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Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study

  • Cecilia Magnusson (a1) (a2), Kyriaki Kosidou (a1), Christina Dalman (a3), Michael Lundberg (a1) (a4) (a5), Brian K. Lee (a6), Dheeraj Rai (a1), Håkan Karlsson (a7), Renee Gardner (a7) and Stefan Arver (a7)...
Abstract
Background

Maternal vitamin D deficiency may increase risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but direct evidence is lacking.

Aims

To clarify the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency and offspring risk of ASD with and without intellectual disability.

Method

Using a register-based total population study (N=509 639), we calculated adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIS) of ASD with and without intellectual disability in relation to lifetime diagnoses of maternal vitamin D deficiency. Although rare, such deficiency was associated with offspring risk of ASD with, but not without, intellectual disability (aORs 2.51, 95% CI 1.22–5.16 and 1.28, 0.68–2.42). Relationships were stronger in non-immigrant children.

Conclusions

If reflecting associations for prenatal hypovitaminosis, these findings imply gestational vitamin D substitution as a means of ASD prevention.

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Copyright
This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Corresponding author
Cecilia Magnusson, Department of Public Health Sciences, KarolinskaInstitutet, SE-171 77, Stockholm, Sweden. Tel: +46-(0)-8-12337133. Email: Cecilia.magnusson@ki.se
Footnotes
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Declaration of interest

None.

Copyright and usage

© The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence.

Footnotes
References
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1 Sandin, S, Lichtenstein, P, Kuja-Halkola, R, Larsson, H, Hultman, CM, Reichenberg, A. The familial risk of autism. JAMA 2014; 31: 1770–7.
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3 Magnusson, C, Rai, D, Goodman, A, Lundberg, M, Idring, S, Svensson, A, et al. Migration and autism spectrum disorder: population-based study. Br J Psychiatry 2012; 201: 109–15.
4 Eyles, DW, Burne, TH, McGrath, JJ. Vitamin D, effects on brain development, adult brain function and the links between low levels of vitamin D and neuropsychiatric disease. Front Neuroendocrinol 2013; 34: 4764.
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6 Fernell, E, Bejerot, S, Westerlund, J, Miniscalco, C, Simila, H, Eyles, D, et al. Autism spectrum disorder and low vitamin D at birth: a sibling control study. Mol Autism 2015; 6: 3.
7 Idring, S, Rai, D, Dal, H, Dalman, C, Sturm, H, Zander, E, et al. Autism spectrum disorders in the Stockholm Youth Cohort: design, prevalence and validity. PLoS One 2012; 7: e41280.
8 Rai, D. Environmental risk factors for autism spectrum disorders. PhD thesis, KarolinskaInstitutet, 2013.
9 Aghajafari, F, Nagulesapillai, T, Ronksley, PE, Tough, SC, O'Beirne, M, Rabi, DM. Association between maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and pregnancy and neonatal outcomes: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. BMJ 2013; 346: f1169.
10 Sullivan, PF, Magnusson, C, Reichenberg, A, Boman, M, Dalman, C, Davidson, M, et al. Family history of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as risk factors for autism. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2012; 69: 1099–103.
11 Rai, D, Lee, BK, Dalman, C, Golding, J, Lewis, G, Magnusson, C. Parental depression, maternal antidepressant use during pregnancy, and risk of autism spectrumdisorders: population based case-control study. BMJ 2013; 346: f2059.
12 Bergström, I, Palmér, M, Persson, J, Blanck, A. Observational study of vitamin D levels and pain in pregnant immigrant women living in Sweden. Gynecol Endocrinol 2014; 30: 74–7.
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Maternal vitamin D deficiency and the risk of autism spectrum disorders: population-based study

  • Cecilia Magnusson (a1) (a2), Kyriaki Kosidou (a1), Christina Dalman (a3), Michael Lundberg (a1) (a4) (a5), Brian K. Lee (a6), Dheeraj Rai (a1), Håkan Karlsson (a7), Renee Gardner (a7) and Stefan Arver (a7)...
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