Skip to main content
×
×
Home

A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

  • Sanju George (a1), TS Jaisoorya (a2), Sivasankaran Nair (a3), Anjana Rani (a3), Priya Menon (a3), Revamma Madhavan (a3), Jeevan Chakkandan Rajan (a3), Komath Sankaran Radhakrishnan (a3), Vineeta Jose (a3), Vivek Benegal (a4), K. Thennarassu (a5) and Nancy M. Petry (a6)...
Abstract
Background

In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India.

Aims

This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population.

Method

We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Results

A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores.

Conclusions

This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Corresponding author
Sanju George, Rajagiri Hospital, Chunagamvely, Aluva - 683112, Kerala, India. Email: sanjugeorge531@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

S.G. was (until October 2014) a member of the UK Responsible Gambling Strategy Board, and authored the Royal College of Psychiatrists, Faculty report FR/AP/01 Gambling: The Hidden Addiction - Future Trends in Addictions (2014).

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edn) (DSM–5). APA, 2013.
2 Stucki, S, Rihs-Middel, M. Prevalence of adult problem and pathological gambling between 2000 and 2005: an update. J Gambl Stud 2007; 23: 245–57.
3 Wong, IL, So, EM. Prevalence estimates of problem and pathological gambling in Hong Kong. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160: 1353–4.
4 Ministry of Community Development, Ya, S. More than Half of Singapore Gambles; but Only 2 in 100 at Risk of Gambling Addiction. Ministry of Community Development, 2005 (www.mcys.gov.sg).
5 Nowak, DE, Aloe, AM. The prevalence of pathological gambling among college students: a meta-analytic synthesis, 2005–2013. J Gambl Stud 2014; 30: 819–43.
6 Park, S Cho, MJ, Jeon, HJ, Lee, HW, Bae, JN, Park, JI, et al. Prevalence, clinical correlations, comorbidities, and suicidal tendencies in pathological Korean gamblers: results from the Korean Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2010; 45: 621–9.
7 National Council on Problem Gambling. Report of Survey on Participation in Gambling Activities among Singapore Residents. 2011 (https://www.ncpg.org.sg/en/pdf/2011_NCPG_Gambling_Participation_Survey_23_Feb_2012.pdf).
8 Home Affairs Bureau. Study on Hong Kong Peoples' Participation in Gambling Activities: Key Statistics. 2005 (http://www.hab.gov.hk/file_manager/en/documents/whats_new/gambling/KeyStat_200514_e.pdf).
9 University of Macau. A Study on Macau Peoples' Participation in Gambling Activities. Institute for the Study of Commercial Gaming, University of Macau, 2003 (http://www.umac.mo/iscg/Events/Seminar/S1_SummaryReport_ENG.pdf).
10 Moore, SM, Thomas, AC, Kale, S, Spence, M, Zlatevska, N, Staiger, PK, et al. Problem gambling among international and domestic university students in Australia: who is at risk? J Gambl Stud 2013; 29: 217–30.
11 Cunningham-Williams, RM, Cottler, LB, Compton, WM 3rd, Spitznagel, EL. Taking chances: problem gamblers and mental health disorders – results from the St Louis Epidemiologic Catchment Area Study. Am J Public Health 1998; 88: 1093–6.
12 Petry, NM, Stinson, FS, Grant, BF. Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. J Clin Psychiatry 2005; 66: 564–74.
13 Lynch, WJ, Maciejewski, PK, Potenza, MNA. Psychiatric correlates of gambling in adolescents and young adults grouped by age at gambling onset. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2004; 61: 1116–22.
14 Chen, EY, Chan, WS, Wong, PW, Chan, SS, Chan, CL, Law, YW, et al. Suicide in Hong Kong: a case-control psychological autopsy study. Psychol Med 2006; 36: 815–25.
15 Kim, SW, Grant, JE, Eckert, ED, Faris, PL, Hartman, BK. Pathological gambling and mood disorders: clinical associations and treatment implications. J Affect Disord 2006; 92: 109–16.
16 Specker, SM, Carlson, GA, Christenson, GA, Marcotte, M. Impulse control disorders and attention-deficit disorder in pathological gamblers. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1995; 7: 175–9.
17 MacDonell, AA. A Vedic Reader for Students Containing Thirty Hymns of the Rig Veda in the Original Samhita and Pada Texts, with Transliteration, Translation, Explanatory Notes, Introduction Vocabulary: 187–94. Motilal Banarsidass Publishers, 1992.
18 Benegal, V. Gambling experiences, problems and policy in India: a historical analysis. Addiction 2013; 108: 2062–7.
20 Toce-Gerstein, M, Gerstein, D, Volberg, RA. The NODS-CLiP: a rapid screen for adult pathological and problem gambling. J Gambl Stud 2009; 25: 541–55.
21 WHO ASSIST Working Group. The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): development, reliability and feasibility. Addiction 2002; 97: 1183–94.
22 Humeniuk, RE, Ali, RA, Babor, TF, Farrell, M, Formigoni, ML, Jittiwutikarn, J, et al. Validation of the Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Addiction 2008; 103: 1039–47.
23 Andrew, G, Slade, T. Interpreting scores on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale. Aust NZ J Public Health 2001; 25: 494–7.
24 Huang, JP, Xia, W, Sun, CS, Zhang, HY, Wu, LJ. Psychological distress and its correlates in Chinese adolescents. Aust NZ J Psychiatry 2009; 43: 674–81.
25 Kessler, RC, Üstün, TB, (eds). The WHO World Mental Health Survey: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
26 Barkley, RA. Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale – IV (BAARS–IV) – Childhood Symptoms. Guilford Press, 2011.
27 Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) Inc. SPSS for Windows, Version 15.0 SPSS, 2006.
28 Liua, L, Luoa, T, Haoa, W. On gambling problems in young people: experience from the Asian region. Curr Opin Psychiatry 2013; 26: 310–17.
29 Goldstein, AL, Walton, MA, Cunningham, RM, Reska, SM, Duan, L. Correlates of gambling among youth in an inner-city emergency department. Psychol Addict Behav 2009; 23: 113–21.
30 Petry, NM. Pathological Gambling: Etiology, Comorbidity, and Treatment. APA, 2005.
31 Toneatto, T, Nguyen, L. Individual characteristics and problem gambling behavior. In Research and Measurement Issues in Gambling Studies (eds Smith, G, Hodgins, DC, Williams, RJ): 279303. Academic Press, 2007.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

A cross-sectional study of problem gambling and its correlates among college students in South India

  • Sanju George (a1), TS Jaisoorya (a2), Sivasankaran Nair (a3), Anjana Rani (a3), Priya Menon (a3), Revamma Madhavan (a3), Jeevan Chakkandan Rajan (a3), Komath Sankaran Radhakrishnan (a3), Vineeta Jose (a3), Vivek Benegal (a4), K. Thennarassu (a5) and Nancy M. Petry (a6)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *