Health and Social Care Information Centre. Learning Disabilities Census Report.
Devapriam, J, Rosenbach, A, Alexander, R. In-patient services for people with intellectual disability and mental health or behavioural difficulties. BJPscyh Adv
2015; 21: 116–23.
Royal College of Psychiatrists' Faculty of Psychiatry of Intellectual Disability. People with Learning Disability and Mental Health, Behavioural or Forensic Problems: The Role of In-Patient Services.
Esan, F, Chester, V, Gunaratna, IJ, Hoare, S, Alexander, RT. The clinical, forensic and treatment outcome factors of patients with autism spectrum disorder treated in a forensic intellectual disability service. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2015; 28: 193–200.
Alexander, R, Hiremath, A, Chester, V, Green, F, Gunaratna, I, Hoare, S. Evaluation of treatment outcomes from a medium secure unit for people with intellectual disability. Adv Ment Health Intellect Disabil
2011; 5: 22–32.
Department of Health. The NHS Outcomes Framework 2015/16.
Department of Health, 2014.
NHS England. Building the Right Support: A National Plan to Develop Community Services and Close Inpatient Facilities for People with a Learning Disability and/or Autism who Display Behaviour that Challenges, Including those with a Mental Health Condition.
NHS England, 2015.
Fitzpatrick, R, Chambers, J, Burns, T, Doll, H, Fazel, S, Jenkinson, C, et al. A systematic review of outcome measures used in forensic mental health research with consensus panel opinion. Health Technol Assess (Rockv)
2010; 14: 1–94.
Gilbody, SM, House, AO, Sheldon, TA. Outcomes Measurement in Psychiatry: A Critical Review of Outcomes Measurement in Psychiatric Research and Practice.
Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, 2003.
Leamy, M, Bird, V, Le Boutillier, C, Williams, J, Slade, M. Conceptual framework for personal recovery in mental health: systematic review and narrative synthesis. Br J Psychiatry
2011; 199: 445–2.
Department of Health. Transparency in Outcomes: A Framework for the NHS.
Department of Health, 2010.
Hassiotis, A, Hall, I. Behavioural and cognitive-behavioural interventions for outwardly-directed aggressive behaviour in people with learning disabilities. Cochrane Database Syst Rev
2004; 4: CD003406.
Duggan, C. The empirical basis of sex offender treatment effectiveness. Sex Offender Treat
2014; 9: 1–13.
Hsieh, H-F, Shannon, SE. Three approaches to qualitative content analysis. Qual Health Res
2005; 15: 1277–88.
Linstone, HA, Turoff, M. The Delphi Method: Techniques and Applications.
Murphy, MK, Black, NA, Lamping, DL, McKee, CM, Sanderson, CF, Askham, J, et al. Consensus development methods, and their use in clinical guideline development. Health Technol Assess
1988; 2(3): i–iv, .
Alexander, RT, Crouch, K, Halstead, S, Piachaud, J, Piachaud, J, Singh, I, et al. Long-term outcome from a medium secure service for people with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res
2006; 50: 305–15.
Alexander, RT, Green, FN, O'Mahony, B, Gunaratna, IJ, Gangadharan, SK, Hoare, S. Personality disorders in offenders with intellectual disability: a comparison of clinical, forensic and outcome variables and implications for service provision. J Intellect Disabil Res
2010; 54: 650–8.
Alexander, RT, Chester, V, Green, FN, Gunaratna, I, Hoare, S. Arson or fire setting in offenders with intellectual disability: clinical characteristics, forensic histories, and treatment outcomes. J Intellect Dev Disabil
2015; 40: 189–97.
Alexander, RT, Chester, V, Gray, NS, Snowden, RJ. Patients with personality disorders and intellectual disability - closer to personality disorders or intellectual disability? A three-way comparison. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
2012; 23: 435–51.
Ayres, M, Roy, A. Supporting people with complex mental health needs to get a life! The role of the Supported Living Outreach Team. Tizard Learn Disabil Rev
2009; 14: 29–39.
Barron, P, Hassiotis, A, Banes, J. Offenders with intellectual disability: a prospective comparative study. J Intellect Disabil Res
2004; 48: 69–76.
Benton, C, Roy, A. The first three years of a community forensic service for people with a learning disability. Br J Forensic Pract
2008; 10: 4–12.
Butwell, M, Jamieson, E, Leese, M, Taylor, P. Trends in special (high-security) hospitals. 2: Residency and discharge episodes, 1986-1995. Br J Psychiatry
2000; 176: 260–5.
Day, K. A hospital-based treatment programme for male mentally handicapped offenders. Br J Psychiatry
1988; 153: 635–44.
Dickens, G, Sugarman, P, Picchioni, M, Long, C. HoNOS-secure: tracking risk and recovery for men in secure care. Br J Forensic Pract
2010; 12: 36–46.
Fitzgerald, S, Gray, NS, Taylor, J, Snowden, RJ. Risk factors for recidivism in offenders with intellectual disabilities. Psychol Crime Law
2011; 17: 43–58.
Gray, NS, Fitzgerald, S, Taylor, J, Macculloch, MJ, Snowden, RJ. Predicting future reconviction in offenders with intellectual disabilities: the predictive efficacy of VRAG, PCL-SV, and the HCR-20. Psychol Assess
2007; 19: 474–9.
Halstead, S, Cahill, A, Fernando, L, Isweran, M. Discharges from a learning-disability medium secure unit: what happens to them?
Br J Forensic Pract
2001; 3: 11–21.
Lindsay, WR, Smith, AHW, Law, J, Quinn, K, Anderson, A, Smith, A, et al. A treatment service for sex offenders and abusers with intellectual disability: characteristics of referrals and evaluation. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2002; 15: 166–74.
Lindsay, WR, Smith, AHW, Law, J, Quinn, K, Anderson, A, Smith, A, et al. Sexual and nonsexual offenders with intellectual and learning disabilities: a comparison of characteristics, referral patterns, and outcome. J Interpers Violence
2004; 19: 875–90.
Lindsay, WR, Steele, L, Smith, AHW, Quinn, K, Allan, R. A community forensic intellectual disability service: twelve year follow up of referrals, analysis of referral patterns and assessment of harm reduction. Leg Criminol Psychol
2006; 11: 113–30.
Lindsay, WR, Steptoe, L, Wallace, L, Haut, F, Brewster, E. An evaluation and 20-year follow-up of a community forensic intellectual disability service. Crim Behav Ment Health
2013; 23: 138–49.
Lindsay, WR, Holland, T, Wheeler, JR, Carson, D, O'Brien, G, Taylor, JL, et al. Pathways through services for offenders with intellectual disability: a one- and two-year follow-up study. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil
2010; 115: 250–62.
Linhorst, DM, McCutchen, TA, Bennett, L. Recidivism among offenders with developmental disabilities participating in a case management program. Res Dev Disabil
2003; 24: 210–30.
Marks, K. Assessing Risk and Outcomes in Offenders Detained in Intellectual Disability and Mental Health Medium Secure Units in the United Kingdom.
University of Birmingham, 2011.
Morrissey, C, Taylor, J. Changes in personality disorder traits following 2 years of treatment in a secure therapeutic community milieu. J Ment Health Res Intellect Disabil
2014; 7: 323–36.
Morrissey, C, Beeley, C, Milton, J. Longitudinal HCR-20 scores in a high-secure psychiatric hospital. Crim Behav Ment Health
2014; 24: 169–80.
Morrissey, C, Mooney, P, Hogue, TE, Lindsay, WR, Taylor, JL. Predictive validity of the PCL-R for offenders with intellectual disability in a high security hospital: treatment progress. J Intellect Dev Disabil
2007; 32: 125–33.
Morrissey, C, Hobson, B, Faulkner, E, James, T. Outcomes from the National High Secure Learning Disability Service: findings and challenges. Adv Ment Health Intellect Disabil
2015; 9: 116–23.
Palucka, AM, Raina, P, Liu, S, Lunsky, Y. The clinical profiles of forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities in a specialized unit. J Learn Disabil OffendingBehav
2012; 3: 219–27.
Reed, S, Russell, A, Xenitidis, K, Murphy, DGM. People with learning disabilities in a low secure in-patient unit: Comparison of offenders and non-offenders. Br J Psychiatry
2004; 185: 499–504.
Xenitidis, KI, Henry, J, Russell, AJ, Ward, A, Murphy, DG. An inpatient treatment model for adults with mild intellectual disability and challenging behaviour. J Intellect Disabil Res
1999; 43: 128–34.
Lindsay, WR, Smith, AHW, Quinn, K, Anderson, A, Smith, A, Allan, R, et al. Women with intellectual disability who have offended: characteristics and outcome. J Intellect Disabil Res
2004; 48: 580–90.
Lindsay, WR, Elliot, SF, Astell, A. Predictors of sexual offence recidivism in offenders with intellectual disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2004; 17: 299–305.
Ajmal, MA. Self-esteem and mental health in a forensic learning disabilities setting. Pakistan J Soc Clin Psychol
2008; 4: 47–58.
Beer, D, Turk, V, McGovern, P, Gravestock, SM, Brooks, D, Barnett, L, et al. Characteristics of patients exhibiting severe challenging behaviour in low secure mental health and mild learning disabilities units. J Psychiatr Intensive Care
2005; 1: 29.
Beer, D, Spiller, MJ, Pickard, M, Gravestock, S, Mcgovern, P, Leese, M, et al. Low secure units: factors predicting delayed discharge. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
2005; 16: 621–37.
Chaplin, E, Eyeoyibo, M, Wright, S, Xenitidis, K, McCarthy, J. Historical and clinical items of the HCR-20 as predictors of risk within an intellectual disability population. Adv Ment Health Intellect Disabil
2015; 9: 62–9.
Chilvers, J, Thomas, C. Do male and female forensic patients with learning disabilities differ on subscales of the Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI)?
J Learn Disabil Offending Behav
2011; 2: 84–97.
Crossland, S, Burns, M, Leach, C, Quinn, P. Needs assessment in forensic learning disability. Med Sci Law
2005; 45: 147–53.
Dickens, G, Picchioni, M, Long, C. Aggression in specialist secure and forensic inpatient mental health care: incidence across care pathways. J Forensic Pract
2013; 15: 206–17.
Fitzgerald, S, Gray, N, Alexander, RT, Bagshaw, R, Chesterman, P, Huckle, P, et al. Predicting institutional violence in offenders with intellectual disabilities: the predictive efficacy of the VRAG and the HCR-20. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2013; 26: 384–93.
Hall, I, Yacoub, E, Boast, N, Bates, R, Stamps, R, Holder, S, et al. Secure inpatient services: a needs assessment. J Intellect Disabil Offending Behav
2014; 5: 38–53.
Hogue, TE, Mooney, P, Morrissey, C, Steptoe, L, Johnston, S, Lindsay, WR, et al. Emotional and behavioural problems in offenders with intellectual disability: comparative data from three forensic services. J Intellect Disabil Res
2007; 51: 778–85.
Johnson, P. The prevalence of low self-esteem in an intellectually disabled forensic population. J Intellect Disabil Res
2012; 56: 317–25.
Kellett, S, Beail, N, Newman, DW, Frankish, P. Utility of the brief symptom inventory in the assessment of psychological distress. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2003; 16: 127–34.
Lindsay, WR, Hogue, TE, Taylor, JL, Steptoe, L, Mooney, P, O'Brien, G, et al. Risk assessment in offenders with intellectual disability: a comparison across three levels of security. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol
2008; 52: 90–111.
Lindsay, W, Carson, D, O'Brien, G, Holland, AJ, Johnston, S, Taylor, JL, et al. The relationship between assessed risk and service security level for offenders with intellectual disability. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
2010; 21: 537.
Lofthouse, RE, Lindsay, WR, Totsika, V, Hastings, RP, Roberts, D. Dynamic risk and violence in individuals with an intellectual disability: tool development and initial validation. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
2014; 25: 288–306.
Mansell, J, Ritchie, F, Dyer, R. Health service inpatient units for people with intellectual disabilities and challenging behaviour or mental health problems. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2010; 23: 552–9.
McMillan, D, Hastings, RP, Coldwell, J. Clinical and actuarial prediction of physical violence in a forensic intellectual disability hospital: a longitudinal study. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil
2004; 17: 255–65.
O'Shea, LE, Picchioni, MM, McCarthy, J, Mason, FL, Dickens, GL. Predictive validity of the HCR-20 for inpatient aggression: the effect of intellectual disability on accuracy. J Intellect Disabil Res
2015; 59: 1042–54.
Perera, C, Simpson, N, Douds, F, Campbell, M. A survey of learning disability inpatient services in Scotland in 2007. J Intellect Disabil
2009; 13: 161–71.
Thomas, SD, Dolan, M, Johnston, S, Middleton, H, Harty, MA, Carlisle, J, et al. Defining the needs of patients with intellectual disabilities in the high security psychiatric hospitals in England. J Intellect Disabil Res
2004; 48: 603–10.
Uppal, G, McMurran, M. Recorded incidents in a high-secure hospital: a descriptive analysis. Crim Behav Ment Health
2009; 19: 265–76.
Mason, T. Seclusion and learning disabilities: research and deduction. Br J Dev Disabil
1996; 42: 149–59.
Fish, R, Lobley, J. Evaluating a forensic service for people with learning disabilities: comparing approaches. J Intellect Disabil
2001; 5: 97–109.
Long, CG, Bell, N, Carr, A, Cairns, L, Webb, A, Collins, L. The benefits of environmental change in a secure service for people with intellectual disabilities. Adv Ment Heal Intellect Disabil
2014; 8: 309–20.
Langdon, PE, Swift, A, Budd, R. Social climate within secure inpatient services for people with intellectual disabilities. J Intellect Disabil Res
2006; 50: 828–36.
Steptoe, L, Lindsay, WR, Forrest, D, Power, M. Quality of life and relationships in sex offenders with intellectual disability. J Intellect Dev Disabil
2006; 31: 13–9.
Willets, L, Mooney, P, Blagden, N. Social climate in learning disability services. J Intellect Disabil Offending Behav
2014; 5: 24–37.
Leonard, RD. Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI®). Pearson Clinical, 1993.
Prout, HT, Strohmer, DC. Emotional Problems Scales. Professional Manual for the Behaviour Rating Scales and Self-Report Inventory.
Psychological Assessment Resources, 1991.
Moss, S. The Mini PAS-ADD Handbook.
Dickens, G, Sugarman, P, Walker, L. HoNOS-secure: a reliable outcome measure for users of secure and forensic mental health services. J Forens Psychiatry Psychol
2007; 18: 507–14.
Guy, W. ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology.
US Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Public Health Service Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, 1976.
Douglas, KS, Hart, SD, Webster, CD, Belfrage, H, Guy, LS, Wilson, CM. Historical-clinical-risk management-20, version 3 (HCR-20V3): development and overview. Int J Forensic Ment Health
2014; 13: 93–108.
Harris, GT, Rice, ME, Camilleri, JA. Applying a forensic actuarial assessment (the violence risk appraisal guide) to non-forensic patients. J Interpers Violence
2004; 19: 1063–74.
Hanson, RC, Thornton, D. Static 99: Improving Actuarial Risk Assessments for Sex Offenders. In Prediction of Criminal Behaviour.
Public Safety Canada, 1999.
Department of Health. Positive and Proactive Care: Reducing the Need for Restrictive Interventions.
Department of Health, 2014.
Glover, G, Brown, I, Hatton, C. How psychiatric in-patient care for people with learning disabilities is transforming after Winterbourne View. Tizard Learn Disabil Rev
2014; 19: 146–9.
NHS England. Supporting People with a Learning Disability and/or Autism who Display Behaviour that Challenges, Including those with a Mental Health Condition. Service Model for Commissioners of Health and Social Care Services.
NHS England, 2015.
Trout, S. National High Secure Learning Disability Service, Rampton Hospital: Service Evaluation. Patient Focus, 2011. .