Whincup, PH, Kaye, SJ, Owen, CG, Huxley, R, Cook, DG, Anazawa, S, et al. Birth weight and risk of type 2 diabetes: a
systematic review. JAMA
2008; 300: 2886–97.
Wojcik, W, Lee, W, Colman, I, Hardy, R, Hotopf, M. Foetal origins of depression? A systematic review
and meta-analysis of low birth weight and later
depression. Psychol Med
Pesonen, AK, Räikkönen, K, Heinonen, K, Andersson, S, Hovi, P, Järvenpää, AL, et al. Personality of young adults born prematurely:
the Helsinki study of very low birth weight adults.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry Allied Discip
2008; 49: 609–17.
Schmidt, LA, Miskovic, V, Boyle, MH, Saigal, S. Shyness and timidity in young adults who were born
at extremely low birth weight.
Allin, M, Rooney, M, Cuddy, M, Wyatt, J, Walshe, M, Rifkin, L, et al. Personality in young adults who are born
2006; 117: 309–16.
Barker, DJP. The origins of the developmental origins
theory. J Int Med
2007; 261: 412–7.
Heijmans, BT, Tobi, EW, Stein, AD, Putter, H, Blauw, GJ, Susser, ES, et al. Persistent epigenetic differences associated
with prenatal exposure to famine in humans. Proc
Natl Acad Sci USA
2008; 105: 17046–9.
Clarke, D. Neuroticism: moderator or mediator in the relation
between locus of control and depression?
Pers Individ Dif
2004; 37: 245–58.
Matthews, G, Deary, IJ, Whiteman, MC. Personality Traits. Cambridge
University Press, 2009.
Collins, R. What makes UK Biobank special?
2012; 379: 1173–4.
Preacher, KJ, Hayes, AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing
and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator
models. Behav Res Methods
2008; 40: 879–91.
Hayes, AF, Preacher, KJ. Statistical mediation analysis with a
multicategorical independent variable. Br J Math
2013; 67: 457–70.
Tyrrell, JS, Yaghootkar, H, Freathy, RM, Hattersley, AT, Frayling, TM. Parental diabetes and birthweight in 236 030
individuals in the UK Biobank study. Int J
2013; 42: 1714–23.
Townsend, P. Townsend deprivation index.
J Soc Policy
1987; 16: 125–46.
Eysenck, HJ, Eysenck, SBG. Manual for the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. (EPQ-R
Adult). Hodder & Stoughton,
Smith, DJ, Nicholl, BI, Cullen, B, Martin, D, Ul-Haq, Z, Evans, J, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of probable
major depression and bipolar disorder within UK Biobank: cross-sectional
study of 172,751 participants. PLoS One
Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB. Validation and utility of a self-report version of
PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study.
1999; 282: 1737–44.
First, MB, Spitzer, RL, Gibbon, M, Williams, JBW. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders,
Clinician Version (SCID-CV). American
Psychiatric Press, 1996.
Lumley, T, Diehr, P, Emerson, S, Chen, L. The importance of the normality assumption in large
public health data sets. Ann Rev Publ
2002; 23: 151–69.
Cummings, P. The relative merits of risk ratios and odds
ratios. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med
2009; 163: 438–45.
Hare, DL, Toukhsati, SR, Johansson, P, Jaarsma, T. Depression and cardiovascular disease: a clinical
review. Eur Heart J
2013; 35: 1365–72.
McCance, DR, Pettitt, DJ, Hanson, RL, Jacobsson, LT, Knowler, WC, Bennett, PH. Birth weight and non-insulin dependent diabetes:
thrifty genotype, thrifty phenotype, or surviving small baby
1994; 308: 942–5.
Preacher, KJ, Kelley, K. Effect size measures for mediation models:
quantitative strategies for communicating indirect
effects. Psychol Methods
Inskip, HM, Dunn, N, Godfrey, KM, Cooper, C, Kendrick, T. Is birth weight associated with risk of depressive
symptoms in young women? Evidence from the Southampton Women's
Survey. Am J Epidemiol
2008; 167: 164–8.
Case, A, Fertig, A, Paxson, C. The lasting impact of childhood health and
circumstance. J Health Econ
2005; 24: 365–89.
Campbell, F, Conti, G, Heckman, JJ, Moon, SH, Pinto, R, Pungello, E, et al. Early childhood investments substantially
boost adult health. Science
2014; 343: 1478–85.