Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey

  • Graça Cardoso (a1), Miguel Xavier (a1), Gemma Vilagut (a2), Maria Petukhova (a3), Jordi Alonso (a4), Ronald C. Kessler (a3) and José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida (a5)...
Abstract
Background

One important aspect of the societal burden of mental disorders is the extent to which these problems cause disability.

Aims

To assess days out of role associated with commonly occurring mental disorders in comparison with physical disorders in Portugal.

Method

National cross-sectional survey, with home interviews carried out with 3849 adult (aged 18+) respondents (57.3% response rate).

Results

Twelve-month prevalence for any mental disorder was 21.8%, any physical disorder 55.1% and any disorder 63.1%, with an average of 2.3 disorders per respondent with a disorder. Close to one out of every 10 respondents (9.2%) reported at least one day totally out of role in the past month (median of 6.4 days/any). The 18 conditions accounted for 78.2% of all days out of role, with 20.2% because of mental disorders and 59.2% because of physical disorders.

Conclusions

Mental disorders account for a substantial proportion of all role disability in the Portuguese population. Early detection and intervention would have a positive societal effect. Owing to highly frequent comorbidity, simultaneous management of mental and physical disorder comorbidities is advised for greater effect.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Graça Cardoso, Chronic Diseases Research Centre (CEDOC), NOVA Medical School/Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Campo dos Mártires da Patria, 130, 1169-056 Lisboa, Portugal. Email: gracacardoso@gmail.com
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interest

R.C.K. in the past 3 years has been a consultant for Hoffmann-La Roche Inc., Johnson & Johnson's Wellness and Prevention, Inc. and Sanofi-Aventis Groupe. He has served on advisory boards for Mensante Corporation, Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc., Lake Nona Life Project and U.S. Preventive Medicine, Inc. He is a co-owner of DataStat, Inc.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 Davis, K, Collins, SR, Doty, MM, Ho, A, Holmgren, A. Health and productivity among U.S. workers. Issue Brief (Commonwealth Fund) 2005; 856: 110.
2 Suhrcke, M, Arce, RA, McKee, M, Rocco, L. Economic Costs of Ill Health in the European region. European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, World Health Organization, 2008.
3 Merikangas, KR, Ames, M, Cui, L, Stang, PE, Ustun, TB, Von Korff, M, et al. The impact of comorbidity of mental and physical conditions on role disability in the US adult household population. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2007; 64: 1180–8.
4 Gustavsson, A, Svensson, M, Jacobi, F, Allgulander, C, Alonso, J, Beghi, E, et al. Cost of disorders of the brain in Europe 2010. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 21: 718–79.
5 Stang, PE, Brandenburg, NA, Lane, MC, Merikangas, KR, Von Korff, MR, Kessler, RC. Mental and physical comorbid conditions and days in role among persons with arthritis. Psychosom Med 2006; 68: 152–8.
6 Alonso, J, Petukhova, MV, Vilagut, G, Bromet, EJ, Hintov, H, Karam, EG, et al. Days totally out of role associated with common mental and physical disorders. In The Burdens of Mental Disorders: Global Perspectives from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys (eds Alonso, J., Chatterji, S., He, Y.): 137–48. Cambridge University Press, 2013.
7 Kessler, RC, Ustun, TB. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organization (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2004; 13: 93121.
8 Caldas-de-Almeida, JM, Xavier, M. Estudo Epidemiológico Nacional de Saúde Mental, 10 relatório [Portuguese Psychiatric Epidemiologic Study – First Report]. Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, 2013.
9 Alonso, J, Angermeyer, MC, Bernert, S, Bruffaerts, R, Brugha, TS, Bryson, H, et al. Prevalence of mental disorders in Europe: results from the European Study of the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESEMeD). Acta Psychiatr Scand Suppl 2004; 420:21–7.
10 Kessler, RC, Aguilar-Gaxiola, S, Alonso, J, Chatterji, S, Lee, S, Ormel, J, et al. The global burden of mental disorders: An update from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc 2009; 18:2333.
11 World Bank. Data & Statistics, Country Groups by Income, 2007 (http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications).
12 Instituto Nacional de Estatistica. Censos 2011 – Resultados Provisorios. INE, 2011.
13 Kessler, RC, Ustun, TB. The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
14 Heeringa, SG, Wells, JE, Frost, H, Mneimneh, ZN, Chiu, GT, Sampson, NA, et al. Sample designs and sampling procedures. In The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (eds Kessler, RC, Ustun, TB): 1432. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
15 Xavier, M, Baptista, H, Mendes, JM, Magalhaes, P, Caldas-de-Almeida, JM. Implementing the World Mental Health Survey Initiative in Portugal – rationale, design and fieldwork procedures. Int J Ment Health Syst 2013; 7: 19.
16 Pennell, BE, Mneimneh, ZN, Bowers, A, Chardoul, S, Wells, JE, Viana, MC, et al. Implementation of the World Mental Health Surveys. Chapter 3. Part I. Methods. In The WHO World Mental Health Surveys: Global Perspectives on the Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (eds Kessler, RC, Üstün, TB): 3357. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
17 First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, Williams, JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Research Version, Non-patient Edition (SCID-I/NP). Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, 2002.
18 Haro, JM, Arbabzadeh-Bouchez, S, Brugha, TS, de Girolamo, G, Guyer, ME, Jin, R, et al. Concordance of the composite international diagnostic interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) with standardized clinical assessments in the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 2006; 15: 167–80.
19 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Health, United States, 2004. US Government Printing Office, 2004.
20 Schoenborn, CA, Adams, PF, Schiller, JS. Summary health statistics for the U.S. population: National Health Interview Survey, 2000. Vital Health Stat Rep Ser 10 2003; 214: 183.
21 Knight, M, Stewart-Brown, S, Fletcher, L. Estimating health needs: the impact of a checklist of conditions and quality of life measurement on health information derived from community surveys. J Public Health Med 2001; 23: 179–86.
22 Baker, MM, Stabile, M, Deri, C. What Do Self-reported Objective Measures of Health Measure? National Bureau of Economic Research, 2001.
23 Von Korff, M, Crane, PK, Alonso, J, Vilagut, G, Angermeyer, MC, Bruffaerts, R, et al. Modified WHODAS-II provides valid measure of global disability but filter items increased skewness. J Clin Epidemiol 2008; 61: 1132–43.
24 World Health Organization. World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHODAS II). WHO, 2001.
25 Kessler, RC, Ormel, J, Demler, O, Stang, PE. Comorbid mental disorders account for the role impairment of commonly occurring chronic physical disorders: results from the National Comorbidity Survey. J Occup Environ Med 2003; 45: 1257–66.
26 Revicki, DA, Irwin, D, Reblando, J, Simon, GE. The accuracy of self-reported disability days. Med Care 1994; 32: 401–4.
27 Kessler, RC, Ames, M, Hymel, PA, Loeppke, R, McKenas, DK, Richling, DE, et al. Using the World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) to evaluate the indirect workplace costs of illness. J Occup Environ Med 2004; 46: S2337.
28 Gureje, O. The pattern and nature of mental-physical comorbidity: specific or general? In Global Perspectives on Mental-Physical Comorbidity in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys (eds Von Korff, MR, Scott, KM, Gureje, O): 5183. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
29 Alonso, J, Petukhova, M, Vilagut, G, Chatterji, S, Heeringa, S, Üstün, TB, et al. Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Mol Psychiatry. 2011; 16: 1234–46.
30 Seber, GAF, Wild, CL. Nonlinear Regression. Wiley, 1989.
31 SAS Institute Inc. SAS Software Version 9.2. SAS Institute Inc., 2008.
32 Bates, DM, Watts, DG. Nonlinear Regression Analysis and its Applications. Wiley, 2007.
33 McCullagh, P, Nelder, JA. Generalized Linear Models. 2nd edn. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 1989.
34 Buntin, MB, Zaslavsky, AM. Too much ado about two-part models and transformation? Comparing methods of modeling Medicare expenditures. J Health Econ 2004; 23: 525–42.
35 Wolter, K. Introduction to Variance Estimation. Springer-Verlag, 1985.
36 Gefeller, O. An annotated bibliography on the attributable risk. Biom J 1992; 34: 1007–12.
37 Sanderson, K, Andrews, G. Common mental disorders in the workforce: recent findings from descriptive and social epidemiology. Can J Psychiatry 2006; 51: 6375.
38 Polder, JJ, Achterberg, PW. Cost of Illness in the Netherlands. National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, 2004.
39 Rice, DP, Miller, LS. Health economics and cost implications of anxiety and other mental disorders in the United States. Br J Psychiatry Suppl 1998; 34: 49.
40 Smit, F, Cuijpers, P, Oostenbrink, J, Batelaan, N, de Graaf, R, Beekman, A. Costs of nine common mental disorders: implications for curative and preventive psychiatry. J Ment Health Policy Econ 2006; 9: 193200.
41 Steenland, K, Armstrong, B. An overview of methods for calculating the burden of disease due to specific risk factors. Epidemiology 2006; 17: 512–9.
42 Wang, PS, Angermeyer, M, Borges, G, Bruffaerts, R, Chiu, WT, de Girolamo, G, et al. Delay and failure in treatment seeking after first onset of mental disorders in the World Health Organization's World Mental Health Survey Initiative. World Psychiatry 2007; 6: 177–85.
43 Turner, BJ, Hollenbeak, CS, Weiner, M, Ten Have, T, Tang, SS. Effect of unrelated comorbid conditions on hypertension management. Ann Intern Med 2008; 148: 578–86.
44 Kessler, RC, Avenevoli, S, Costello, EJ, Green, JG, Gruber, M, McLaughlin, KA, et al. Severity of 12-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication Adolescent Supplement. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012; 69: 381–9.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×
Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Cardoso et al. supplementary material
Supplementary Material

 PDF (358 KB)
358 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 58 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 174 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 19th July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Days out of role due to common physical and mental conditions in Portugal: Results from the WHO World Mental Health Survey

  • Graça Cardoso (a1), Miguel Xavier (a1), Gemma Vilagut (a2), Maria Petukhova (a3), Jordi Alonso (a4), Ronald C. Kessler (a3) and José Miguel Caldas-de-Almeida (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *