1Novella, EJ. Mental Health Care in the aftermath of deinstitutionalization: a retrospective and prospective view. Health Care Anal 2010; 18: 222–38.
2Zhang, SM, Mellsop, G, Brink, J, Wang, XP. Involuntary admission and treatment of patients with mental disorder. Neurosci Bull 2015; 31: 99–112.
3Kallert, TW, Glockner, M, Schutzwohl, M. Involuntary vs. voluntary hospital admission - a systematic literature review on outcome diversity. Eur Arch Psych Clin Neurosci 2008; 258: 195–209.
4Keown, P, Murphy, H, McKenna, D, McKinnon, I. Changes in the use of the Mental Health Act 1983 in England 1984/85 to 2015/16. Br J Psychiatry 2018; 213: 595–9.
5Wood, L, Alsawy, S. Patient experiences of psychiatric inpatient care: a systematic review of qualitative evidence. J Psychiatr Intensive Care 2016; 12: 35–43.
6Csipke, E, Flach, C, McCrone, P, Rose, D, Tilley, J, Wykes, T, et al. Inpatient care 50 years after the process of deinstitutionalisation. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2014; 49: 665–71.
7Priebe, S, Katsakou, C, Glockner, M, Dembinskas, A, Fiorillo, A, Karastergiou, A, et al. Patients’ views of involuntary hospital admission after 1 and 3 months: prospective study in 11 European countries. Br J Psychiatry 2010; 196: 179–85.
9Katsakou, C, Priebe, S. Patient's experiences of involuntary hospital admission and treatment: a review of qualitative studies. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci 2007; 16: 172–8.
10Seed, T, Fox, JR, Berry, K. The experience of involuntary detention in acute psychiatric care. A review and synthesis of qualitative studies. Int J Nurs Stud 2016; 61: 82–94.
11Giacco, D, Mavromara, L, Gamblen, J, Conneely, M, Priebe, S. Shared decision-making with involuntary hospital patients: a qualitative study of barriers and facilitators. BJPsych Open 2018; 4: 113–8.
12Khatib, A, Ibrahim, M, Roe, D. Re-building trust after physical restraint during involuntary psychiatric hospitalization. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2018; 32: 457–61.
13Lanthén, K, Rask, M, Sunnqvist, C. Psychiatric patients experiences with mechanical restraints: an interview study. Psychiatry J 2015; 2015: .
14Stylianidis, S, Peppou, LE, Drakonakis, N, Iatropoulou, G, Nikolaidi, S, Tsikou, K, et al. Patients’ views and experiences of involuntary hospitalization in Greece: a focus group study. Int J Cult Ment Health 2017; .
15Thomas, J, Harden, A. Methods for the thematic synthesis of qualitative research in systematic reviews. BMC Med Res Methodol 2008; 8: 10.
16Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. CASP Qualitative Research Checklist. CASP, 2017.
17Moher, D, Liberati, A, Tetzlaff, J, Altman, DG, Group, P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 2009; 6: e1000097.
18Chambers, M, Gallagher, A, Borschmann, R, Gillard, S, Turner, K, Kantaris, X. The experiences of detained mental health service users: issues of dignity in care. BMC Med Ethics 2014; 15: 8.
19Donner, B, Mutter, R, Scior, K. Mainstream in-patient Mental Health Care for people with intellectual disabilities: service user, carer and provider experiences. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil 2010; 23: 214–25.
20Fenton, K, Larkin, M, Boden, ZVR, Thompson, J, Hickman, G, Newton, E. The experiential impact of hospitalisation in early psychosis: service-user accounts of inpatient environments. Health Place 2014; 30: 234–41.
21Fish, R. Friends and family: regulation and relationships on the locked ward. Disabil Soc 2016; 31: 1385–402.
22Fish, R. ‘Behind This Wall’ - experiences of seclusion on locked wards for women. Scand J Disabil Res 2018; 20: 139–51.
23Fish, R, Hatton, C. Gendered experiences of physical restraint on locked wards for women. Disabil Soc 2017; 32: 790–809.
24Gault, I. Service-user and carer perspectives on compliance and compulsory treatment in community mental health services. Health Soc Care Community 2009; 17: 504–13.
25Gault, I, Gallagher, A, Chambers, M. Perspectives on medicine adherence in service users and carers with experience of legally sanctioned detention and medication: a qualitative study. Patient Prefer Adherence 2013; 7: 787–99.
26Gilburt, H, Rose, D, Slade, M. The importance of relationships in mental health care: a qualitative study of service users’ experiences of psychiatric hospital admission in the UK. BMC Health Serv Res 2008; 8: 12.
27Gillard, S, Borschmann, R, Turner, K, Goodrich-Purnell, N, Lovell, K, Chambers, M. Producing different analytical narratives, coproducing integrated analytical narrative: a qualitative study of UK detained mental health patient experience involving service user researchers. Int J Soc Res Methodol 2012; 15: 239–54.
28Haw, C, Stubbs, J, Bickle, A, Stewart, I. Coercive treatments in forensic psychiatry: a study of patients’ experiences and preferences. J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol 2011; 22: 564–85.
29Henderson, J. Experiences of ‘care' in mental health. J Adult Prot 2002; 4: 34–45.
30Hughes, R, Hayward, M, Finlay, WML. Patients’ perceptions of the impact of involuntary inpatient care on self, relationships and recovery. J Ment Heal 2009; 18: 152–60.
31Jones, J, Nolan, P, Bowers, L, Simpson, A, Whittington, R, Hackney, D, et al. Psychiatric wards: places of safety? J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2010; 17: 124–30.
32Jones, P, Kroese, BS. Service users’ views of physical restraint procedures in secure settings for people with learning disabilities. Br J Learn Disabil 2007; 35: 50–4.
33Katsakou, C, Rose, D, Amos, T, Bowers, L, McCabe, R, Oliver, D, et al. Psychiatric patients’ views on why their involuntary hospitalisation was right or wrong: a qualitative study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012; 47: 1169–79.
34Laugharne, R, Priebe, S, McCabe, R, Garland, N, Clifford, D. Trust, choice and power in mental health care: experiences of patients with psychosis. Int J Soc Psychiatr 2012; 58: 496–504.
35Loft, NO, Lavender, T. Exploring compulsory admission experiences of adults with psychosis in the UK using Grounded Theory. J Ment Heal 2016; 25: 297–302.
36Long, CG, Knight, C, Bradley, L, Thomas, M. Effective therapeutic milieus in secure services for women: the service user perspective. J Ment Heal 2012; 21: 567–78.
37Madders, SAS, George, CA. ‘I couldn't have done it on my own.’ Perspectives of patients preparing for discharge from a UK high secure hospital. Ment Health Rev J 2014; 19: 27–36.
38Maltman, L, Stacey, J, Hamilton, L. Peaks and troughs-an exploration of patient perspectives of dangerous and severe personality disorder assessment (Peaks Unit, Rampton Hospital). Personal Ment Health 2008; 2: 7–16.
39McKeown, M, Jones, F, Foy, P, Wright, K, Paxton, T, Blackmon, M. Looking back, looking forward: recovery journeys in a high secure hospital. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2016; 25: 234–42.
40McNally, C, Beail, N, Kellett, S. The experience of detention under the Mental Health Act (1983). Adv Ment Health Learn Disabil 2007; 1: 47–53.
41Ridley, J, Hunter, S. Subjective experiences of compulsory treatment from a qualitative study of early implementation of the Mental Health (Care & Treatment) (Scotland) Act 2003. Health Soc Care Community 2013; 21: 509–18.
42Riley, G, Freeman, E, Laidlaw, J, Pugh, D. ‘A frightening experience’: detainees’ and carers’ experiences of being detained under Section 136 of the Mental Health Act. Med Sci Law 2011; 51: 164–9.
43Seed, T, Fox, J, Berry, K. Experiences of detention under the Mental Health Act for adults with anorexia nervosa. Clin Psychol Psychother 2016; 23: 352–62.
44Skelly, C. From special hospital to regional secure unit - a qualitative study of the problems experienced by patients. J Adv Nurs 1994; 20: 1056–63.
45Tapp, J, Warren, F, Fife-Schaw, C, Perkins, D, Moore, E. What do the experts by experience tell us about ‘what works’ in high secure forensic inpatient hospital services? J Forensic Psychiatry Psychol 2013; 24: 160–78.
46Valenti, E, Giacco, D, Katasakou, C, Priebe, S. Which values are important for patients during involuntary treatment? A qualitative study with psychiatric inpatients. J Med Ethics 2014; 40: 832–6.
47Andreasson, E, Skarsater, I. Patients treated for psychosis and their perceptions of care in compulsory treatment: basis for an action plan. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2012; 19: 15–22.
48Hörberg, U, Sjögren, R, Dahlberg, K. To be strategically struggling against resignation: the lived experience of being cared for in forensic psychiatric care. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2012; 33: 743–51.
49Johansson, IM, Lundman, B. Patients’ experience of involuntary psychiatric care: good opportunities and great losses. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2002; 9: 639–47.
50Olofsson, B, Jacobsson, L. A plea for respect: involuntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients’ narratives about being subjected to coercion. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2001; 8: 357–66.
51Olofsson, B, Norberg, A. Experiences of coercion in psychiatric care as narrated by patients, nurses and physicians. J Adv Nurs 2001; 33: 89–97.
52Olsson, H, Audulv, Å, Strand, S, Kristiansen, L. Reducing or increasing violence in forensic care: a qualitative study of inpatient experiences. Arch Psychiatr Nurs 2015; 29: 393–400.
53Olsson, H, Strand, S, Kristiansen, L. Reaching a turning point - how patients in forensic care describe trajectories of recovery. Scand J Caring Sci 2014; 28: 505–14.
54Schön, U-K. Recovery in involuntary psychiatric care: is there a gender difference? J Ment Heal 2013; 22: 420–7.
55Bradbury, J, Hutchinson, M, Hurley, J, Stasa, H. Lived experience of involuntary transport under mental health legislation. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2017; 26: 580–92.
56Muir-Cochrane, E, Oster, C, Grotto, J, Gerace, A, Jones, J. The inpatient psychiatric unit as both a safe and unsafe place: implications for absconding. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2013; 22: 304–12.
57Wyder, M, Bland, R, Blythe, A, Matarasso, B, Crompton, D. Therapeutic relationships and involuntary treatment orders: service users’ interactions with health-care professionals on the ward. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2015; 24: 181–9.
58Wyder, M, Bland, R, Crompton, D. The importance of safety, agency and control during involuntary mental health admissions. J Ment Heal 2016; 25: 338–42.
59Wyder, M, Bland, R, Herriot, A, Crompton, D. The experiences of the legal processes of involuntary treatment orders: tension between the legal and medical frameworks. Int J Law Psychiatr 2015; 38: 44–50.
60Campbell, J. Stakeholders’ views of legal and advice services for people admitted to psychiatric hospital. J Soc Welfare Family Law 2008; 30: 219–32.
61McGuinness, D, Dowling, M, Trimble, T. Experiences of involuntary admission in an approved mental health centre. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2013; 20: 726–34.
62Murphy, R, McGuinness, D, Bainbridge, E, Brosnan, L, Felzmann, H, Keys, M, et al. Service users’ experiences of involuntary hospital admission under the Mental Health Act 2001 in the Republic of Ireland. Psychiatr Serv 2017; 68: 1127–35.
63Murphy, R, McGuinness, D, Bainbridge, E, Brosnan, L, Keys, M, Felzmann, H, et al. Service users’ experiences of mental health tribunals in Ireland: a qualitative analysis. Ir J Psychol Med 2017; 34: 233–42.
64Smyth, S, Casey, D, Cooney, A, Higgins, A, McGuinness, D, Bainbridge, E, et al. Qualitative exploration of stakeholders’ perspectives of involuntary admission under the Mental Health Act 2001 in Ireland. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2017; 26: 554–69.
65Norvoll, R, Pedersen, R. Exploring the views of people with mental health problems’ on the concept of coercion: towards a broader socio-ethical perspective. Soc Sci Med 2016; 156: 204–11.
66Terkelsen, TB, Larsen, IB. The locked psychiatric ward: hotel or detention camp for people with dual diagnosis. J Ment Heal 2013; 22: 412–9.
67Sibitz, I, Scheutz, A, Lakeman, R, Schrank, B, Schaffer, M, Amering, M. Impact of coercive measures on life stories: qualitative study. Br J Psychiatry 2011; 199: 239–44.
68Askola, R, Nikkonen, M, Paavilainen, E, Soininen, P, Putkonen, H, Louheranta, O. Forensic psychiatric patients’ perspectives on their care: 1a narrative view. Perspect Psychiatr Care 2018; 54: 64–73.
69Ezeobele, IE, Malecha, AT, Mock, A, Mackey-Godine, A, Hughes, M. Patients’ lived seclusion experience in acute psychiatric hospital in the United States: a qualitative study. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2014; 21: 303–12.
70Jankovic, J, Richards, F, Priebe, S. Advance statements in adult mental health. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2010; 16: 448–55.
71Shah, A. Is the mental health review tribunal inherently unfair to patients? Psychiatr Psychol Law 2010; 17: 25–31.
72Kallert, TW, Glöckner, M, Onchev, G, Raboch, J, Karastergiou, A, Solomon, Z, et al. The EUNOMIA project on coercion in psychiatry: study design and preliminary data. World Psychiatry 2005; 4: 168.
73Fiorillo, A, De Rosa, C, Del Vecchio, V, Jurjanz, L, Schnall, K, Onchev, G, et al. How to improve clinical practice on involuntary hospital admissions of psychiatric patients: suggestions from the EUNOMIA study. Eur Psychiatry 2011; 26: 201–7.
74Giacco, D, Conneely, M, Masoud, T, Burn, E, Priebe, S. Interventions for involuntary psychiatric inpatients: a systematic review. Eur Psychiatry 2018; 54: 41–50.
75Heumann, K, Bock, T, Lincoln, TM. Please do something - no matter what! a nationwide online survey of mental health service users about the use of alternatives to coercive measures. Psychiatr Prax 2017; 44: 85–92.
76Azeem, M, Aujla, A, Rammerth, M, Binsfeld, G, Jones, RB. Effectiveness of six core strategies based on trauma informed care in reducing seclusions and restraints at a child and adolescent psychiatric hospital. J Child Adolesc Psychiatry Nurs 2017; 30: 170–4.
77Elliott, DE, Bjelajac, P, Fallor, RD, Markoff, LS, Reed, BG. Trauma-informed or trauma-denied: principles and implementation of trauma-informed services for women. J Community Psychol 2005; 33: 461–77.
78Maguire, T, Young, R, Martin, T. Seclusion reduction in a forensic mental health setting. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2012; 19: 97–106.
79Riahi, S, Dawe, IC, Stuckey, MI, Klassen, PE. Implementation of the six core strategies for restraint minimization in a specialized mental health organization. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv 2016; 54: 32–9.
80Wieman, DA, Camacho-Gonsalves, T, Huckshorn, KA, Leff, S. Multisite study of an evidence-based practice to reduce seclusion and restraint in psychiatric inpatient facilities. Psychiatr Serv 2014; 65: 345–51.
81Larue, C, Dumais, A, Boyer, R, Goulet, MH, Bonin, JP, Baba, N. The experience of seclusion and restraint in psychiatric settings: perspectives of patients. Issues Ment Health Nurs 2013; 34: 317–24.
82Quirk, A, Lelliott, P, Seale, C. Service users’ strategies for managing risk in the volatile environment of an acute psychiatric ward. Soc Sci Med 2004; 59: 2573–83.
83Gerace, A, Oster, C, O'Kane, D, Hayman, CL, Muir-Cochrane, E. Empathic processes during nurse-consumer conflict situations in psychiatric inpatient units: a qualitative study. Int J Ment Health Nurs 2018; 27: 92–105.
84Bowers, L. Safewards: a new model of conflict and containment on psychiatric wards. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs 2014; 21: 499–508.
85Bowers, L, James, K, Quirk, A, Simpson, A, Stewart, D, Hodsoll, J, et al. Reducing conflict and containment rates on acute psychiatric wards: the Safewards cluster randomised controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud 2015; 52: 1412–22.
86Stensgaard, L, Andersen, MK, Nordentoft, M, Hjorthøj, C. Implementation of the safewards model to reduce the use of coercive measures in adult psychiatric inpatient units: an interrupted time-series analysis. J Psychiatr Res 2018; 105: 147–52.
87Higgins, N, Meehan, T, Dart, N, Kilshaw, M, Fawcett, L. Implementation of the safewards model in public mental health facilities: a qualitative evaluation of staff perceptions. Int J Nurs Stud 2018; 88: 114–20.
88Berger, R. Now I see it, now I don't: researcher's position and reflexivity in qualitative research. Qual Res 2015; 15: 219–34.
89Orb, A, Eisenhauer, L, Wynaden, D. Ethics in qualitative research. J Nurs Scholarsh 2001; 33: 93–6.
90Gajwani, R, Parsons, H, Birchwood, M, Singh, SP. Ethnicity and detention: are Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups disproportionately detained under the Mental Health Act 2007? Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2016; 51: 703–11.
91Bhui, K, Ullrich, S, Kallis, C, Coid, JW. Criminal justice pathways to psychiatric care for psychosis. Br J Psychiatry 2015; 207: 523–9.
92Totman, J, Hundt, GL, Wearn, E, Paul, M, Johnson, S. Factors affecting staff morale on inpatient mental health wards in England: a qualitative investigation. BMC Psychiatry 2011; 11: 10.