Cummings, J, Mintzer, J, Brodaty, H, Sano, M, Banerjee, S, Devanand, DP, et al Agitation in cognitive disorders: International Psychogeriatric Association provisional consensus clinical and research definition. Int Psychogeriatr
2015; 27: 7–17.
Livingston, G, Kelly, L, Lewis-Holmes, E, Baio, G, Morris, S, Patel, N, et al A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of sensory, psychological and behavioural interventions for managing agitation in older adults with dementia. Health Technol Assess (Winchester, England)
2014; 18: 1–226.
Okura, T, Langa, KM. Caregiver burden and neuropsychiatric symptoms in older adults with cognitive impairment: the Aging, Demographics, and Memory Study (ADAMS). Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
2011; 25: 116–21.
Okura, T, Plassman, BL, Steffens, DC, Llewellyn, DJ, Potter, GG, Langa, KM. Neuropsychiatric symptoms and the risk of institutionalization and death: the aging, demographics, and memory study. J Am Geriatr Soc
2011; 59: 473–81.
Morris, S, Patel, N, Baio, G, Kelly, L, Lewis-Holmes, E, Omar, RZ, et al Monetary costs of agitation in older adults with Alzheimer's disease in the UK: prospective cohort study. BMJ Open
2015; 5: e007382.
Cohen-Mansfield, J. Conceptualization of agitation: results based on the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory and the Agitation Behavior Mapping Instrument. Int Psychogeriatr
1996; 8 (suppl 3): 309–15.
van der Linde, RM, Dening, T, Stephan, BC, Prina, AM, Evans, E, Brayne, C. Longitudinal course of behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia: systematic review. Br J Psychiatry
2016; 209: 368–79.
Okura, T, Plassman, BL, Steffens, DC, Llewellyn, DJ, Potter, GG, Langa, KM. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms and their association with functional limitations in older adults in the United States: the aging, demographics, and memory study. J Am Geriatr Soc
2010; 58: 330–7.
Ballard, CG, Margallo-Lana, M, Fossey, J, Reichelt, K, Myint, P, Potkins, D, et al A 1-year follow-up study of behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia among people in care environments. J Clin Psychiatry
2001; 62: 631–6.
Ryu, SH, Katona, C, Rive, B, Livingston, G. Persistence of and changes in neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer disease over 6 months – The LASER-AD study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2005; 13: 976–83.
Ryu, SH, Ha, JH, Park, DH, Yu, J, Liyingston, G. Persistence of neuropsychiatric symptoms over six months in mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling Korean elderly. Int Psychogeriatr
2011; 23: 214–20.
Brodaty, H, Connors, MH, Xu, J, Woodward, M, Ames, D. The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: a 3-year longitudinal study. J Am Med Dir Assoc
2015; 16: 380–7.
Borsje, P, Wetzels, RB, Lucassen, PL, Pot, AM, Koopmans, RT. The course of neuropsychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling patients with dementia: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr
2015; 27: 385–405.
Lyketsos, CG, Lopez, O, Jones, B, Fitzpatrick, AL, Breitner, J, DeKosky, S. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia and mild cognitive impairment: results from the cardiovascular health study. JAMA
2002; 288: 1475–83.
Gaugler, JE, Yu, F, Krichbaum, K, Wyman, JF. Predictors of nursing home admission for persons with dementia. Med Care
2009; 47: 191–8.
Margallo-Lana, M, Swann, A, O'Brien, J, Fairbairn, A, Reichelt, K, Potkins, D, et al Prevalence and pharmacological management of behavioural and psychological symptoms amongst dementia sufferers living in care environments. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2001; 16: 39–44.
Zuidema, SU, Derksen, E, Verhey, FR, Koopmans, RT. Prevalence of neuropsychiatric symptoms in a large sample of Dutch nursing home patients with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2007; 22: 632–8.
Zuidema, SU, de Jonghe, JF, Verhey, FR, Koopmans, RT. Predictors of neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home patients: influence of gender and dementia severity. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2009; 24: 1079–86.
Hoe, J, Hancock, G, Livingston, G, Orrell, M. Quality of life of people with dementia in residential care homes. Br J Psychiatry
2006; 188: 460–4.
Wetzels, RB, Zuidema, SU, de Jonghe, JFM, Verhey, FRJ, Koopmans, RTCM. Determinants of quality of life in nursing home residents with dementia. Dementia Geriatr Cogn Disord
2010; 29: 189–97.
Beerens, HC, Zwakhalen, SM, Verbeek, H, Ruwaard, D, Hamers, JP. Factors associated with quality of life of people with dementia in long-term care facilities: a systematic review. Int J Nurs Stud
2013; 50: 1259–70.
Algase, DL, Beck, C, Kolanowski, A, Whall, A, Berent, S, Richards, K, et al Need-driven dementia-compromised behavior: an alternative view of disruptive behavior. Am J Alzheimer's Dis Other Dementias
1996; 11: 10–9.
Livingston, G, Kelly, L, Lewis-Holmes, E, Baio, G, Morris, S, Patel, N, et al Non-pharmacological interventions for agitation in dementia: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Psychiatry
2014; 205: 436–42.
Schneider, LS, Dagerman, K, Insel, PS. Efficacy and adverse effects of atypical antipsychotics for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
2006; 14: 191–210.
Schneider, LS, Dagerman, KS, Insel, P. Risk of death with atypical antipsychotic drug treatment for dementia: meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. JAMA
2005; 294: 1934–43.
Szczepura, A, Wild, D, Khan, AJ, Owen, DW, Palmer, T, Muhammad, T, et al Antipsychotic prescribing in care homes before and after launch of a national dementia strategy: an observational study in English institutions over a 4-year period. BMJ Open
2016; 6: e009882.
Cooper, C, Lodwick, R, Walters, K, Raine, R, Manthorpe, J, Iliffe, S, et al Inequalities in receipt of mental and physical healthcare in people with dementia in the UK. Age Ageing
2016; 46: 393–400.
Levin, E. Families, Services, and Confusion in Old Age.
National Institute for Social Work, 1989.
Moriarty, J, Webb, S. Part of their Lives – Community Care for Older People with Dementia.
The Policy Press, 2000.
Lawton, MP, Weisman, GD, Sloane, P, Norris-Baker, C, Calkins, M, Zimmerman, SI. Professional environmental assessment procedure for special care units for elders with dementing illness and its relationship to the therapeutic environment screening schedule. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord
2000; 14: 28–38.
Bicket, MC, Samus, QM, McNabney, M, Onyike, CU, Mayer, LS, Brandt, J, et al The physical environment influences neuropsychiatric symptoms and other outcomes in assisted living residents. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2010; 25: 1044–54.
Cohen-Mansfield, J, Billig, N. Agitated behaviors in the elderly. I. A conceptual review. J Am Geriatr Soc
1986; 34: 711–21.
Zuidema, SU, Buursema, AL, Gerritsen, MG, Oosterwal, KC, Smits, MM, Koopmans, RT, et al Assessing neuropsychiatric symptoms in nursing home patients with dementia: reliability and Reliable Change Index of the Neuropsychiatric Inventory and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
2011; 26: 127–34.
Cohen-Mansfield, J, Marx, MS, Rosenthal, AS. A description of agitation in a nursing home. J Gerontol
1989; 44: M77–84.
Smith, SC, Lamping, DL, Banerjee, S, Harwood, R, Foley, B, Smith, P, et al Measurement of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: development of a new instrument (DEMQOL) and an evaluation of current methodology. Health Technol Assess
2005; 9: 1–iv.
Smith, SC, Lamping, DL, Banerjee, S, Harwood, RH, Foley, B, Smith, P, et al Development of a new measure of health-related quality of life for people with dementia: DEMQOL. Psychol Med
2007; 37: 737–46.
Hughes, CP, Berg, L, Danziger, WL, Coben, LA, Martin, RL. A new clinical-Scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry
1982; 140: 566–72.
Morris, JC. Clinical dementia rating: a reliable and valid diagnostic and staging measure for dementia of the Alzheimer type. Int Psychogeriatr
1997; 9 (suppl 1): 173–6.
Cummings, JL, Mega, M, Gray, K, Rosenberg-Thompson, S, Carusi, DA, Gornbein, J. The Neuropsychiatric Inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology
1994; 44: 2308–14.
StataCorp, LP. Stata Statistical Software: Release 14. [computer program]. StataCorp LP, 2015.
Ballard, CG, Margallo-Lana, ML. The relationship between antipsychotic treatment and quality of life for patients with dementia living in residential and nursing home care facilities. J Clin Psychiatry
2004; 65 (suppl 11): 23–8.
Ballard, C, Orrell, M, YongZhong, S, Moniz-Cook, E, Stafford, J, Whittaker, R, et al Impact of antipsychotic review and nonpharmacological intervention on antipsychotic use, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and mortality in people with dementia living in nursing homes: A factorial cluster-randomized controlled trial by the Well-Being and Health for People With Dementia (WHELD) Program. Am J Psychiatry
2016; 173: 252–62.
Gaugler, JE. Family involvement in residential long-term care: a synthesis and critical review. Aging Ment Health
2005; 9: 105–18.
Backhouse, T, Killett, A, Penhale, B, Gray, R. The use of non-pharmacological interventions for dementia behaviours in care homes: findings from four in-depth, ethnographic case studies. Age Ageing
2016; 45: 856–63.
Prince, M, Knapp, M, Guerchet, M, McCrone, P, Prina, M, Comas-Herrera, A, et al Dementia UK: Second Edition – Overview.
Alzheimer Society, 2014.
Husebo, BS, Ballard, C, Sandvik, R, Nilsen, OB, Aarsland, D. Efficacy of treating pain to reduce behavioural disturbances in residents of nursing homes with dementia: cluster randomised clinical trial. BMJ
2011; 343: d4065.
Kales, HC, Zivin, K, Kim, HM, Valenstein, M, Chiang, C, Ignacio, RV, et al Trends in antipsychotic use in dementia 1999–2007. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2011; 68: 190–7.
Morkem, R, Barber, D, Williamson, T, Patten, SB. A Canadian primary care sentinel surveillance network study evaluating antidepressant prescribing in Canada from 2006 to 2012. Can J Psychiatry
2015; 60: 564–70.
Olfson, M, Marcus, SC. National patterns in antidepressant medication treatment. Arch Gen Psychiatry
2009; 66: 848–56.
Fleming, R, Goodenough, B, Low, LF, Chenoweth, L, Brodaty, H. The relationship between the quality of the built environment and the quality of life of people with dementia in residential care. Dementia
2016; 15: 663–80.
Robertson, S, Cooper, C, Hoe, J, Hamilton, O, Stringer, A, Livingston, G. Proxy rated quality of life of care home residents with dementia: a systematic review. Int Psychogeriatr
2017; 29: 569–81.