Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009

  • Keith R. Linsley (a1), Martin A. Schapira (a2), Kurt Schapira (a2) and Clare Lister (a1)
Abstract
Aims and method

To ascertain differences in patterns of suicide in young men over three decades (1960s, 1990s and 2000s) and discuss implications for suicide prevention. Data on suicides and open verdicts in men aged 15–34 were obtained from coroner's records in Newcastle upon Tyne and analysed using SPSS software.

Results

An increase in suicide rates from the first to the second decade was followed by a fall in the third decade. This was associated with an increasing proportion of single men, those living alone, unemployment, consumption of alcohol, use of hanging, previous suicide attempt and history of treatment for mental illness.

Clinical implications

This study highlights the need for more interventions and focus to be given to young males in the suicide prevention area and is of high importance in the field of public health. Areas that could be tackled include reducing access to means of suicide, reducing alcohol use, support for relationship difficulties, engagement with mental health services and management of chronic illness.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an open-access article published by the Royal College of Psychiatrists and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Correspondence to Keith R. Linsley (keith.linsley@nhs.net)
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

None.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Schapira, K, Linsley, KR, Linsley, JA, Kelly, TP, Kay, DWK. Relationship of suicide rates to social factors and availability of lethal methods. Comparison of suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne 1961–1965 and 1985–1994. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 458–64.
2 Crawford, MJ, Prince, M. Increasing rates of suicide in young men in England during the 1980's: the importance of social context. Soc Sci Med 1999; 49: 1419–29.
3 Gunnell, D, Wheeler, B, Chang, S-S, Thomas, B, Sterne, JAC, Dorling, D. Changes in the geography of suicide in young men: England and Wales 1981–2005. J Epidemiol Community Health 2012; 66: 536–43.
4 Department of Health. Saving Lives: Our Healthier Nation (Command Paper). TSO (The Stationery Office), 1999.
5 Linsley, KR, Schapira, K, Kelly, TP. Open verdict v. suicide – importance to research. Br J Psychiatry 2001; 178: 465–8.
6 General Register Office. County Reports: Table 6, Northumberland. In Census 1961: p. 16. HMSO, 1963.
7 Office of Population Censuses and Surveys. County Reports Part 1: Table 2, Tyne and Wear. In 1991 Census: p. 52. HMSO, 1992.
8 Office for National Statistics. Population Estimates for UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, Mid-2001 Local Authority Population Studies: Reference Tables. ONS, 2007. Available at http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-162553 (accessed July 2015).
9 Durkheim, E. Suicide. Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952.
10 Whitley, E, Gunnell, D, Dorling, D, Davey Smith, G. Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty and suicide. BMJ 1999; 319: 1034–7.
11 Graham, C, Burvill, PW. A study of coroner's records of suicide in young people in Western Australia, 1986–88. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 1992; 26: 30–9.
12 Gunnell, D, Lopatatzidis, A, Dorling, D, Wehner, H, Southall, H, Frankel, S. Suicide and unemployment in young people. Analysis of trends in England and Wales, 1921–1995. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175: 263–70.
13 Hawton, K, Houston, K, Shepperd, R. Suicide in young people. Study of 174 cases, aged under 25 years, based on coroners' and medical records. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175: 271–6.
14 Appleby, L, Cooper, J, Amos, T, Faragher, B. Psychological autopsy study of suicides by people aged under 35. Br J Psychiatry 1999; 175: 168–74.
15 Hawton, K, Simkin, S, Deeks, J, Cooper, J, Johnston, A, Waters, K, et al. UK legislation on analgesic packs: before and after study of long term effects on poisonings. BMJ 2004; 329: 1076–9.
16 Clarke, RV, Lester, D. Toxicity of car exhausts and opportunity for suicide: comparison between Britain and the United States. J Epidemiol Community Health 1987; 41: 114–20.
17 Amos, T, Appleby, L, Kiurman, K. Changes in rates of suicide by car exhaust asphyxiation in England and Wales. Psychol Med 2001; 31: 935–9.
18 Biddle, L, Brock, A, Brookes, ST, Gunnell, D. Suicide rates in young men in England and Wales in the 21st century: time trend study. BMJ 2008; 336: 539–42.
19 Kosky, RJ, Dundas, P. Death by hanging: implications for prevention of an important method of youth suicide. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2000; 34: 836–41.
20 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Depression in Adults: The Treatment and Management of Depression in Adults (CG90). NICE, 2009.
21 Taylor, S, Napier, J, Turkington, D, Gray, A, Hume, K. Hotspot signage reduces calls to police negotiators (letter). BMJ 2010; 341: c3054.
22 Squires, T, Gorman, D. Suicide by young men in Lothian 1993 and 1994. Health Bull 1996; 54: 458–66.
23 Department of Health. Mental Health Policy Implementation Guide: Dual Diagnosis Good Practice Guide. Department of Health, 2002.
24 Foster, T. Dying for a drink (editorial). BMJ 2001; 323: 817–8.
25 Donaldson, L. Identifying alcohol misuse in healthcare settings. CMO Update 2006; 45: 7.
26 Vassilas, CA, Morgan, HG. General practitioners' contact with victims of suicide. BMJ 1993; 307: 300–1.
27 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Self-Harm: The Short-Term Physical and Psychological Management and Secondary Prevention of Self-Harm in Primary and Secondary Care (CG16). NICE, 2004.
28 Bazalgette, L, Bradley, W, Ousbey, J. The Truth about Suicide. Demos, 2011.
29 Linsley, K, Martin, J. Low back pain: risk factors for suicide should be elicited (letter). BMJ 2006; 333: 201.
30 Hawton, K. By their own young hand. BMJ 1992; 304: 1000.
31 Department of Health. Preventing Suicide in England: A Cross-Government Outcomes Strategy to Save Lives. HM Government, 2012.
32 Appleby, L, Amos, T, Doyle, U, Tomenson, B, Woodman, M. General practitioners and young suicides: a preventive role for primary care. Br J Psychiatry 1996; 168: 330–3.
33 Schapira, K, Davison, K, Huq, Z. The role of the family doctor in the prevention of suicidal attempts: aspects of suicide in modern civilisation. In Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Suicide Prevention and Crisis Intervention (eds Winnik, HZ, Miller, I): 183–9. Jerusalem Academic Press, 1978.
34 Linsley, KR, Johnson, N, Martin, J. Police contact within 3 months of suicide and associated health service contact. Br J Psychiatry 2007; 190: 170–1.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Bulletin
  • ISSN: 2056-4694
  • EISSN: 2056-4708
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-bulletin
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 175 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 20th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009

  • Keith R. Linsley (a1), Martin A. Schapira (a2), Kurt Schapira (a2) and Clare Lister (a1)
Submit a response

eLetters

Paracetamol and risk factors in Newcastle

Dr Alasdair J Macdonald, Retired consultant psychiatrist, None
29 June 2016

Restrictions on easy access to paracetamol have reduced death from paracetamol overdose in the UK. However, figures from Newcastle show that hanging and jumping deaths have become more common (1). Since paracetamol overdoses are usually not instantly fatal, second thoughts are possible. This is not the case with hanging and jumping. Is this an unintended consequence of paracetamol restrictions? Treating paracetamol overdose is expensive for the National Health Service but surely it is a worthwhile expenditure. Does this make a case for easing restrictions on access to paracetamol?

Reference

1 - Changes in risk factors for young male suicide in Newcastle upon Tyne, 1961–2009. Linsley KR, Schapira MA, Schapira K, Lister C. BJPsych Bull 2016; 40: 136-141

... More

Conflict of interest: None Declared

Write a reply

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *