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Relics, writing, and memory in the English Counter Reformation: Thomas Maxfield and his afterlives

  • Alexandra Walsham (a1)

This article explores the multiple and competing afterlives of the Jacobean martyr, Thomas Maxfield, who was executed at Tyburn in July 1616. It traces the evolution of his cult between the seventeenth and twenty-first centuries by exploring the migration of his relics alongside the movements of the written and printed texts recounting his life and death. It investigates the domestic and international politics in which these textual and material remains circulated and illuminates the making and metamorphosis of social memory in the English Counter Reformation. It sheds fresh light on how Maxfield’s relics served both to bind this imagined community together and to divide and fragment it. Highlighting the interweaving of devotion and scholarship, antiquarianism and piety, it also argues that relic collecting must be recognised as part of the wider contemporary enterprises of religious record-keeping and writing sacred history.

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The research for this article has been undertaken as part of the AHRC project, ‘Remembering the Reformation’ (, based at the Universities of Cambridge and York. I am grateful to Brian Cummings, Ceri Law and Bronwyn Wallace and to audiences in Newcastle and Oxford for comments on earlier versions. It has also been supported by a Leverhulme Major Research Fellowship awarded for 2015-18.

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1 London, Archives of the Archdiocese of Westminster (hereafter AAW), St Edmund’s College, Ware (hereafter SEC), 16/9/7. The back of the letter is endorsed ‘Flowers which Mr Maxfield caryed in his hand to Tiburn’. This letter was originally kept at St Edmund’s College, Ware.

2 Nora, Pierre, ‘Between Memory and History: Les Lieux de Mémoire’, Representations 26 (1989): 7-24 , at 7, 19.

3 Connerton, Paul, How Societies Remember (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989); Van Houts, Elisabeth M.C., Memory and Gender in Medieval Europe, 900-1200 (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1999), ch. 5; Kwint, Marius, Breward, Christopher and Aynsley, Jeremy, eds, Material Memories (Oxford and New York: Berg, 1999); Radley, Alan, ‘Artefacts, Memory and a Sense of the Past’, in David Middleton and Derek Edwards, eds, Collective Remembering (London: Sage, 1990), 46-59 ; Cubitt, Geoffrey, History and Memory (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2007), 192-197 ; Hahn, Cynthia, ‘What do Reliquaries do for Relics?’, Numen 57 (2010): 284-316 , at 291.

4 See esp. Jones, Andrew, Memory and Material Culture (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007).

5 Remensnyder, Amy G., ‘Legendary Treasure at Conques: Reliquaries and Imaginative Memory’, Speculum 71 (1996): 884-906 , at 884 and 906.

6 On these processes, see Assmann, Jan, ‘Communicative and Cultural Memory’, in Astrid Erll and Ansgar Nünning, eds, Cultural Memory Studies: An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook (Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, 2008), 109-118 .

7 The classic treatment of the paradoxical relationship between fragmentation and unity is Walker Bynum, Caroline, Fragmentation and Redemption: Essays on Gender and the Human Body in Medieval Religion (New York: Zone Books, 1991).

8 See Gillow, Joseph, A Literary and Biographical History or Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics, 5 vols (London: Burns and Oates, 1885-1902), 4:362-369 ; Anstruther, Godfrey, The Seminary Priests: A Dictionary of the Secular Clergy of England and Wales 1558-1850, 4 vols (Ware: St Edmund’s College, 1969-77), 2:214-216 . For the Macclesfield family’s recusancy, see Recusants in the Exchequer Pipe Rolls 1581-1592, ed. Hugh Bowler and Timothy J. McCann, Catholic Record Society 71 (London, 1986), 115-16, 119.

9 ‘The Life and Martyrdome of Mr Maxfield, Priest, 1616’, ed. J. H. Pollen, in Miscellanea III, Catholic Record Society 3 (London, 1906), 30-58, at p. 34.

10 La Rocca, John J., ‘“Who can’t Pray with me, can’t Love me”: Toleration and the Early Jacobean Recusancy Policy’, Journal of British Studies 23 (1984): 22-36 ; Questier, Michael, ‘Loyalty, Religion and State Power in Early Modern England: English Romanism and the Jacobean Oath of Allegiance’, Historical Journal 40 (1997): 311-329 ; Sommerville, Johann P., ‘Papalist Political Thought and the Controversy over the Jacobean Oath of Allegiance’, in Ethan H. Shagan, ed., Catholics and the ‘Protestant Nation’: Religious Politics and Identity in Early Modern England (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005), 162-184 . See also Tutino, Stefania, Law and Conscience: Catholicism in Early Modern England, 1570-1625 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007), ch. 5 .

11 I am very grateful to Michael Questier for clarifying the context and for allowing me to read relevant sections of his forthcoming book on martyrdom. For a Spanish report on royal policy, see Loomie, Albert J., ed., Spain and the Jacobean Catholics, vol. ii 1613-1624 , Catholic Record Society 68 (1978), 46-48 .

12 For an outline of the inter and intraconfessional controversies about the oath, see Milward, Peter, Religious Controversies of the Jacobean Age: A Survey of Printed Sources (London: Scolar Press, 1978), ch. 3. Especially relevant to the events in question was Widdrington [Preston]’s A theologicall disputation concerning the oath of allegiance dedicated to the most holy father Pope Paul the fifth ([London: Felix Kingston], 1613).

13 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 41.

14 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 40.

15 Ibid., 41-2, 56.

16 In addition to ‘Life and Martydom’, ed. Pollen, see the two contemporary accounts translated and edited by Bede Camm in ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield, Priest and Martyr’, Downside Review 34 (1915): 30-59, at 42-5, 53-7.

17 ‘Life and Martydom’, ed. Pollen, 42, 45; Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 44-5.

18 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 44.

19 ‘Life and Martydom’, ed. Pollen, 43; Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 43.

20 William Allen, A Briefe Historie of the Glorious Martyrdom of XII. Reverend Priests (Rheims: [J. Foigny?], 1582), fo. cvii v.

21 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 46-7; Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 44.

22 Bray, Gerald, ed., Documents of the English Reformation (Cambridge: James Clarke and Co, 1994), 255 .

23 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 47; Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 57.

24 On Luisa’s relic collecting activities, see The Letters of Luisa de Carvajal y Mendoza, ed. Glyn Redworth, 2 vols (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2012), 2:157, 206-7, 247-9, and see 1:xxi. See also Redworth, Glyn, The She-Apostle: The Extraordinary Life and Death of Luisa de Carvajal (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 209-213 ; Redworth, Glyn, ‘God’s Gift? Sacred Relics, Gift Giving, and Luisa de Carvajal’s Preparation of the Holy During the Long Reformation’, Nuncius: Journal of the Material and Visual History of Science 27 (2012): 270-288 .

25 See Williams, Michael E., St Alban’s College Valladolid: Four Centuries of English Catholic Presence in Spain (London: Hurst, 1986), 258-259 .

26 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 57-8.

27 Anstruther, Seminary Priests, 2:215.

28 Camm, Bede, ‘Maxfield and Abondio’, Downside Review 34 (1915): 130-150 , at 139-40.

29 Ditchfield, ‘Martyrs on the Move’.

30 The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, ed. and trans. H. J. Schroeder (Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, 1978 edn), 216-17.

31 See, among others, Simon Ditchfield, ‘Martyrs on the Move: Relics as Vindicators of Local Diversity in the Tridentine Church’, in Martyrs and Martyrologies, ed. Diana Wood, Studies in Church History 30 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993), 283-94; Johnson, Trevor, ‘Holy Fabrications: The Catacomb Saints and the Counter Reformation in Bavaria’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 47 (1996): 274-297 ; Lazure, Guy, ‘Possessing the Sacred: Monarchy and Identity in Philip II’s Relic Collection at the Escorial’, Renaissance Quarterly 60 (2007): 58-93 ; Louthan, Howard, ‘Tongues, Toes and Bones: Remembering Saints in Early Modern Bohemia’, in Alexandra Walsham, ed., Relics and Remains, Past and Present Supplement 5 (Oxford, 2010), 167-183 ; Baciocchi, Stephane and Duhamelle, Christophe (eds), Reliques romaines. Invention et circulation des corps saints des catacombs à l’époque moderne (Rome, 2016); Jennifer Hillman, ‘St Pientia and the Château de la Roche-Guyon: Relic Translations and Sacred History in Seventeenth-Century France’, in Simon Ditchfield, Charlotte Methuen and Andrew Spicer, eds, Translating Christianity, Studies in Church History 53 (2017), 257-71. For relics in overseas missions, see Duteil, Jean-Pierre, ‘Reliques et objets pieux dans les communautés chrétiennes de Chine et du Vietnam aux XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles’, in Edina Bozóky and Anne-Marie Helvétius, eds. Les reliques. Objets, cultes, symboles (Turnhout, 1999), 65-77 ; Roldan-Figueroa, Rady, ‘Father Luis Pineiro, SJ, the Tridentine Economy of Relics, and the Defense of the Jesuit Missionary Enterprise in Tokugawa Japan’, Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 101 (2010): 209-232 ; Evangelisti, Silvia, ‘Material Culture’, in Alexandra Bamji, Geert H. Janssen and Mary Laven, eds, The Ashgate Research Companion to the Counter-Reformation (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), 401-407 . For a broad overview, see Ditchfield, Simon, ‘Tridentine Worship and the Cult of Saints’, in R. Po-Chia Hsia, ed., The Cambridge History of Christianity: Reform and Expansion 1500-1600 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007), 201-224 .

32 See Simon Ditchfield, ‘Translating Christianity in an Age of Reformations’, in Ditchfield, Methuen and Spicer, eds, Translating Christianity, 164-95. The phrase ‘portable Christianity’ is Smith’s, Julia M. H.: ‘Portable Christianity: Relics in the Medieval West (c.700-1200)’, Proceedings of the British Academy 181 (2012):143-167 .

33 Calvin, John, A Very Profitable Treatise … Declarynge what Great Profit Might Come to al Christendome, if there were a Regester Made of all Sainctes Bodies and other Reliques (London: Rowland Hall, 1561). On these rhetorical strategies, see Walsham, Alexandra, ‘The Pope’s Merchandise and the Jesuits’ Trumpery: Catholic Relics and Protestant Polemic in Post-Reformation England’, in Dagmar Eichberger and Jennifer Spinks (eds), Religion, the Supernatural, and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum for Charles Zika (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 370-409 ; and ‘Toutes les babioles du pape» La polémique protestante contre les reliques dans l’Angleterre d’après la Reforme’, Revue d’Histoire du Protestantisme 1 (2016): 325-43.

34 See Olds, Katrina, ‘The Ambiguities of the Holy: Authenticating Relics in Seventeenth-Century Spain’, Renaissance Quarterly 65 (2012): 135-184 .

35 Madrid, Biblioteca Nacional de España, MS 18420. I have consulted the typed transcript of this among the Bede Camm Papers on the English Martyrs at Downside Abbey, Stratton-on-the-Fosse, in the folder labelled ‘Queen Elizabeth – Napier’. For other accounts, see AAW, A Series, vol. XIV, no. 137, 429-31; AAW, A Series, vol. XV, no. 103, 275-6 (‘Brevis narratio Martyrij Venerabilis Sacerdotis Thomae Maxfeildij … 1616’). The Balfour MS in the National Library of Scotland is printed in Miscellany of the Abbotsford Club, vol. 1 (Edinburgh: [Abbotsford Club], 1837), 99-101.

36 Loomie, ed., Spain and the Jacobean Catholics, 73.

37 Vita et martyrium D. Max-fildaei Collegi Anglorum Duaceni sacerdotis, Londini ob sacerdotium capitis damnati 11 Julii anno D. 1616 (Douai: Lawrence Kellam, 1616). The French translation is Coppie d’une lettre envoyée d’Angleterre au semimaire [sic] de leur compagnie, trans. D. D. (Douai: Pierre Auroy, 1616). Two other Latin editions, combining accounts of Maxfield’s martyrdom with several other martyrs appeared the following year: Exemplar literarum a quodam sacerdote collegii anglorum Duaceni quondam alumni ex Anglia … (Dilingae: Johnnanis Mayer, 1617). See Allison, A.F. and Rogers, D.M., The Contemporary Printed Literature of the English Counter-Reformation between 1558 and 1640: An Annotated Catalogue, 2 vols (Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1989–94) (hereafter ARCR), I, nos 313-20.

38 For one such engraving dating from 1621, see AAW, SEC, 16/9/1. See Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 58.

39 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 46.

40 Peter Lake with Michael Questier, The Antichrist’s Lewd Hat: Protestants, Papists and Players in Post-Reformation England (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2002), ch. 8, esp. 296-314. See also Michael C. Questier, ed., Newsletters from the Archpresbyterate of George Birkhead, Camden Society, 5th ser. 12 (Cambridge, 1998), 30-2.

41 Relacion de cinco martyres en Ynglaterra este anno de 1616. Traducida de latin, trans. [Joseph Cresswell] ([St Omer: English College Press], 1616). On Cresswell, see Allison, A. F., ‘The Later Life and Writings of Joseph Cresswell, S.J. (1556-1623)’, Recusant History (hereafter RH) 15 (1979): 79-144 , esp. 119-20.

42 Dillon, Anne, The Construction of Martyrdom in the English Catholic Community, 1535-1603 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), ch. 2, quotation at 97.

43 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 47. See also Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 58.

44 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 36, 39.

45 See Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Miracles and the Counter-Reformation Mission to England’, Historical Journal 46 (2003): 779-815 ; and Marshall, Peter, ‘Forgery and Miracles in the Henrician Reformation’, Past and Present 178 (2003): 39-73 . One such text in which this occurs is William Lambarde’s A Perambulation of Kent (London: [Henrie Middleton] for Ralphe Newberie, 1576), esp. 181-6. Another is Harsnet, Samuel, A Declaration of Egregious Popish Impostures (London: James Roberts, 1603).

46 See Caraman, Philip, Henry Garnet 1555-1606 and the Gunpowder Plot (London: Longmans, 1964), 443-447 . See also British Library, Additional MS 21, 203, fos 22r-23r, edited in Gerard, Autobiography, 274-6.

47 For a Latin Catholic defence of the miracle on the straw: see Andrae Eudaemon-Joannes, R. P., Ad actionem proditoriam E. Coqui apologia pro R. P. H. Garneto (Cologne: Ioannem Kinckium, 1610). For Protestant interpretations and attacks, see British Library, Stowe MS 169, fo. 27r; Pricket, Robert, The Jesuits Miracles, or New Popish Wonders (London: [Nicholas Okes] for C. P[urset] and R. J[ackson], 1607); Abbot, Robert, Antilogia adversus apologiam Andrae Eudaemon-Joannis Jesuitae pro Henrico Garneto Jesuita Proditoe (London: [R. Field], 1613).

48 Sheldon, Richard, A survey of the miracles of the Church of Rome, proving them to be Antichristian (London: Edward Griffin for Nathaniel Butter, 1616), esp. 249-50, 331-2. For Garnet’s straw, see 94. For the horse that refused to pull the hurdle, see Dillon, Construction, 107-8. For the Genings story, see Geninges, John, The Life and Death of Mr Edmund Geninges, Priest, Crowned with Martyrdome at London the 10. Day of November, in the Yeare M.DXCI (St Omers: Charles Boscard, 1614), 93-94 .

49 Elizabeth Allen, ‘Sheldon, Richard (1570?-1651?), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004; online edn January 2008 [ Accessed 28 September 2017].

50 Sheldon, Survey, 175; Widdrington, Theological disputation, 257-81.

51 See Alexandra Walsham, ‘Mobile Martyrs and Forbidden Shrines: The Translation and Domestication of Relics in Post-Reformation England’, in Anton M. Pazos and Carlos Andres Gonzales Paz (eds), Relics, Shrines and Pilgrimages in the European Historical Context (forthcoming).

52 Malo, Robyn, ‘Intimate Devotion: Recusant Martyrs and the Making of Relics in Post-Reformation England’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 44 (2014): 531-548 .

53 Pollard Brown, Nancy, ‘Robert Southwell: The Mission of the Written Word’, in Thomas J. McCoog, ed., The Reckoned Expense: Edmund Campion and Early English Jesuits (Rome: Institutum Historicum Societatis Iesu, 2nd edn, 2007; first publ. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 1996), 251-275 , at 274.

54 British Library, MS Lansdowne 50, fo. 164r.

55 On the agnus dei, see Muller, Aislinn, ‘The Agnus Dei, Catholic Devotion, and Confessional Politics in Early Modern England’, British Catholic History 34,1 (2018): 1–28; on rosaries, see Dillon, Anne, ‘Praying by Number: The Confraternity of the Rosary and the English Catholic Community, c.1580–1700’, History 88 (2003): 451471 .

56 Gee, John, The Foot out of the Snare (London: H. L[ownes] for Robert Milbourne, 1624), 63 .

57 Geary, Patrick, Furta Sacra: Thefts of Relics in the Central Middle Ages (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1978).

58 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 52-3. For a contemporary account of this miracle, see J. H. Pollen, ed., Unpublished Documents Relating to the English Martyrs, vol. 1 1584-1603, Catholic Record Society 5 (London, 1904), 291.

59 On Maxfield’s connection with Sutton, see Anstruther, Seminary Priests, 214.

60 See AAW, SEC, 16/9/2-8.

61 Ulinka Rublack, ‘Grapho-Relics: Lutheranism and the Materialization of the Word’, in Alexandra Walsham, ed., Relics and Remains, Past and Present Supplement 5 (2010), 144-66.

62 Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Downside Abbey, Bede Camm Papers on the English Martyrs (‘Queen Elizabeth – Napier’).

63 Many examples are provided in Pedro de Ribadeneira, The Life of the Holy Patriarch S. Ignatius of Loyola, Author, and Founder of the Society of Jesus, trans. S. J. [M. Walpole] ([St Omer: English College Press], 1616; 1622).

64 Gerard, John, The Autobiography of an Elizabethan, ed. and trans. Philip Caraman (London: Green, 1951), 117 .

65 Malo, Robyn, Relics and Writing in Late Medieval England (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2013), 9 and passim. Her account aligns with the findings of Browett, Rebecca in ‘Touching the Holy: The Rise of Contact Relics in Medieval England’, JEH 68 (2017): 493-509 , which argues that increasing official unease about lay contact with the bodily remains of the saints led to the promotion of contact relics as an alternative form of veneration.

66 Gerard, John, The Herball or General Historie of Plantes (London: [Edm. Bollifant for Bonham Norton and] Iohn Norton, 1597), 473-478 . See also Parkinson, John, Paradisi in Sole Paradisus Terrestris: or, a Garden of all Sorts of Pleasant Flowers which our English Ayre will Permit to be Noursed up … (London: Humfrey Lownes and Robert Young, 1629), 306-318 .

67 Ernst and Lehner, Johanna, Folklore and Symbolism of Flowers, Plants and Trees (New York: Tudor Publishing Company, 1960), p. 54 .

68 See Gregory, Brad S., Salvation at Stake: Christian Martyrdom in Early Modern Europe (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1999), esp. ch. 4.

69 AAW, SEC, 16/9/7; printed in ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 56.

70 See, for example, the Flemish prayer bead dated c. 1500-25 in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge: Museum Object number MAR.M.262-1912 ( bead&oid=30045).

71 For an inspiring study, see Hallett, Nicky, The Senses in Religious Coummunities, 1600-1800: Early Modern ‘Convents of Pleasure’ (Farnham: Ashgate, 2013), ch. 3, esp. 110, 113. See also Moshenska, Joe, Feeling Pleasures: The Sense of Touch in Renaissance England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2014).

72 See Kilroy, Gerard, Edmund Campion: Memory and Transcription (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005), esp. 4, 36, 86.

73 Marotti, Arthur F., Religious Ideology and Cultural Fantasy: Catholic and Anti-Catholic Discourses in Early Modern England (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2005), 27 , and 9-31.

74 Walsham, Alexandra, ‘“Domme Preachers”? Post-Reformation English Catholicism and the Culture of Print’, Past and Present (hereafter P&P) 168 (2000): 72-123 .

75 See Oxford English Dictionary, s.n. ‘relic’ and ‘remains’.

76 Campion is quoted in Brown, ‘Robert Southwell’, p. 253; [Robert Southwell], An Epistle of Comfort to the Reverend Priests, & to the Honorable Worshipful, & Other of the Laye Sort Restrayned in Durance for the Catholicke Faythe (Paris [London: John Charlewood [?], 1587), sig. Aa7r.

77 For Frances Stanford [or Stamford], see ‘Who were the Nuns?’ (; accessed 26 November 2016): (LA242).

78 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 33.

79 Ibid., 32.

80 The phrase is Ronald Finucane’s: Miracles and Pilgrims: Popular Beliefs in Medieval England (London: Macmillan, 1977), 26.

81 Kelly, James E., ‘Creating an English Catholic Identity: Relics, Martyrs and English Women Religious in Counter-Reformation Europe’, in James E. Kelly and Susan Royal, eds, Early Modern English Catholicism: Identity, Memory and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 41-59 . On nuns as living relics, see Hills, Helen, ‘Nuns and Relics: Spiritual Authority in Post-Tridentine Naples’, in Cordula van Wyle, ed., Female Monasticism in Early Modern Europe: an Interdisciplinary View (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008), esp. 33-34 . See also Walker, Claire, Gender and Politics in Early Modern Europe: English Convents in France and the Low Countries (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), 175 and passim.

82 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 48.

83 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 31.

84 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 45.

85 Ibid., 39, 46-7.

86 van Liere, Katherine, Ditchfield, Simon, and Louthan, Howard, eds, Sacred History: Uses of the Christian Past in the Renaissance World (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012).

87 AAW, SEC, 16/9/9.

88 See Corens, Liesbeth, ‘Saints beyond Borders: Relics and the Expatriate English Catholic Community’, in Jesse Spohnholz and Gary K. Waite, eds, Exile and Religious Identity, 1500-1800 (London: Pickering and Chatto, 2014), 25-38 .

89 Challoner, Richard, Memoirs of Missionary Priests: as well Secular as Regular; and of other Catholics, of both Sexes, that have Suffered Death in England, on Religious Accounts, from the Year of our Lord 1577, to 1684, 2 vols (London: [F. Needham], 1741-2), 2:97-111 ; Dodd, Charles, The Church History of England, from the Year 1500, to the Year 1688. Chiefly with regard to Catholicks, in 8 parts, 3 vols (Brussels: [s.n.], 1739), 2:378-379 . Burnet, Gilbert, The History of the Reformation in England, 3 vols (London: T.H. for Richard Chiswell, 1681-1715). Michael Questier’s forthcoming book will transform our view of Challoner.

90 Machielsen, Jan, Martin del Rio: Demonology and Scholarship in the Counter-Reformation (Oxford: Oxford University Press for the British Academy, 2015); Levitin, Dmitri, ‘From Sacred History to the History of Religion: Pagans, Jews and Christians in European Historiography from the Reformation to “Enlightenment”’, Historical Journal (hereafter HJ) 55 (2012), 1117-1160 ; Levitin, Dmitri and Hardy, Nicholas, eds, Faith and History: Confessionalisation and Erudition in Early Modern Europe, Proceedings of the British Academy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, forthcoming).

91 Dodd, Church History, 2:378-9.

92 On Dodd, see Glickman, Gabriel, ‘Gothic History and Catholic Enlightenment in the Works of Charles Dodd (1672-1743)’, HJ 54 (2011): 347-369 .

93 For an ingenious attempt to unravel these complexities, upon which this paragraph relies, see Camm, ‘Maxfield and Abondio’.

94 Ibid., 132-3.

95 Ibid., 139.

96 ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen. The transfer of the manuscript to the Postulator’s Library is noted on 31.

97 Challoner, Richard, Memoirs of Missionary Priests, ed., rev. and corrected J. H. Pollen (London: Burns, Oates & Washbourne, 1924).

98 Camm, Bede, Forgotten Shrines: An Account of Some Old Catholic Halls and Families in England and of Relics and Memorials of the English Martyrs (London: Macdonald and Evans, 1910), 357-361 ; ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’; ‘Maxfield and Abondio’. See also Bellenger, Aidan, ‘Dom Bede Camm (1864-1942), Monastic Martyrologist’, in Diana Wood, ed., Martyrs and Martyrologies, Studies in Church History 30 (Oxford: Blackwell, 1993), 371-381 .

99 Camm, ‘Venerable Thomas Maxfield’, 49; ‘Life and Martyrdome’, ed. Pollen, 58.

100 Stratton-on-the-Fosse, Downside Abbey, MS F72 C (J. H. Pollen’s transcript of ‘The life and martyrdome of Mr Maxfield Preist 1616’).

101 Summit, Jennifer, Memory’s Library: Medieval Books in Early Modern England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008).

102 Corens, Liesbeth, ‘Dislocation and Record Keeping: The Counter Archives of the Catholic Diaspora’, in Liesbeth Corens, Kate Peters, and Alexandra Walsham, eds, The Social History of the Archive: Record Keeping in Early Modern Europe, Past and Present Supplement 11 (2016), 269-287 .

103 Woolf, Daniel, The Social Circulation of the Past: English Historical Culture 1500-1730 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003), 191-197 .

* The research for this article has been undertaken as part of the AHRC project, ‘Remembering the Reformation’ (, based at the Universities of Cambridge and York. I am grateful to Brian Cummings, Ceri Law and Bronwyn Wallace and to audiences in Newcastle and Oxford for comments on earlier versions. It has also been supported by a Leverhulme Major Research Fellowship awarded for 2015-18.

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