Objectives: To explore living situation, support and participation outcomes of people with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) residing in either home-like or disability-specific accommodation settings, who were provided with 3 years of occupational therapy intervention based on the Community Approach to Participation (CAP).
To examine transitions for a subgroup whose accommodation and support model changed during this 3-year period and identify factors critical to this change.
Method: Forty-three participants who had sustained severe to extremely severe ABI, and were an average of 6.73 years post-injury, were provided with CAP intervention over a 3-year period. Living situation and support model, participation levels and accommodation transition data were collected at four time points.
Results: Participants were living in a range of home-like and disability-specific accommodation settings at baseline. The disability-specific accommodation group had mainly noncompensable injuries and required a significantly higher level of daily support at all four time points. They also received higher total hours of support, which averaged 170.83 hours per week at baseline and did not change significantly over the 3 years. In contrast, 86% of the participants residing in home-like settings had compensable injuries and received an average of 91.46 hours of support per week at baseline. This reduced to 70.97 hours per week over the 3-year intervention period, a change that was statistically significant.
Conclusion: It is possible to achieve accommodation transitions to more independent, home-like situations many years post-injury and regardless of injury severity. Home-like settings provide scope to adjust support along a continuum to reflect gains in independence, community integration and role participation that the fixed models and hours of support in disability-specific accommodation do not. Over time, these gains can flow into a significant reduction in hours of support.