Agrawal, N, Govender, S (2011) Epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 17: 44–53.
Alemayehu, S, Bergey, GK, Barry, E, et al (1995) Panic attacks as ictal manifestations of parietal lobe seizures. Epilepsia, 36: 824–30.
Alper, K, Devinsky, O, Westbrook, L, et al (2001) Premorbid psychiatric risk factors for postictal psychosis. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 13: 492–9.
Andersohn, F, Schade, R, Willich, SN, et al (2010) Use of antiepileptic drugs in epilepsy and the risk of self-harm or suicidal behavior. Neurology, 75: 335–40.
Asprodini, EK, Rainnie, DG, Shinnick-Gallagher, P (1992) Epileptogenesis reduces the sensitivity of presynaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid B receptors on glutamatergic afferents in the amygdala. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 262: 1011–21.
Baghai, TC, Moller, HJ (2008) Electroconvulsive therapy and its different indications. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 10: 105–17.
Bear, DM, Fedio, P (1977) Quantitative analysis of interictal behavior in temporal lobe epilepsy. Archives of Neurology, 34: 454–67.
Belcastro, V, Costa, C, Galletti, F, et al (2008) Levetiracetam in newly diagnosed late-onset post-stroke seizures: a prospective observational study. Epilepsy Research, 82: 223–6.
Beyenburg, S, Mitchell, AJ, Schmidt, D, et al (2005) Anxiety in patients with epilepsy: systematic review and suggestions for clinical management. Epilepsy & Behavior, 7: 161–71.
Biraben, A, Taussig, D, Thomas, P, et al (2001) Fear as the main feature of epileptic seizures. eJournal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 70: 186–91.
Blanchet, P, Frommer, GP (1986) Mood change preceding epileptic seizures. eJournal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 174: 471–6.
Bogdanovic, MD, Mead, SH, Duncan, JS (2000) Aggressive behaviour at a residential epilepsy centre. Seizure, 9: 58–64.
Boyd, MA (2011) Psychiatric Nursing: Contemporary Practice (5th edn). Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Brandt, C, Fueratsch, N, Boehme, V, et al (2007) Development of psychosis in patients with epilepsy treated with lamotrigine: report of six cases and review of the literature. Epilepsy & Behavior, 11: 133–9.
Brodie, MJ, Besag, F, Ettinger, AB, et al (2016) Epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs, and aggression: an evidence-based review. Pharmacological Reviews, 68: 563–602.
Broicher, S, Kuchukhidze, G, Grunwald, T, et al (2010) Association between structural abnormalities and fMRI response in the amygdala in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizure, 19: 426–31.
Bronsard, G, Bartolomei, F (2013) Rhythms, rhythmicity and aggression. Journal of Physiology (Paris), 107: 327–34.
Catalano, G, Catalano, MC, Hanley, PF (1998) Seizures associated with buspirone overdose: case report and literature review. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 21: 347–50.
Cavanna, AE, Ali, F, Rickards, HE, et al (2010) Behavioral and cognitive effects of anti-epileptic drugs. Discovery Medicine, 9: 138–44.
Cramer, JA, De Rue, K, Devinsky, O, et al (2003) A systematic review of the behavioral effects of levetiracetam in adults with epilepsy, cognitive disorders, or an anxiety disorder during clinical trials. Epilepsy & Behavior, 4: 124–32.
de la Loge, C, Hunter, SJ, Schiemann, J, et al (2010) Assessment of behavioral and emotional functioning using standardized instruments in children and adolescents with partial-onset seizures treated with adjunctive levetiracetam in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Epilepsy & Behavior, 18: 291–8.
Devinsky, O (1991) Interictal behavioral changes in epilepsy. In Epilepsy and Behavior (eds Devinsky, O, Theodore, WH): 1–21. Wiley–Liss.
Drevets, WC (1998) Functional neuroimaging studies of depression: the anatomy of melancholia. Annual Review of Medicine, 49: 341–61.
Dursun, SM, Mathew, VM, Reveley, MA (1993) Toxic serotonin syndrome after fluoxetine plus carbamazepine. Lancet, 342: 442–3.
Elger, G, Hoppe, C, Falkai, P, et al (2000) Vagus nerve stimulation is associated with mood improvements in epilepsy patients. Epilepsy Research, 42: 203–10.
Engel, J, Shewmon, DA (1991) Impact of the kindling phenomenon on clinical epileptology. In Kindling and Synaptic Plasticity: The Legacy of Graham Goddard (ed Morrell, F): 195–210. Birkhauser.
