Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample

  • Anjali Sankar (a1), Tianhao Zhang (a2), Bilwaj Gaonkar (a2), Jimit Doshi (a2), Guray Erus (a2), Sergi G. Costafreda (a3), Lauren Marangell (a4), Christos Davatzikos (a2) and Cynthia H.Y. Fu (a5)...
Abstract
Background

At present, we do not have any biological tests which can contribute towards a diagnosis of depression. Neuroimaging measures have shown some potential as biomarkers for diagnosis. However, participants have generally been from the same ethnic background while the applicability of a biomarker would require replication in individuals of diverse ethnicities.

Aims

We sought to examine the diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression in a sample of a wide ethnic diversity.

Method

Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from 23 patients with major depressive disorder in an acute depressive episode (mean age: 39.8 years) and 20 matched healthy volunteers (mean age: 38.8 years). Participants were of Asian, African and Caucasian ethnicity recruited from the general community.

Results

Structural neuroanatomy combining white and grey matter distinguished patients from controls at the highest accuracy of 81% with the most stable pattern being at around 70%. A widespread network encompassing frontal, parietal, occipital and cerebellar regions contributed towards diagnostic classification.

Conclusions

These findings provide an important step in the development of potential neuroimaging-based tools for diagnosis as they demonstrate that the identification of depression is feasible within a multi-ethnic group from the community.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
Cynthia H.Y. Fu, School of Psychology, University of East London, Arthur Edwards Building, Water Lane, London E15 4LZ, UK. Email: c.fu@uel.ac.uk
Footnotes
Hide All

Declaration of interests

C.H.Y.F. has held recent research grants from Eli Lilly and Company and GlaxoSmithKline. L.M. is a former employee and stockholder of Eli Lilly and Company.

Footnotes
References
Hide All
1 American Psychiatric Association. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Fifth Edition (DSM-5). APA, 2013.
2 Fu, CH, Steiner, H, Costafreda, SG. Predictive neural biomarkers of clinical response in depression: a meta-analysis of functional and structural neuroimaging studies of pharmacological and psychological therapies. Neurobiol Dis 2013; 52: 7583.
3 Atkinson, L, Sankar, A, Adams, TM, Fu, CH. Recent advances in neuroimaging of mood disorders: structural and functional neural correlates of depression, changes with therapy, and potential for clinical biomarkers. Curr Treat Option Psychiatry 2014; 1: 278–93.
4 Cole, J, Chaddock, CA, Farmer, AE, Aitchison, KJ, Simmons, A, McGuffin, P, et al. White matter abnormalities and illness severity in major depressive disorder. Br J Psychiatry 2012; 201: 33–9.
5 Cole, J, Costafreda, SG, McGuffin, P, Fu, CH. Hippocampal atrophy in first episode depression: a meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging studies. J Affect Disord 2011; 134: 483–7.
6 MacQueen, G, Frodl, T. The hippocampus in major depression: evidence for the convergence of the bench and bedside in psychiatric research? Mol Psychiatry 2011; 16: 252–64.
7 Zhu, X, Wang, X, Xiao, J, Zhong, M, Liao, J, Yao, S. Altered white matter integrity in first-episode, treatment-naive young adults with major depressive disorder: a tract-based spatial statistics study. Brain Res 2011; 1369: 223–9.
8 Huang, H, Fan, X, Williamson, DE, Rao, U. White matter changes in healthy adolescents at familial risk for unipolar depression: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuropsychopharmacol 2011; 36: 684–91.
9 Biomarkers Definitions Working Group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69: 8995.
10 Costafreda, SG, Chu, C, Ashburner, J, Fu, CH. Prognostic and diagnostic potential of the structural neuroanatomy of depression. PLoS One 2009; 4: e6353.
11 Gong, Q, Wu, Q, Scarpazza, C, Lui, S, Jia, Z, Marquand, A, et al. Prognostic prediction of therapeutic response in depression using high-field MR imaging. Neuroimage 2011; 55: 1497–503.
12 Liu, F, Guo, W, Yu, D, Gao, Q, Gao, K, Xue, Z, et al. Classification of different therapeutic responses of major depressive disorder with multivariate pattern analysis method based on structural MR scans. PLoS One 2012; 7: e40968.
13 Mwangi, B, Ebmeier, KP, Matthews, K, Steele, JD. Multi-centre diagnostic classification of individual structural neuroimaging scans from patients with major depressive disorder. Brain 2012; 135: 1508–21.
14 Kipli, K, Kouzani, AZ, Hamid, IRA. Investigating machine learning techniques for detection of depression using structural MRI volumetric features. Int J Biosci Biochem Bioinform 2013; 3: 444–8.
15 Serpa, MH, Ou, Y, Schaufelberger, MS. Neuroanatomical classification in a population-based sample of psychotic major depression and bipolar I disorder with 1 year of diagnostic stability. Bio Med Res Int 2014; 2014: 19.
16 Qiu, L, Huang, X, Zhang, J, Wang, Y, Kuang, W, Li, J, et al. Characterization of major depressive disorder using a multiparametric classification approach based on high resolution structural images. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2014; 39: 7886.
17 Insel, T, Cuthbert, B, Garvey, M, Heinssen, R, Pine, DS, Quinn, K, et al. Research Domain Criteria (RDoC): toward a new classification framework for research on mental disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2010; 167: 748–51.
18 Fu, C, Costafreda, SG. In review neuroimaging-based biomarkers in psychiatry: clinical opportunities of a paradigm shift. Can J Psychiatry 2013; 58: 499508.
19 Fu, CH, Mourao-Miranda, J, Costafreda, SG, Khanna, A, Marquand, AF, Williams, SC, et al. Pattern classification of sad facial processing: toward the development of neurobiological markers in depression. Biol Psychiatry 2008; 63: 656–62.
20 Akdeniz, C, Tost, H, Streit, F, Haddad, L, Wüst, S, Schäfer, A, et al. Neuroimaging evidence for a role of neural social stress processing in ethnic minority-associated environmental risk. JAMA Psychiatry 2014; 71: 672–80.
21 Chee, MWL, Zheng, H, Goh, JO, Park, D, Sutton, BP. Brain structure in young and old East Asians and Westerners: comparisons of structural volume and cortical thickness. J Cogn Neurosci 2011; 23: 1065–79.
22 Lucarelli, RT, Peshock, RM, McColl, R, Hulsey, K, Ayers, C, Whittemore, AR, et al. MR imaging of hippocampal asymmetry at 3T in a multiethnic, population-based sample: results from the Dallas Heart Study. Am J Neuroradiol 2013; 34: 752–7.
23 Zhang, T, Davatzikos, C. ODVBA: optimally-discriminative voxel-based analysis. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2011; 30: 1441–54.
24 Zhang, T, Davatzikos, C. Optimally-discriminative voxel-based morphometry significantly increases the ability to detect group differences in schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. NeuroImage 2013; 79: 94110.
25 Gaonkar, B, Davatzikos, C. Analytic estimation of statistical significance maps for support vector machine based multi-variate image analysis and classification. NeuroImage 2013; 78: 270–83.
26 American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth DEdition, Text ERevision (DSM-IV-TR). APA, 2000.
27 First, M, Spitzer, R, Gibbon, M, Williams, J. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I (SCID-I), Clinician Version. APA, 1997.
28 Hamilton, M. A rating scale for depression. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1960; 23: 5662.
29 Fu, CH, Costafreda, SG, Sankar, A, Adams, TM, Rasenick, MM, Liu, P, et al. Multimodal functional and structural neuroimaging effects in major depressive disorder before and after treatment with duloxetine. BMC Psychiatry 2015; 15: 8293.
30 Doshi, J, Erus, G, Ou, Y, Gaonkar, B, Davatzikos, C. Multi-atlas skull-stripping. Acad Radiol 2013; 20: 1566–76.
31 Li, C, Gore, JC, Davatzikos, C. Multiplicative intrinsic component optimization (MICO) for MRI bias field estimation and tissue segmentation. Magn Reson Imaging 2014; 32: 913–23.
32 Ou, Y, Sotiras, A, Paragios, N, Davatzikos, C. DRAMMS: Deformable registration via attribute matching and mutual-saliency weighting. Med Image Anal 2011; 15: 622–39.
33 Zhang, T, Koutsouleris, N, Meisenzahl, E, Davatzikos, C. Heterogeneity of structural brain changes in subtypes of schizophrenia revealed using magnetic resonance imaging pattern analysis. Schizophr Bull 2015; 41: 7484.
34 Erus, G, Battapady, H, Zhang, T, Lovato, J, Miller, ME, Williamson, JD, et al. Spatial patterns of structural brain changes in type 2 diabetic patients and their longitudinal progression with intensive control of blood glucose. Diabetes Care 2015; 38: 97104.
35 Vapnik, V, Cortes, C. Support-vector networks. Mach Learn 1995; 20: 273–97.
36 Goankar, B, Shinohara, MT, Davatzikos, C. Interpreting support vector machine models for multivariate group wise analysis in neuroimaging. Med Image Anal 2015; 24: 190204.
37 Fan, Y, Shen, D, Gur, RC, Gur, RE, Davatzikos, C. COMPARE: Classification of Morphological Patterns Using Adaptive Regional Elements. IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2007; 26: 93105.
38 Liao, Y, Huang, X, Wu, Q, Yang, C, Kuang, W, Du, M, et al. Is depression a disconnection syndrome? Meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging studies in patients with MDD. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2013; 38: 4956.
39 Blatt, GJ, Oblak, AL, Schmahmann, JD. Cerebellar connections with limbic circuits: anatomy and functional implications. In Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders (eds Manto, M, Schmahmann, JD, Rossi, F, Gruol, DL, Koibuchi, N): 479–96. Springer, 2013.
40 Frodl, TS, Koutsouleris, N, Bottlender, R, Born, C, Jäger, M, Scupin, I, et al. Depression-related variation in brain morphology over 3 years: effects of stress? Arch Gen Psychiatry 2008; 65: 1156–65.
41 Zeng, LL, Liu, L, Liu, Y, Shen, H, Li, Y, Hu, D. Antidepressant treatment normalizes white matter volume in patients with major depression. PLoS One 2012; 7: e44248.
42 Ikram, UZ, Snijder, MB, Fassaert, TJ, Schene, AH, Kunst, AE, Stronks, K. The contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to the prevalence of depression. Eur J Public Health 2014; 25: 243–8.
43 Zilles, K, Kawashima, R, Dabringhaus, A, Fukuda, H, Schormann, T. Hemispheric shape of European and Japanese brains: 3-D MRI analysis of inter-subject variability, ethnical, and gender differences. Neuroimage 2001; 13: 262–71.
44 Howard, J, Battaglini, M, Babb, JS, Arienzo, D, Holst, B, Omari, M, et al. MRI correlates of disability in African-Americans with multiple sclerosis. PLoS One 2012; 7: e43061.
45 Kambeitz, J, Kambeitz-Ilankovic, L, Leucht, S, Wood, S, Davatzikos, C, Malchow, B, et al. Detecting neuroimaging biomarkers for schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of multivariate pattern recognition studies. Neuropsychopharmacol 2015; 40: 1742–51.
46 Bora, E, Fornito, A, Radua, J, Walterfang, M, Walterfang, M, Seal, M, et al. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia: a multimodal voxelwise meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis. Schizophr Res 2011; 127: 4657.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 21
Total number of PDF views: 69 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 487 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 2nd January 2018 - 21st June 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Diagnostic potential of structural neuroimaging for depression from a multi-ethnic community sample

  • Anjali Sankar (a1), Tianhao Zhang (a2), Bilwaj Gaonkar (a2), Jimit Doshi (a2), Guray Erus (a2), Sergi G. Costafreda (a3), Lauren Marangell (a4), Christos Davatzikos (a2) and Cynthia H.Y. Fu (a5)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *