Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Indirect costs of depression and other mental and behavioural disorders for Australia from 2015 to 2030

  • Deborah Schofield (a1), Michelle Cunich (a2), Rupendra Shrestha (a3), Robert Tanton (a4), Lennert Veerman (a5), Simon Kelly (a4) and Megan Passey (a6)...
Abstract
Background

The impact of mental disorders has been assessed in relation to longevity and quality of life; however, mental disorders also have an impact on productive life-years (PLYs).

Aims

To quantify the long-term costs of Australians aged 45–64 having lost PLYs because of mental disorders.

Method

The Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003, 2009 formed the base population of Health&WealthMOD2030 – a microsimulation model integrating output from the Static Incomes Model, the Australian Population and Policy Simulation Model, the Treasury and the Australian Burden of Disease Study.

Results

For depression, individuals incurred a loss of AU$1062 million in income in 2015, projected to increase to AU$1539 million in 2030 (45% increase). The government is projected to incur costs comprising a 22% increase in social security payments and a 45% increase in lost taxes as a result of depression through its impact on PLYs.

Conclusions

Effectiveness of mental health programmes should be judged not only in terms of healthcare use but also quality of life and economic well-being.

Declaration of interest

None.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Indirect costs of depression and other mental and behavioural disorders for Australia from 2015 to 2030
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Indirect costs of depression and other mental and behavioural disorders for Australia from 2015 to 2030
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Indirect costs of depression and other mental and behavioural disorders for Australia from 2015 to 2030
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is unaltered and is properly cited. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use or in order to create a derivative work.
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Michelle Cunich, The Boden Institute of Obesity, Nutrition, Exercise and Eating Disorders, Sydney Health Economics, Sydney Local Health District, D17 – Charles Perkins Centre, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. E-mail: michelle.cunich@sydney.edu.au
References
Hide All
1Whiteford, HA, Degenhardt, L, Rehm, J, Baxter, AJ, Ferrari, AJ, Erskine, HE, et al. Global burden of disease attributable to mental and substance use disorders: findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 2013; 382: 1575–86.
2OECD. Making Mental Health Count: The Social and Economic Costs of Neglecting Mental Health Care, OECD Health Policy Studies. OECD Publishing, 2014.
3Levinson, D, Lakoma, M, Petukhova, M, Schoenbaum, M, Zaslavsky, A, Angermeyer, M, et al. Associations of serious mental illness with earnings: results from the WHO World Mental Health surveys. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 197: 114–21.
4Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Expenditure on Mental Health Services. AIHW, 2016.
5Roehrig, C. Mental disorders top the list of the most costly conditions in the United States: $201 billion. Health Aff (Millwood) 2016; 35:1130–5.
6Schofield, D, Shrestha, R, Cunich, M, Tanton, R, Kelly, S, Veerman, L, et al. Lost productive life years caused by chronic conditions in Australians aged 45-64 years, 2010-2030. Med J Aust 2015; 203: 260.e1–6.
7McCrone, P, Dhanasiri, S, Patel, A, Knapp, M, Lawton-Smith, S. Paying the Price: The Cost of Mental Health Care in England to 2026. Kings Funds, 2008.
8Lee, Y-C, Chatterton, ML, Magnus, A, Mohebbi, M, Le, LKD, Mihalopoulos, C. Cost of high prevalence mental disorders: findings from the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2017; 51: 1198–211.
9Neil, AL, Carr, VJ, Mihalopoulos, C, Andrew Mackinnon, A, Morgan, VA. Costs of psychosis in 2010: findings from the second Australian National Survey of Psychosis. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 2014; 48: 169–82.
10Schofield, D, Shrestha, R, Kelly, S, Veerman, L, Tanton, R, Passey, M, et al. Health&WealthMOD2030: a microsimulation model of the long term economic impacts of disease on the labour force participation of Australians aged 45-64 years old. Int J Microsimulation 2014; 7: 94118.
11Australian Bureau of Statistics. Information Paper - Basic Confidentialised Unit Record File: Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers 2003 (reissue). Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2005.
12Percival, R, Abello, A, Vu, QN. STINMOD (Static Income Model). In Modelling Our Future: Population Ageing, Health and Aged Care (eds Gupta, A, Harding, A). Elsevier BV, 2007.
13Treasury. Budget Paper No 1: Budget Strategy and Outlook 2015–16. Commonwealth Treasury, 2015.
14Keegan, M, Kelly, S. APPSIM - Dynamic Microsimulation Modelling of Social Security and Taxation. National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, University of Canberra, 2009.
15Begg, SJ, Vos, T, Barker, B, Stanley, L, Lopez, AD. Burden of disease and injury in Australia in the new millennium: measuring health loss from diseases, injuries and risk factors. Med J Aust 2008; 188: 3640.
16World Health Organization. The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines. WHO, 1992.
17Andrews, G, Hall, W, Teesson, M, Henderson, S. The Mental Health of Australians. Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care, 1999.
18Cai, L, Kalb, G. Health Status and Labour Force Participation: Evidence from the HILDA Data. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, 2004.
19Goetzel, RZ, Hawkins, K, Ozminkowski, RJ, Wang, S. The health and productivity cost burden of the top 10 physical and mental health conditions affecting six large U.S. employers in 1999. J Occup Environ Med 2003; 45: 514.
20OECD. Sick on the Job? Myths and Realities about Mental Health and Work. OECD Publishing, 2012.
21National Mental Health Commission. Contributing Lives, Thriving Communities: Report of the National Review of Mental Health Programmes and Services. National Mental Health Commission, 2014.
22HM Government. No Health Without Mental Health: A Cross-Government Mental Health Outcomes Strategy for People of All Ages. Crown, 2011.
23Joyce, S, Modini, M, Christensen, H, Mykletun, A, Bryant, R, Mitchell, P, et al. Workplace interventions for common mental disorders: a systematic meta-review. Psychol Med 2016; 46: 683–97.
24Chisholm, D, Sweeny, K, Sheehan, P, Rasmussen, B, Smit, F, Cuijpers, P, et al. Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis. Lancet Psychiatry 2016; 3: 415–24.
25World Health Organization. Mental Health Atlas 2014. WHO, 2015.
26The World Bank. Mental Health (Brief). The World Bank, 2017. (http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/health/brief/mental-health).
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

BJPsych Open
  • ISSN: -
  • EISSN: 2056-4724
  • URL: /core/journals/bjpsych-open
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Schofield et al. supplementary material
Schofield et al. supplementary material 1

 Word (22 KB)
22 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed

Indirect costs of depression and other mental and behavioural disorders for Australia from 2015 to 2030

  • Deborah Schofield (a1), Michelle Cunich (a2), Rupendra Shrestha (a3), Robert Tanton (a4), Lennert Veerman (a5), Simon Kelly (a4) and Megan Passey (a6)...
Submit a response

eLetters

No eLetters have been published for this article.

×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *