American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM–5). APA, 2013.
Stucki, S, Rihs-Middel, M. Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: an update. J Gambl Stud
2007; 23: 245–57.
Wong, IL, So, EM. Prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Hong Kong. Am J Psychiatry
2003; 160: 1353–4.
Ministry of Community Development, Ya, S. More than Half of Singapore Gambles; but Only 2 in 100 at Risk of Gambling Addiction. Ministry of Community Development, 2005 (www.mcys.gov.sg).
Nowak, DE, Aloe, AM. The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis, 2005–2013. J Gambl Stud
2014; 30: 819–43.
Cho, MJ, Jeon, HJ, Lee, HW, Bae, JN, Park, JI, et al. Prevalence, clinical correlations, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies in pathological Korean gamblers: results from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
2010; 45: 621–9.
Moore, SM, Thomas, AC, Kale, S, Spence, M, Zlatevska, N, Staiger, PK, et al. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: who is at risk?
J Gambl Stud
2013; 29: 217–30.
Cunningham-Williams, RM, Cottler, LB, Compton, WM 3rd, Spitznagel, EL. Taking chances: problem gamblers and mental health disorders – results from the St Louis Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Am J Public Health
1998; 88: 1093–6.
Petry, NM, Stinson, FS, Grant, BF. Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry
2005; 66: 564–74.
Lynch, WJ, Maciejewski, PK, Potenza, MNA. Psychiatric correlates of gambling in adolescents and young adults grouped by age at gambling onset. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2004; 61: 1116–22.
Chen, EY, Chan, WS, Wong, PW, Chan, SS, Chan, CL, Law, YW, et al. Suicide in Hong Kong: a case-control psychological autopsy study. Psychol Med
2006; 36: 815–25.
Kim, SW, Grant, JE, Eckert, ED, Faris, PL, Hartman, BK. Pathological gambling and mood disorders: clinical associations and treatment implications. J Affect Disord
2006; 92: 109–16.
Specker, SM, Carlson, GA, Christenson, GA, Marcotte, M. Impulse control disorders and attention-deficit disorder in pathological gamblers. Ann Clin Psychiatry
1995; 7: 175–9.
MacDonell, AA. A Vedic Reader for Students Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rig Veda in the Original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction Vocabulary: 187–94. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1992.
Benegal, V. Gambling experiences, problems and policy in India: a historical analysis. Addiction
2013; 108: 2062–7.
Toce-Gerstein, M, Gerstein, D, Volberg, RA. The NODS-CLiP: a rapid screen for adult pathological and problem gambling. J Gambl Stud
2009; 25: 541–55.
WHO ASSIST Working Group. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction
2002; 97: 1183–94.
Humeniuk, RE, Ali, RA, Babor, TF, Farrell, M, Formigoni, ML, Jittiwutikarn, J, et al. Validation of the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Addiction
2008; 103: 1039–47.
Andrew, G, Slade, T. Interpreting scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Aust NZ J Public Health
2001; 25: 494–7.
Huang, JP, Xia, W, Sun, CS, Zhang, HY, Wu, LJ. Psychological distress and its correlates in Chinese adolescents. Aust NZ J Psychiatry
2009; 43: 674–81.
Kessler, RC, Üstün, TB, (eds). The WHO World Mental Health Survey: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Barkley, RA. Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale – IV (BAARS–IV) – Childhood Symptoms. Guilford Press, 2011.
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Inc. SPSS for Windows, Version 15.0
Liua, L, Luoa, T, Haoa, W. On gambling problems in young people: experience from the Asian region. Curr Opin Psychiatry
2013; 26: 310–17.
Goldstein, AL, Walton, MA, Cunningham, RM, Reska, SM, Duan, L. Correlates of gambling among youth in an inner-city emergency department. Psychol Addict Behav
2009; 23: 113–21.
Petry, NM. Pathological Gambling: Etiology, Comorbidity, and Treatment. APA, 2005.
Toneatto, T, Nguyen, L. Individual characteristics and problem gambling behavior. In Research and Measurement Issues in Gambling Studies (eds Smith, G, Hodgins, DC, Williams, RJ): 279–303. Academic Press, 2007.