuropharmacology, 62: 586–97.
Morhenn, V, Beavin, LE, Zak, PJ (2012) Massage increases oxytocin and reduces adrenocorticotropin hormone in humans. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, 18: 11–8.
Morina, N, Egloff, N (2015) The complexity of chronic pain in traumatized people: diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. In Evidence-Based Treatments for Trauma-Related Psychological Disorders (eds Schnyder, U, Cloitre, M): 347–60. Springer.
Morina, N, Kuenburg, A, Schnyder, U, et al. (2017) The association of post-traumatic and post-migration stress with pain and other somatic symptoms: an explorative analysis in traumatized refugees and asylum seekers. Pain Medicine, 19: 50–9.
Nappi, CM, Drummond, SPA, Hall, JMH (2012) Treating nightmares and insomnia in posttraumatic stress disorder: a review of current evidence. Neuropharmacology, 62: 576–85.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (2018) Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder . NICE.
Negron, A (2018) Supporting asylum seekers and refugees who suffer chronic pain: an experience. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 14: 55–67.
Nicholas, MK, Blyth, FM (2016) Are self-management strategies effective in chronic pain treatment? Pain Management, 6: 75–88.
Neuner, F, Schauer, M, Roth, WT, Elbert, T (2002) A narrative exposure treatment as intervention in a refugee camp: a case report. Behav Cogn Psychother, 30: 205–9.
Neuner, F, Schauer, M, Klaschik, C, Karunakara, U, Elbert, T (2004) A comparison of narrative exposure therapy, supportive counseling, and psycheducation for treating posttraumatic stress disorder in an African refugee settlement. J Consult Clin Psychol, 72: 579–87.
Nickerson, A, Bryant, RA, Silove, D, et al. (2011) A critical review of psychological treatments of posttraumatic stress disorder in refugees. Clinical Psychology Review, 31: 399–417.
Nickerson, M (2016) Cultural Competence and Healing Culturally Based Trauma with EMDR Therapy. Springer.
Niti, M, Ng, TP, Kua, EH, et al. (2007) Depression and chronic medical illnesses in Asian older adults: the role of subjective health and functional status. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 11: 1087–94.
Pedersen, D (2002) Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: broad implications for health and social well-being. Social Science & Medicine, 55: 175–90.
Pedersen, D, Tremblay, J, Errázuriz, C, et al. (2008) The sequelae of political violence: assessing trauma, suffering and dislocation in the Peruvian highlands. Social Science & Medicine, 67: 205–17.
Persson, K, Sjöström, S, Sigurdardottir, I, et al. (1995) Patient controlled analgesia (PCA) with codeine for postoperative pain relief in ten extensive metabolisers and one poor metaboliser of dextromethorphan. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 39: 182–6.
Porter, M (2007) Global evidence for a biopsychosocial understanding of refugee adaptation. Transcultural Psychiatry, 44: 418–39.
Puri, B, Hall, A, Ho, R (2013) Revision Notes in Psychiatry (3rd edn). CRC Press.
Ramamoorthy, A, Flockhart, DA, Hosono, N, et al. (2010) Differential quantification of CYP2D6 gene copy number by four different quantitative real-time PCR assays. Pharmacogenetics and Genomics, 20: 451–4.
Ravn, SL, Sterling, M, Lahav, Y, et al. (2018) Reciprocal associations of pain and post-traumatic stress symptoms after whiplash injury: a longitudinal, cross-lagged study. European Journal of Pain, 22: 926–34.
Roth, S, Newman, E, Pelcovitz, D, et al. (1997) Complex PTSD in victims exposed to sexual and physical abuse: results from the DSM-IV Field Trial for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 10: 539–55.
Sandahl, H, Jennum, P, Baandrup, L, et al. (2017) Treatment of sleep disturbances in trauma-affected refugees: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 18: 520.
Spoormaker, VI, Montgomery, P (2008) Disturbed sleep in post-traumatic stress disorder: secondary symptom or core feature? Sleep Medicine Reviews, 12: 169–84.
Steel, Z, Chey, T, Silove, D, et al. (2009) Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 302: 537–49.
Stein, DJ, Ipser, JC, Seedat, S (2006) Pharmacotherapy for post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1: CD002795 (doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD002795.pub2).
Stenmark, H, Catani, C, Neuner, F, et al. (2013) Treating PTSD in refugees and asylum seekers within the general health care system. A randomized controlled multicenter study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 51: 641–47.
Straus, LD, Drummond, SPA, Nappi, CM, et al. (2015) Sleep variability in military-related PTSD: a comparison to primary insomnia and healthy controls. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 28: 8–16.
Summerfield, D (1999) A critique of seven assumptions behind psychological trauma programmes in war-affected areas. Social Science & Medicine, 48: 1449–62.
Taylor, B, Carswell, K, Williams, ACC (2013) The interaction of persistent pain and post-traumatic re-experiencing: a qualitative study in torture survivors. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 46: 546–55.
Teodorescu, D-S, Heir, T, Siqveland, J, et al. (2015) Chronic pain in multi-traumatized outpatients with a refugee background resettled in Norway: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychology, 3(1): 7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40359-015-0064-5.
Ter Heide, FJ, Mooren, TM, Kleber, RJ (2016) Complex PTSD and phased treatment in refugees: a debate piece. Eur J Psychotraumatol, 7: 28689.
Thompson, CT, Vidgen, A, Roberts, NP (2018) Psychological interventions for post-traumatic stress disorder in refugees and asylum seekers: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 63: 66–79.
Turrini, G, Purgato, M, Ballette, F, et al. (2017) Common mental disorders in asylum seekers and refugees: umbrella review of prevalence and intervention studies. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 11: 51.
van Liempt, S, van Zuiden, M, Westenberg, H, et al. (2013) Impact of impaired sleep on the development of PTSD symptoms in combat veterans: a prospective longitudinal cohort study. Depression and Anxiety, 30: 469–74.
Walker, MP (2009) The role of sleep in cognition and emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156: 168–97.
Westermeyer, JJ, Campbell, R, Lien, R, et al. (2010) HADStress: a somatic symptom screen for posttraumatic stress among Somali refugees. Psychiatric Services, 61: 1132–37.
Willard, CL, Rabin, M, Lawless, M (2014) The prevalence of torture and associated symptoms in United States Iraqi refugees. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 16: 1069–76.
Williams, ACC, Amris, K (2017) Treatment of persistent pain from torture: review and commentary. Medicine Conflict and Survival, 33: 60–81.
Wilson, RM, Murtaza, R, Shakya, YB (2010) Pre-migration and post-migration determinants of mental health for newly arrived refugees in Toronto. Canadian Issues/Thèmes Canadiens, Summer: 45–9.
Wuest, J, Ford-Gilboe, M, Merritt-Gray, M (2010) Pathways of chronic pain in survivors of intimate partner violence. Journal of Women's Health, 19: 1665–74.
Zayfert, C, DeViva, JC (2004) Residual insomnia following cognitive behavioral therapy for PTSD. J Trauma Stress, 17: 69–73.