Cederlund, M, Hagberg, B, Billstedt, E, Gillberg, IC, Gillberg, C. Asperger syndrome and autism: a comparative longitudinal follow-up study more than 5 years after original diagnosis. J Autism Dev Dis
2008; 38: 72–85.
Farley, MA, McMahon, WM, Fombonne, E, Jenson, WR, Miller, J, Gardner, M, et al. Twenty-year outcome for individuals with autism and average or near-average cognitive abilities. Autism Res
2009; 2: 109–18.
Szatmari, P, Bryson, S, Duku, E, Vaccarella, L, Zwaigenbaum, L, Bennett, T, et al. Similar developmental trajectories in autism and Asperger syndrome: from early childhood to adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2009; 50: 1459–67.
Howlin, P, Moss, P, Savage, S, Rutter, M. Social outcomes in mid- to later adulthood among individuals diagnosed with autism and average nonverbal IQ as children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry
2013; 52: 572–81.
Asperger, H. Die autistischen Psychopathen im Kindesalter. Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr
1944; 117: 76–136.
Wing, L. Asperger's syndrome: a clinical account. Psychol Med
1981; 11: 115–29.
Wing, L, Gould, J. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in children: epidemiology and classification. J Autism Dev Dis
1979; 9: 11–29.
Suh, J. Zero Acquaintance Ratings of Broader Autism Phenotype (BAP) and Personality Traits in Optimal Outcome (OO) Children with a History of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). University of Connecticut Graduate School. University of Connecticut, 2015.
Cloninger, CR, Svrakic, DM, Przybeck, TR. A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry
1993; 50: 975–90.
Cloninger, CR. Temperament and personality. Curr Opin Neurobiol
1994; 4: 266–73.
Fassino, S, Amianto, F, Sobrero, C, Abbate Daga, G. Does it exist a personality core of mental illness? A systematic review on core psychobiological personality traits in mental disorders. Panminerva Med
2013; 55: 397–413.
Josefsson, K, Cloninger, CR, Hintsanen, M, Jokela, M, Pulkki-Raback, L, Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. Associations of personality profiles with various aspects of well-being: a population-based study. J Affect Disord
2011; 133: 265–73.
Jylha, P, Ketokivi, M, Mantere, O, Melartin, T, Suominen, K, Vuorilehto, M, et al. Temperament, character and personality disorders. Eur Psychiatry
2013; 28: 483–91.
Anckarsater, H, Stahlberg, O, Larson, T, Hakansson, C, Jutblad, SB, Niklasson, L, et al. The impact of ADHD and autism spectrum disorders on temperament, character, and personality development. Am J Psychiatry
2006; 163: 1239–44.
Sizoo, BB, van der Gaag, RJ, van den Brink, W. Temperament and character as endophenotype in adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Autism
2015; 19: 400–8.
Soderstrom, H, Rastam, M, Gillberg, C. Temperament and character in adults with Asperger syndrome. Autism
2002; 6: 287–97.
Sizoo, B, van den Brink, W, Gorissen van Eenige, M, van der Gaag, RJ. Personality characteristics of adults with autism spectrum disorders or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without substance use disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis
2009; 197: 450–4.
Kunihira, Y, Senju, A, Dairoku, H, Wakabayashi, A, Hasegawa, T. ‘Autistic’ traits in non-autistic Japanese populations: relationships with personality traits and cognitive ability. J Autism Dev Dis
2006; 36: 553–66.
Faraone, SV, Kunwar, A, Adamson, J, Biederman, J. Personality traits among ADHD adults: implications of late-onset and subthreshold diagnoses. Psychol Med
2009; 39: 685–93.
Garcia, D, Anckarsater, H, Lundstrom, S. Self-directedness and cooperativeness, psychosocial dysfunction and suffering in ESSENCE. Scientific World J
2013; 2013: 416981.
Gillberg, C, Fernell, E. Autism plus versus autism pure. J Autism Dev Disord
2014; 44: 3274–6.
Gillberg, IC, Helles, A, Billstedt, E, Gillberg, C. Boys with Asperger syndrome grow up: psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders 20 years after initial diagnosis. J Autism Dev Dis
2016; 46: 74–82.
Helles, A, Gillberg, CI, Gillberg, C, Billstedt, E. Asperger syndrome in males over two decades: stability and predictors of diagnosis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
2015; 56: 711–8.
Gillberg, IC, Gillberg, C. Asperger syndrome – some epidemiological considerations: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
1989; 30: 631–8.
Cederlund, M, Gillberg, C. One hundred males with Asperger syndrome: a clinical study of background and associated factors. Dev Med Child Neurol
2004; 46: 652–60.
Gillberg, C, Cederlund, M. Asperger syndrome: familial and pre- and perinatal factors. J Autism Dev Dis
2005; 35: 159–66.
Cloninger, CR, Przybeck, T, Svrakic, DM, Wetzel, RD. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI): A Guide to its Development and Use. Center for Psychobiology of Personality, Washington University, 1994.
Brändström, S, Sigvardsson, S, Nylander, P-O, Richter, J. The Swedish Version of the temperament and character inventory (TCI). Eur J Psychol Assess
2008; 24: 14–21.
Gillberg, C, Gillberg, IC, Rastam, M, Wentz, E. The Asperger Syndrome (and high-functioning autism) Diagnostic Interview (ASDI): a preliminary study of a new structured clinical interview. Autism. 2001; 5: 57–66.
Beck, A, Steer, R. Beck Depression Inventory Manual – Swedish Version. Psykologiforlaget, 1996.
Kessler, RC, Adler, LA, Gruber, MJ, Sarawate, CA, Spencer, T, Van Brunt, DL. Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res
2007; 16: 52–65.
American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders: DSM-IV. APA, 1994.
Wechsler, D. WAIS-III, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition: Technical Manual. Psychological Corporation, 2002.
Haukoos, JS, Lewis, RJ. Advanced statistics: bootstrapping confidence intervals for statistics with ‘Difficult’ distributions. Acad Emerg Med
2005; 12: 360–5.
Sigvardsson, S, Bohman, M, Cloninger, CR. Structure and stability of childhood personality: prediction of later social adjustment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry
1987; 28: 929–46.
Josefsson, K, Jokela, M, Cloninger, CR, Hintsanen, M, Salo, J, Hintsa, T, et al. Maturity and change in personality: developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood. Dev Psychopathol
2013; 25: 713–27.
Kerekes, N, Brandstrom, S, Stahlberg, O, Larson, T, Carlstrom, E, Lichtenstein, P, et al. The Swedish version of the parent-rated Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (J-TCI). Psychol Rep
2010; 107: 715–25.