1Potter, N. Mapping the Edges and the In-Between: A Critical Analysis of Borderline Personality Disorder. International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry. Oxford University Press, 2013.
2Tyrer, P, Reed, GM, Crawford, MJ. Classification, assessment, prevalence, and effect of personality disorder. Lancet 2015; 385: 717–26.
3Bender, DS, Dolan, RT, Skodol, AE, Sanislow, CA, Dyck, IR, McGlashan, TH, et al. Treatment utilization by patients with personality disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2001; 158: 295–302.
4Soetman, DI, Hakkaart-van Roijen, L, Verheul, R, Busschbach, JJ. The economic burden of personality disorders in mental health care. J Clin Psychiatry 2008; 69: 259–65.
5Coid, J, Yang, M, Tyrer, P, Roberts, A, Ullrich, S. Prevalence and correlates of personality disorder in Great Britain. Br J Psychiatry 2006; 188: 423–31.
6Huang, Y, Kotov, R, de Girolamo, G, Preti, A, Angermeyer, M, Benjet, C, et al. DSM–IV personality disorders in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Br J Psychiatry 2009; 195: 46–53.
7Sharan, P. An overview of Indian research in personality disorders. Indian J Psychiatry 2010; 52: 250–4.
8Moran, P, Jenkins, R, Tylee, A, Blizard, R, Mann, A. The prevalence of personality disorder among UK primary care attenders. Acta Psychiatr Scand 2000; 102: 55–7.
9Beckwith, H, Moran, PF, Reilly, J. Personality disorder prevalence in psychiatric outpatients: a systematic literature review. Personal Ment Health 2014; 8: 91–101.
10Zimmerman, M, Mattia, JI. Differences between clinical and research practices in diagnosing borderline personality disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1999; 156: 1570–4.
11Leontieva, L, Gregory, R. Characteristics of patients with borderline personality disorder in a state psychiatric hospital. J Pers Disord 2013; 27: 222–32.
12Dasgupta, P, Barber, J. Admission patterns of patients with personality disorder. Psychiatr Bull 2004; 28: 321–32.
13McGilloway, A, Hall, RE, Lee, T, Bhui, KS. A systematic review of personality disorder, race and ethnicity: prevalence, aetiology and treatment. BMC Psychiatry 2010; 10: 33.
14Crawford, M, Rushwaya, T, Bajaj, P, Tyrer, P, Yang, M. The prevalence of personality disorder among ethnic minorities: findings from a national household survey. Personal Ment Health 2012; 6: 175–82.
17Garrett, C, Lee, T, Blackburn, S, Priestly, L, Bhui, K. Personality Disorder: challenges in service development in the light of the new NICE guidelines for Personality Disorder. Psychiatrist 2011; 35: 22–6.
18Tyrer, P, Merson, S, Onyett, S, Johnson, T. The effect of personality disorder on clinical outcome, social networks and adjustment: a controlled clinical trial of psychiatric emergencies. Psychol Med 1994; 24: 731–40.
19Bhui, K, Stansfeld, S, Hull, S, Priebe, S, Mole, F, Feder, G. Ethnic variations in pathways to and use of specialist mental health services in the UK Systematic review. Br J Psychiatry 2003; 182: 105–16.
20Sashidharan, SP. Inside Outside: Improving Mental Health Services for Black and Minority Ethnic Communities in England. Department of Health National Institute for Mental Health in England, 2003.
21Selby, EA, Joiner, T. Ethnic variations in the structure of borderline personality disorder symptomatology. J Psychiatr Res 2008; 43: 115–23.
22Manseau, M, Case, BG. Racial-ethnic disparities in outpatient mental health visits to U.S. physicians, 1993–2008. Psychiatr Serv 2014; 65: 59–67.
23Paris, J, Lis, E. Can sociocultural and historical mechanisms influence the development of borderline personality disorder? Transcult Psychiatry 2013; 50: 140–51.
24Iwamasa, G, Larrabee, AL, Merritt, RD. Are personality disorder criteria ethnically biased? A card sort analysis. Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol 2000; 6: 284–96.
25Chavira, DA, Grilo, CM, Shea, MT, Yen, S, Gunderson, JG, Morey, LC, et al. Ethnicity and four personality disorders. Compr Psychiatry 2003; 44: 483–91.
26de Bernier, GL, Kim, YR, Sen, P. A systematic review of the global prevalence of personality disorders in adult Asian populations. Personal Ment Health 2014; 8: 264–75.
27Ryder, AG, Sun, J, Dere, J, Fung, K. Personality disorders in Asians: summary, and a call for cultural research. Asian J Psychiatr 2014; 7: 86–8.
28De Genna, NM, Feske, U. Phenomenology of borderline personality disorder: the role of race and socioeconomic status. J Nerv Ment Dis 2013; 201: 1027–34.
29Mental Health Act 2007, chapter 12.
30World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines World Health Organization, 1992.
31Chanen, AM, McCutcheon, LK, Jovey, M, Jackson, HJ, McGorry, PD. Prevention and early intervention for borderline personality disorder. Med J Aust 2007; 187: S18–21.
32Abrams, RC, Horowitz, SV. Personality disorders after age 50: a meta-analysis. J Personal Disord 1996; 10: 271–81.
33Kunik, ME, Mulsant, BH, Rifai, AH, Sweet, RA, Pasternak, R, Zubenko, GS. Diagnostic rate of comorbid personality disorder in elderly psychiatric inpatients. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151: 603–5.
34Kane, R, Wellings, K, Free, C, Goodrich, J. Uses of routine data sets in the evaluation of health promotion interventions: opportunities and limitations. Health Educ 2000; 100: 33–41.