Engel, J Jr (1993) Update on surgical treatment of the epilepsies: summary of the Second International Palm Desert Conference on the Surgical Treatment of the Epilepsies (1992). Neurology, 43: 1612–17.
Engel, J, Wilson, C, Lopez-Rodriguez, F (2002) Limbic connectivity: anatomical substrates of behavioural disturbances in epilepsy. In The Neuropsychiatry of Epilepsy (eds Trimble, M, Schmitz, B): 18–37. Cambridge University Press.
Eron, LD, Gruder, CL (1977) Some topics closely related to the study of abnormal behavior: aggression and fantasy. In Abnormality: Experimental and Clinical Approaches (eds Reiss, S, Peterson, RA, Eron, LD, et al): 579–638. Macmillan.
Ettinger, A, Reed, M, Cramer, J (2004) Depression and comorbidity in community-based patients with epilepsy or asthma. Neurology, 63: 1008–14.
Fakhoury, TA, Miller, JM, Hammer, AE, et al (2008) Effects of lamotrigine on mood in older adults with epilepsy and co-morbid depressive symptoms: an open-label, multicentre, prospective study. Drugs & Aging, 25: 955–62.
Franzini, A, Messina, G, Cordella, R, et al (2010) Deep brain stimulation of the posteromedial hypothalamus: indications, long-term results, and neurophysiological considerations. Neurosurgical Focus, 29(2): E13.
Gardner, DL, Cowdry, RW (1986) Positive effects of carbamazepine on behavioral dyscontrol in borderline personality disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143: 519–22.
Gazdag, G, Barna, I, Iványi, Z, et al (2004) The impact of neuroleptic medication on seizure threshold and duration in electroconvulsive therapy. Ideggyogyaszati Szemle, 57: 385–90.
Gean, P-W, Chang, F-C, Huang, C-C, et al (1993) Longterm enhancement of EPSP and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the amygdala. Brain Research Bulletin, 31: 7–11.
Grimsley, SR, Jann, MW, Carter, JG, et al (1991) Increased carbamazepine plasma concentrations after fluoxetine coadministration. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 50: 10–5.
Hamed, SA (2007) Neuronal plasticity: implications in epilepsy progression and management. Drug Development Research, 68: 498–511.
Hamed, SA (2011) Psychiatric symptomatologies and disorders related to epilepsy and antiepileptic medications. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety, 10: 913–34.
Harden, CL, Lazar, LM, Pick, LH, et al (1999) A beneficial effect on mood in partial epilepsy patients treated with gabapentin. Epilepsia, 40: 1129–34.
Harvey, AT, Preskorn, SH (1996) Cytochrome P450 enzymes: interpretation of their interactions with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (part 1). Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16: 273–85.
Helmstaedter, C (2001) Behavioral aspects of frontal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 2: 384–95.
Helmstaedter, C, Fritz, NE, Kockelmann, E, et al (2008) Positive and negative psychotropic effects of levetiracetam. Epilepsy & Behavior, 13: 535–41.
Hermann, BP, Chhabria, S (1980) Interictal psychopathology in patients with ictal fear: examples of sensory–limbic hyperconnection?
Archives of Neurology, 37: 667–8.
Hermann, BP, Whitman, S (1984) Behavioural and personality correlates of epilepsy: a review methodological critique, and conceptual model. Psychological Bulletin, 95: 451–92.
Huang, CC, Hsu, KS, Gean, PW (1996) Isoproterenol potentiates synaptic transmission primarily by enhancing presynaptic calcium influx via P- and/or Q-type calcium channels in the rat amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 16: 1026–33.
Jarzebska, E (2006) The personality change in epilepsy patients [paper in Polish]. Polski MerKuriusz Lekarsksi, 21: 345–7.
Kanemoto, K (1997) Periictal Capgras syndrome following clustered ictal fear. Epilepsia, 38: 847–50.
Kanemoto, K, Kawasaki, J, Mori, E (1999) Violence and epilepsy: a close relation between violence and postictal psychosis. Epilepsia, 40: 107–9.
Kanemoto, K, Tadokoro, Y, Oshima, T (2010) Violence and postictal psychosis: a comparison of postictal psychosis, interictal psychosis, and postictal confusion. Epilepsy & Behavior, 19: 162–6.
Kanner, AM, Stagno, S, Kotagal, P (1996) Postictal psychiatric events during prolonged video-electroencephalographic monitoring studies. Archives of Neurology, 53: 258–63.
Kanner, AM (2004) Recognition of the various expressions of anxiety, psychosis and aggression in epilepsy. Epilepsia, 45 (suppl 2): 22–7.
Kanner, AM, Trimble, M, Schmitz, B (2010) Postictal affective episodes. Epilepsy & Behavior, 19: 156–8.
Kavoussi, RJ, Coccaro, EF (1998) Divalproex sodium for impulsive aggressive behavior in patients with personality disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 59: 676–80.
Keele, NB (2005) The role of serotonin in impulsive and aggressive behaviors associated with epilepsy-like neuronal hyperexcitability in the amygdala. Epilepsy & Behavior, 7: 325–35.
Ketter, TA, Post, RM, Theodore, WH (1999) Positive and negative psychiatric effects of antiepileptic drugs in patients with seizure disorders. Neurology, 53 (suppl 2): S53–67.
Koneski, JA, Casella, EB (2010) Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder in people with epilepsy: diagnosis and implications to the treatment. Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria, 68: 107–14.
Korczyn, A, Schachter, S, Brodie, M, et al (2013) Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2). Epilepsy & Behavior, 28: 283–302.
Kuzniecky, R, Ho, S, Pan, J (2002) Modulation of cerebral GABA by topiramate, lamotrigine, and gabapentin in healthy adults. Neurology, 58: 368–72.
Leppik, IE, Gram, L, Deaton, R, et al (1999) Safety of tiagabine: summary of 53 trials. Epilepsy Research, 33: 235–46.
Lucena, MI, Blanco, E, Corrales, MA, et al (1998) Interaction of fluoxetine and valproic acid. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155: 575.
Mahanty, NK, Sah, P (1999) Excitatory synaptic inputs to pyramidal neurons of the lateral amygdala. European Journal of Neuroscience, 11: 1217–22.
Manchanda, R, Freeland, A, Schaefer, B, et al (2000) Auras, seizure focus, and psychiatric disorders. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 13: 13–9.
Maramattom, BV (2006) Duloxetine-induced syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and seizures. Neurology, 66: 773–4.
Marks, RC, Luchins, DJ (1991) Antipsychotic medications and seizures. Psychiatric Medicine, 9: 37–52.
McConnell, H, Snyder, PJ, Duffy, JD, et al (1996) Neuropsychiatric side effects related to felbamate. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 8: 341–6.
McConnell, H, Duncan, D (1998) Treatment of psychiatric comorbidity in epilepsy. In Psychiatric Comorbidity in Epilepsy: Basic Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Treatment (eds McConnell, H, Snyder, PJ): 245–36. American Psychiatric Press.
McKernan, MG, Shinnick-Gallagher, P (1997) Fear conditioning induces a lasting potentiation of synaptic currents in vitro. Nature, 390: 607–11.
Meador, KJ, Loring, DW, Hulihan, JF, et al (2003) Differential cognitive and behavioral effects of topiramate and valproate. Neurology, 60: 1483–8.
Mecarelli, O, Vicenzini, E, Pulitano, P, et al (2004) Clinical, cognitive and neurophysiologic correlates of short-term treatment with carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and levetiracetam in healthy volunteer. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38: 1816–22.
Mensah, SA, Beavis, JM, Thapar, AK (2006) The presence and clinical implications of depression in a community population of adults with epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 8: 213–9.
Monroe, R (1970) Episodic Behaviour Disorder.
Harvard University Press.
Moyer, KE (1968) Kinds of aggression and their physiological basis. Communications in Behavioral Biology, 2A: 65–87.
Mrabet, H, Mrabet, A, Zouari, B, et al (2004) Health-related quality of life of people with epilepsy compared with a general reference population: a Tunisian study. Epilepsia, 45: 838–43.
Mula, M, Schmitz, B (2009) Depression in epilepsy: mechanisms and therapeutic approach. Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders, 2: 337–44.
Mula, M, Marotta, AE, Monaco, F (2010) Epilepsy and bipolar disorders. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 10: 13–23.
Nadkarni, S, Devinsky, O (2005) Psychotropic effects of antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsy Currents, 5: 176–81.
Ninan, TN, Cole, JO, Yonkers, KA (1998) Nonbenzodiazepine anxiolytics. In Textbook of Psychopharmacology (2nd edn) (eds Schatzberg, AF, Nemeroff, CB): 287–300. American Psychiatric Press.
Opp, J, Tuxhorn, I, May, T, et al (2005) Levetiracetam in children with refractory epilepsy: a multicenter open label study in Germany. Seizure, 14: 476–84.
Piazzini, A, Bravi, F, Edefonti, V, et al (2012) Aggressive behavior and epilepsy: a multicenter study. Epilepsia, 53: e174–9.
Pisani, F, Oteri, G, Costa, C, et al (2002) Effects of psychotropic drugs on seizure threshold. Drug Safety, 25: 91–110.
