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1-year follow-up of neurofeedback treatment in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: randomised controlled trial

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  02 January 2018

Marleen Bink
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam; Scientific Center for Care & Welfare (Tranzo), Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
Ilja L. Bongers
Affiliation:
GGzECenter for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Eindhoven; Scientific Center for Care & Welfare (Tranzo), Tilburg University, Tilburg, The Netherlands
Arne Popma
Affiliation:
Academic Department of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, VUmc/De Bascule, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands
Tieme W. P. Janssen
Affiliation:
Department of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Chijs van Nieuwenhuizen
Affiliation:
Scientific Center for Care & Welfare (Tranzo), Tilburg University, Tilburg GGzECenter for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Corresponding
E-mail address:
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Abstract

Background

Estimates of the effectiveness of neurofeedback as a treatment for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are mixed.

Aims

To investigate the long-term additional effects of neurofeedback (NFB) compared with treatment as usual (TAU) for adolescents with ADHD.

Method

Using a multicentre parallel-randomised controlled trial design, 60 adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD receiving NFB+TAU (n=41) or TAU (n=19) were followed up. Neurofeedback treatment consisted of approximately 37 sessions of theta/sensorimotor rhythm (SMR)-training on the vertex (Cz). Outcome measures included behavioural self-reports and neurocognitive measures. Allocation to the conditions was unmasked.

Results

At 1-year follow-up, inattention as reported by adolescents was decreased (range ηp2=0.23–0.36, P<0.01) and performance on neurocognitive tasks was faster (range ηp2=0.20–0.67, P<0.005) irrespective of treatment group.

Conclusions

Overall, NFB+TAU was as effective as TAU. Given the absence of robust additional effects of neurofeedback in the current study, results do not support the use of theta/SMR neurofeedback as a treatment for adolescents with ADHD and comorbid disorders in clinical practice.

Type
Research Article
Creative Commons
Creative Common License - CCCreative Common License - BY
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Copyright
Copyright © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016

Footnotes

Declaration of interest

None.

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