Racine, RJ (1972) Modification of seizure activity by electrical stimulation. II. Motor seizure. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 32: 281–94.
Rainnie, DG, Asprodini, EK, Shinnick-Gallagher, P (1991a) Excitatory transmission in the basolateral amygdala. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66: 986–98.
Rainnie, DG, Asprodini, EK, Shinnick-Gallagher, P (1991b) Inhibitory transmission in the basolateral amygdala. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66: 999–1009.
Raju, SS, Gopalakrishna, HN, Venkatadri, N (1998) Effect of propranolol and nifedipine on maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice: individual and in combination. Pharmacological Research, 38: 449–52.
Rampling, J, Mitchell, AJ, Von Oertzen, T (2012) Screening for depression in epilepsy clinics: a comparison of conventional and visual-analog methods. Epilepsia, 53: 1713–21.
Riggio, S (2010) Traumatic brain injury and its neurobehavioral sequelae. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 33: 807–19.
Rogan, MT, Staubli, UV, LeDoux, JE (1997) Fear conditioning induces associative long-term potentiation in the amygdala. Nature, 390: 604–7.
Rugg-Gunn, F (2014) Adverse effects and safety profile of perampanel: a review of pooled data. Epilepsia, 55 (suppl 1): 13–5.
Schiemann-Delgado, J, Yang, H, de la Loge, C, et al (2012) A long-term open-label extension study assessing cognition and behavior, tolerability, safety, and efficacy of adjunctive levetiracetam in children aged 4 to 16 years with partial-onset seizures. Journal of Child Neurology, 27: 80–9.
Shinnick-Gallagher, P, Keele, NB, Neugebauer, V (1998) Long-lasting changes in the pharmacology and electrophysiology of amino acid receptors in amygdala kindled neurons. In Kindling 5 (eds Corcoran, M, Moshe, S): 75–87. Plenum Press.
So, NK, Savard, G, Andermann, F, et al (1990) Acute postictal psychosis: a stereo EEG study. Epilepsia, 31: 188–93.
Stanford, MS, Houston, RJ, Mathias, CW, et al (2001) A double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study of phenytoin in individuals with impulsive aggression. Psychiatry Research, 103: 193–203.
Steriade, M (2000) Corticothalamic resonance, states of vigilance and mentation. Neuroscience, 101: 243–76.
Takeda, Y, Inoue, Y, Tottori, T, et al (2001) Acute psychosis during intracranial EEG monitoring: close relationship between psychotic symptoms and discharges in amygdala. Epilepsia, 42: 719–24.
Townsend, MC (2005) Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing: Concepts of Care (5th edn). FA Dais.
Treiman, DM (1986) Epilepsy and violence: medical and legal issues. Epilepsia
27 (suppl 2): S77–104.
Treiman, DM (1999) Violence and the epilepsy defense. Neurologic Clinics, 17: 245–55.
Trimble, M (2013) Treatment issues for personality disorders in epilepsy. Epilepsia, 54 (suppl 1): 41–5.
van Elst, LT, Woermann, FG, Lemieux, L, et al (2000) Affective aggression in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy: a quantitative MRI study of the amygdala. Brain, 123: 234–43.
van Elst, LT, Groffmann, M, Ebert, D, et al (2009) Amygdala volume loss in patients with dysphoric disorder of epilepsy. Epilepsy & Behavior, 16: 105–12.
Wang, SJ, Gean, PW (1999) Long-term depression of excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat amygdala. Journal of Neuroscience, 19: 10 656–63.
Wedin, GP, Oderda, GM, Klein-Schwartz, W, et al (1986) Relative toxicity of cyclic antidepressants. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 15: 797–804.
Wieser, HG, Hailemariam, S, Regard, M (1985) Unilateral limbic epileptic status activity: stereo-EEG, behavioral, and cognitive data. Epilepsia, 26: 19–29.
Wolf, P, Trimble, MR (1985) Biological antagonism and epileptic psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 146: 272–6.
Yanai, J, Fares, F, Gavish, M, et al (1989) Neural and behavioral alterations after early exposure to phenobarbital. Neurotoxicology, 10: 543–54.
Youroukos, S, Lazopoulou, D, Michelakou, D, et al (2003) Acute psychosis associated with levetiracetam. Epileptic Disorders, 5: 117–9.
Yudofsky, SC, Silver, JM, Hales, RE (1997) Treatment of agitation and aggression. In American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Neuropsychiatry (eds Yudofsky, SC, Hales, RE): 881–900. American Psychiatric Press.