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When all that is to Was ys brought: John Heywood’s ‘rythme declaringe his own life and nature’

  • Jane Flynn (a1)

This essay provides the first edition and discussion of the ballad When all that is to Was ys brought, copied sometime between 1561 and 1585 into a draft account book relating to the will of Dr William Bill, dean of Westminster (Durham Cathedral Add. MS 243, fol. 93r-v). Its last line, ‘Amen Quoth Iohn heywood’, indicates that its author was the court entertainer John Heywood (b. 1496/7–d. in or after 1578) and internal evidence suggests that it was written shortly before he went into exile on account of his Catholic faith in 1564. The ballad includes references to Heywood’s family and allusions to several works of Thomas More, especially A Dialogue of Comfort, suggesting that it is Heywood’s personal reflection on his spiritual life under four English monarchs. Its subject matter makes it likely that it is also the poem described as ‘a rythme declaringe his own life and nature’, which Heywood sent to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, and Queen Elizabeth via John Wilson in 1574 to support his petition to be allowed to remain in the Spanish Netherlands.

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I wish to thank Sarah-Jane Hunt, assistant librarian at Durham Cathedral Library, for her kind assistance in facilitating my access to the manuscript.

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1 See Appendix for a description of the manuscript.

2 Cf. ‘English Broadside Ballad Archive, University of California, Santa Barbara’,, nos 31178, 32096, and 32267 (accessed 24 July 2016).

3 Livingston, Carole Rose, British Broadside Ballads of the Sixteenth Century: A Catalogue of the Extant Sheets and an Essay (New York and London: Garland, 1991), 201203 .

4 See Beaty, Nancy Lee, The Craft of Dying: A Study in the Literary Tradition of the Ars Moriendi in England, Yale Studies in English, 175 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1970); Appleford, Amy, Learning to Die in London, 1380–1540 (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2015).

5 Subsequent references to John Heywood will normally be to ‘Heywood’.

6 Calendar of State Papers, Foreign Series, of the Reign of Elizabeth, 1572–1574, ed. Allan James Crosby (London: Longman, 1876), 581–2. The ‘rythme’ is not mentioned in the Calendar. For the complete document see Relations politiques de Pays-Bas et de l’Angleterre sous le règne de Philippe II, ed. Kervyn de Letterhove, 10 vols, and Gilliodts van Severen, vol. 11 (Bruxelles, 1882–1900), 7: 389–93.

7 The name ‘Thomas Good’ does not appear elsewhere in the manuscript.

8 More’s Dialogue was first printed by Richard Tottel in 1553; it is also included in The Workes of Sir Thomas More Knyght, sometyme Lord Chauncellour of England, wrytten by him in the Englysh tonge, ed. William Rastell (London: Iohn Cawod, Iohn Waly and Richard Tottell, 1557), 1139–1264 (consulted from Early English Books Online, [hereafter, EEBO], copy from the Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery [hereafter, Huntington copy]), STC 18076; A. W. Pollard and G. R. Redgrave, eds, A Short-Title Catalogue of Books Printed in England, Scotland and Ireland, and of English Books Printed Abroad, 1475–1640, 2nd ed. (London: The Bibliographic Society, 1976–91), as cited in English Short Title Catalogue,

9 Flynn, Dennis, John Donne and the Ancient Catholic Nobility (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1995), 200 , n5.

10 See Reed, A. W., Early Tudor Drama: Medwall, the Rastells, Heywood, and the More Circle (London: Methuen, 1926), 4653 . Flynn, John Donne, 21, refers to the long-lasting influence More had on his family.

11 Edited in John Heywood, John Heywood’s Works and Miscellaneous Short Poems, ed. Burton A. Milligan, Illinois Studies in Language and Literature, 41 (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1956), 268–9; More, A godly instruccion, in Workes, 1421 [sic for 1405].

12 The petty-canon of St Paul’s Cathedral named John Haywood, who is sometimes confused with the poet, subscribed to the oath in 1534 (‘Joannes Haward, succentor’) as a member of the Chapter; see Thomas Rymer, Foedera, 20 vols (London: J. Tonson, 1704–35), 14: 493–4.

13 See Petti, Anthony G., English Literary Hands from Chaucer to Dryden (London: Edward Arnold, 1977), 22 , especially the last example in [figure] 30.

14 The use of the figure polyptoton, here on the verb ‘to be’, is typical of Heywood; see Robert W. Bolwell, The Life and Works of John Heywood (New York: Columbia University Press, 1921), 153; Richard Axton and Peter Happé, eds, The Plays of John Heywood (Cambridge: D. S. Brewer, 1991), 12 and 14, cite examples from Witty and Witless. Cf. Of shalbe and shall not be, in Heywood, Works, 159.

15 ‘quaylth’=comes to nothing; ‘quail, v.2, I.2a’, in The Oxford English Dictionary (OED Online at [hereafter, OED]; all definitions accessed 10 September 2016). Note that ‘quayle’ is applied to an abstract thing, a ‘state’ (i.e., bliss) rather than to something ‘material’ (cf. stanza 2); ‘quail, v.2, I.1’, OED.

16 Pun on ‘welth’: (1) ‘welth […] woo’=well-being contrasted with care, (2) ‘Worldely welth’=prosperity/riches; ‘wealth, n., 1b; 3a’, OED.

17 Then [at the end of time] nothing worldly will remain here [on earth].

18 ‘caste in Accompt’=summed up; ‘cast, v., VI.37c’, OED. As one of the anonymous readers of this essay kindly noted, there is a metaphor cluster about money in this stanza (‘accompt’, ‘count’, ‘amount’) and in stanza 7 (‘short somme’, ‘purchase’); also see line 98. Cf. ‘Worldely welth’ in line 5, and references to ‘thrift’ and ‘golden gift’ in Of Heywood, lines 3–4, cited below. In Heywood’s The Spider and the Flie (London: Thomas Powell, 1556), [Aivb] (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 13308, the Flie, considering his death, refers to ‘thaccounted audite daie [which] must cum at last’.

19 ‘by gesse’=by rough estimation; ‘guess, n., 1’, OED.

20 ‘As’=than; ‘as, adv. and conj., B.conj., 5’, OED; ‘moment’=transitory; ‘momently, adj., 1’, OED. Note the elision of ‘moment’ ‘Lyffe’.

21 Even if death at the end of life [is] shorter than the momentary life passed on earth, life and death to come (i.e., in heaven or hell) are to last forever.

22 ‘purchase’=obtain; ‘purchase, v., II.6a’, OED. Cf. Heywood’s ballad I desyre no number of manye thynges for store, which treats the theology of grace similarly, in Heywood, Works, 254.

23 Pun on ‘yonglynges’: (1) young people or animals, (2) students, beginners; ‘youngling, n. and adj., A.n.,1; 2’, OED.

24 Pun on ‘pryme’: (1) best, (2) first (in occurrence), fundamental; ‘prime, adj. (and int.) and adv., A.adj. (and int.), I.1a; 2’, OED.

25 Pun on ‘Stert’: (1) come to nothing (cf. ‘Who hopeth in Gods helpe, his helpe can not starte’, in Heywood, A dialogue conteynyng the number of the effectuall prouerbes in the Englishe tounge, compact in a matter concernynge two maner of maryages (London: Thomas Berthelet, 1546), part 1, chapter 4, in Heywood, Works, 25), (2) escape, (3) swerve, bolt (of a horse); ‘start, v., I.3c; 4b; 6b’, OED.

26 ‘Convert’=‘turn to godliness’; ‘convert, v., II.10c’, OED.

27 Pun on ‘le’=(1) protection, (2) peace, rest; ‘lee, n.1, 1a; 3’, OED.

28 Ecclesiastes 11:3; The Byble in Englyshe: that is to saye the content of all the holy scripture, bothe of þe olde and newe testament (London: Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch, 1539), part 3, fol. 39r (EEBO, British Library copy), STC 2068. Heywood uses this verse in the advice given by the Flie after he had received his death sentence, in Spider and the Flie, NNia.

29 Polyptoton on ‘lost’.

30 Pun on ‘losse’: (1) ruin, (2) loss (of time), (3) fame/reputation; ‘loss, n.1, 1; 2e’, ‘lose, n.1’, OED.

31 Cf. John 1:16: ‘And of his fulnes haue we all receaued, euen grace for grace’; Byble, part 5, fol. 36b.

32 On this proverb, see ‘Digital Index of Middle English Verse’, no. 1867, at (accessed 24 July 2016).

33 ‘Strykyth the Stroke’=prevails; ‘stroke, n.1, 3d’, OED. Cf. ‘strike the stroke’ and ‘the stroke so strike’, in Heywood, Spider and the Flie, Niib and CCib, respectively. As an anonymous reader kindly pointed out, stanza 17 includes a metaphor cluster about controlling a horse. Thomas Blundeville, A newe booke containing the arte of ryding, and breaking in greate Horses (London: William Seres, 1561; EBBO, copy at Yale University), Cva–[Cviia], instructs the rider how to use a ‘diuersitye of strokes’ of the calves and heels (with or without spurs), and to train the horse ‘to tred the ringes, until he hath learned to go quietlye in the same, and to kepe the true path’ (Diib). Peter Edwards, Horse and Man in Early Modern England (London: Hambeldon Continuum, 2007), 51–2 refers to comparisons made by early modern writers such as John Brinsley between children’s education and breaking horses. Cf. ‘yonglynges’ in line 30; ‘Stert’ in line 33; ‘Swey’ in line 69.

34 Pun on ‘trace’:=(1) way or path, (2) leather straps attached to a yoke; ‘trace, n.1, I.1b; trace, n.2’, OED.

35 Matthew 11:30: ‘For my yocke is easy’; Byble, part 5, fol. 6r. Perhaps there is a pun on ‘yoke’: (1) a device round the neck of a draft animal (such as a horse), (2) yerk, to kick (of a horse); ‘yoke, n.1., I.1a; yerk/yark, n., 2’, OED; Blundeville, Arte of ryding, discusses training horses ‘to bounde a lofte, and to yarke with all’ (Lvib).

36 ‘swey’=switch, or riding whip; ‘bearyth the swey’=governs, rules; ‘sway, n., II.12; I.7 Phr.’, OED.

37 Pun on ‘Streight’=(1) narrow, (2) straighten; ‘strait, v., 3a’, ‘straight, v., 3a’, OED.

38 ‘hardlye’=with difficulty; ‘hardly, adv., 5b’, OED; pun on ‘wynde (yn)’: (1) go (into), (2) draw in (allure), (3) perhaps an early usage of ‘In the management of horses in the yoke: To turn to the left, or towards the driver’; ‘wind, v.1, 2b; 11b; 9’, OED; cf. ‘to wend one’s way’, in ‘wend, v.1., II.8d’, OED.

39 ‘mynde’=purpose, intention; ‘mind, n.1, II.9; 11b’, OED. Matthew 20:1–9; Byble, part 5, fol.10r.

40 ‘at poynt to’=ready; ‘point, n.1, P.1b(c)’, OED; ‘to goo to Glade’=‘to set, sink to rest (said of the sun)’; ‘glade, n.1’, OED.

41 ‘Loytrynge’, cf. Matthew 20:6: ‘Why stande ye here all the daye ydell?’ See What hart can thynk on idleness hindering virtue and the need to work as a remedy, in Heywood, Works, 256–7.

42 Cf. Matthew 20:12: ‘These last haue wrought but one houre’; Byble, part 5, fol. 10r.

43 ‘in Extreme’=at the end of life (Latin, in extremis); ‘extreme, n., 2b’, OED.

44 ‘amendes to meve […] words’=perhaps ‘to make amends (verbally)’; cf. ‘to propose … (in a court of law)’; ‘move, v., III. 28’, OED.

45 ‘make … Evyn’=square accounts, compensate (for); ‘even, adj., 10b’, OED.

46 Cf. the Lord’s Prayer and other traditional texts, such as Ecclesiasticus 28:2; Byble; part 4, fol. 45v.

47 ‘me Deyteckes’=accuses me; ‘detect, v., 2a’, OED.

48 For ‘allusions to the fabulous belief that the swan sings immediately or shortly before its death’ see ‘swan, n., 2b’, OED. The use in the ballad of ‘swannys songe’ to describe a last work is much earlier than those in OED, ‘swan, n., C.2’, ‘swan-song’, which also does not cite ‘But now must end our Swan-song’ in William Warner, Albions England (London: the widow Orwin, for I[oan] B[room], 1596), 280 (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 25082, or ‘And thus my Swannes song I beginne’ in Robert Tofte, Elegie II from Ariostos seven planets (London: William Stansby for Roger Iackson, 1611), 10 (Pib), line 17 (EEBO, copy from Harvard University Library), STC 745.

49 ‘Alyese’=relatives; ‘ally, n.1., II.5’, OED, which cites ‘His brothers sisters with all kyn and aly’, in Heywood’s Spider and the Flie, Oiv.

50 ‘Ioyte’, cf. Matthew 5:19, cited in ‘jot, n.1’, OED: ‘For truely I [Christ] saye vnto you, tyll heauen and erth passe, one iott or one tytle of the lawe shall not scape, tyll all be fulfylled’; Byble, part 5, fol. 3r. ‘Clawes’=a separate stipulation in a legal document; ‘clause, n., 2’, OED; the word is used the legal sense in Heywood’s Spider and the Flie, Hiva: ‘clause of warantise [warranties]’.

51 ‘swerue (from)’=forsake; ‘swerve, v., 3b(b)’, OED.

52 ‘Dewly’=rightly; ‘duly, adv., 1’, OED; ‘weyde’=assessed; ‘weigh, v.1, II.12a’, OED; cf. ‘As fer as dewtie deulie drawth’, in Heywood, Spider and the Flie, on the verso facing FFia.

53 For example, Romans 13:1–2; Byble, part 5, fol. 64v.

54 ‘Specyalties’=details; ‘specialty, n., 7’; ‘Rate’=assess; ‘rate, v.2, 3b’, OED. ‘That’ = which.

55 ‘I haue sum tyme vsyd to prate’=I was once accustomed to speaking at great length, to little purpose; ‘use, v., IV.21c’; ‘prate, v., 2a’, OED.

56 ‘Growe’=increase gradually; ‘grow, v., 7a’, OED; cf. ‘In all dewe dewtise, the very dew desarte’, in Heywood, Spider and the Flie, Miia.

57 ‘that’=that which; ‘that, pron. 2., I.3a’, OED.

58 Polyptoton on ‘past’.

59 Cf. Ecclesiastes 11:8; Byble, part 3, fol. 39v.

60 Perhaps a pun on ‘out of place’: (1) not at home, i.e. in exile, (2) out of (legal) arguments (pleas); ‘place, n.1, II.9a; P.2a(d)’; ‘plea, n., 4a’, OED.

61 Perhaps a pun on ‘cease’: (1) occurrence, or situation, (2) decease, (3) idleness (loitering); ‘case, n.1, 2a; 6a’; ‘cess, n.2’; ‘cease, n.1=cessation, n.3’, OED; according to Erasmus, some fear death because in their ‘lyfe was moche forgetfulness, moche negligence, moche ceasing, and brefely many mo euyl dedes than good dedes’; Desiderius Erasmus, Preparation to Deathe ([London: Berthelet], 1538), Eiiiia (EEBO, copy in Folger Shakespeare Library), STC 10505.

62 ‘amonge’=from time to time; ‘among, prep. and adv., B.adv., 2’, OED; cf. ‘And as we oft see, the lothe stake standeth longe, / So is it an yll stake I haue heard among’, in Heywood’s A dialogue conteynyng … prouerbes, part 2, chapter 4, lines 13–14; in Heywood, Works, 66. Also see Of Heywood, line 8, cited below.

63 Cf. stanza 1.

64 Pun on ‘Owrely’: (1) hour by hour (cf. the eleventh hour), (2) quickly; ‘hourly, adv., 2’, OED. Note the emphasis through repetition of ‘quayle’.

65 ‘hevynlye’=from heaven; ‘heavenly, adv., 1b’, OED; ‘Imploye (to us)’=give; cf. bestow (on us), ‘employ, v., I.3’, OED. Cf. stanzas 36–8 with Man, for thyne yll lyfe formerly in Heywood, Works, 255–6.

66 ‘faile’=pass away, come to an end; ‘fail, v., 2b, c’, OED.

67 Polyptoton on ‘rest’. ‘Rest in Rest’=rest (remain) in peace (bliss); ‘rest, v.1, I.3a’; ‘rest, n.1, 3b’, OED; ‘aye’, a pun on (1) always, (2) (affirming assent); ‘ay/ aye, adv., 1a’; ‘aye/ay, int. (and adv.) and n., (and adv.), 2a’, OED (an earlier use than those cited); ‘Restyngly’=‘peacefully’ also ‘definitely’; ‘restingly, adv.’, OED. Cf. Revelation 14:13; Byble, part 5, fol. 100v.

68 ‘Quoth’=‘said’ or ‘written by’; ‘quoth, v., I.1b, c’, OED.

69 Reed, Tudor Drama, 30.

70 Robey, Ann Catherine, ‘The Village of Stock, Essex, 1550–1610: A Social and Economic Survey’ (doctoral thesis, University of London, London School of Economics, 1991), 91 .

71 See Schoeck, R. S., ‘William Rastell and the Prothonotaries: A Link in the Story of the Rastells, Ropers and Heywoods’, Notes & Queries 197 (1952): 398399 .

72 Thomas Heywood was arrested on Palm Sunday 1574 for saying Mass at the house on Cow Lane of ‘Lady Browne’, Sir Humphrey ‘Baron’ Brown’s widow. Heywood, as Dennis Flynn discovered, was released instead of being executed; see his “Sir Thomas Heywood the Parson’ and Donne’s Catholic Background’, Recusant History 15 (1979): 325–7.

73 Martin, Claire A., ‘Dame Margery Astry’, The Ricardian 14 (2004): 131 at 9 identifies Joan Pynson (as well as Joan Rastell’s first husband, John Revell). Also see Peter W. M. Blayney, The Stationers’ Company and the Printers of London, 1501–1557, 2 vols (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013), 1: 147–50. Pynson was the son of the printer Richard Pynson (c.1449–1529/30).

74 Schoeck, R. J., ‘Christopher Stubbe: Tudor Lawyer and Son-in-Law of John Heywood’, Notes & Queries 195 (1950): 295296 .

75 Andrew Ashbee and David Lasocki, A Biographical Dictionary of English Court Musicians 1485–1714, 2 vols (Aldershot: Ashgate, 1998), 1: 570–71, name four children: Joan (Stubbs), Ellis, Jasper, and Elizabeth (Donne); Peter Happé, ‘Heywood, John (b. 1496/7, d. in or after 1578)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004 [hereafter, ODNB]; online edn, Oct 2008 [, accessed 29 Sept 2016]: Heywood had ‘at least four children’; Flynn, John Donne, 22, includes all five children as Heywood’s.

76 According to Bald, Robert Cecil, John Donne: A Life (Oxford University Press, 1970), 36 , n4, the last reported reference to Elizabeth Marvyn was in 1577. However, in 1592 she was involved in a property dispute; see William Brigg, The Herts Genealogist and Antiquary, 3 vols (Harpenden, 1895–9), 3: 97.

77 A fourth hundred of Epygrams. Newly inuented and made by Iohn Heywood (London: house late Thomas Berthelettes, 1560); these were renamed The fifth hundred in Iohn Heywoodes workes (London: Thomas Powell, 1562).

78 See Peter Holmes, ‘Forrest, William (fl. 1530–1576)’, ODNB; online edn, Jan 2007 [, accessed 29 Sept 2016].

79 In Heywood, Works, 250–52.

80 According to Andrew Taylor, The Songs and Travels of a Tudor Minstrel: Richard Sheale of Tamworth (York: York Medieval Press, 2012), 94, of the sixty-six printed ballads surviving from the sixteenth century listed in the Short Title Catalogue, this is the only one that incorporates the author’s full name in the title.

81 Heywood, Works, 269–71.

82 Byble, part 5, fol. 66r.

83 More, Workes, 1436.

84 Heywood, Works, 203.

85 Ibid., 259–61.

86 Ibid., 224.

87 Of thirty-three poems in British Library, Add. MS 15233, twenty are followed by ‘Finis quod [name]’, including nine by ‘Finis quod’ Heywood.

88 See Axton and Happé, Plays, 73. Also see Jerome’s speech, lines 611–28, for other similar arguments; ibid., 70–71. Although the only surviving source of Wytty and Witless is ‘tentatively dated c.1544’, a ‘pleye of wytles’ was entered in the Stationers’ Register in 1561; Edward Arber, A Transcript of the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London 1554–1640, 5 vols (London: 1875–7), 1: 154. Heywood may therefore have read through the text of the play to prepare it for printing around the time I propose that he wrote the ballad.

89 John Edwin Sandys, ed., The Rhetoric of Aristotle, trans. Richard Claverhouse Jebb (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1909), 99–103.

90 My italics. Richard Whitford, The folowinge of Chryste ... Wherevnto also is added the golden epystell of Saynt Barnard (London: John Cawood, 1556), Cva-b (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 23966.

91 On Heywood as a singer, see Reed, Tudor Drama, 40.

92 Ibid., 50. Also see Puttenham’s comment cited below.

93 Axton and Happé, Plays, 112–42 at 142.

94 My italics. Whitford, Golden Epistle, Cvib.

95 John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium Maioris Brytanniae Catalogue, 2 vols (Basle, 1557–9; Facs. reprint, Farnborough: Greggs, 1971), 2:110: ‘Ioannes Heywode, ciuis Londinensis, musices ac rhytmicae artis in sua lingua studiosus, & sine doctrina ingeniosus, pro choreis post comessationes & epulas hilariter ducendis, spectaculis, ludis, aut personatis ludicris exhibendis, allijsq(u)e uanitatibus fouendis, multum laborabat’.

96 Bolwell, John Heywood, 64.

97 Bang, W., ‘Acta Anglo-Lovaniensis’, Englische Studien 38 (1907): 234250 at 238–41. One assumes that Jasper Heywood is not included because he had already become a Jesuit priest (see Flynn, John Donne, 42).

98 Heywood, Works, 261.

99 ‘jo, n., 1 [and] 2’; ‘joy, n., 3b’, OED.

100 Perhaps Heywood was thinking of Chaucer’s Troilus and Criseyde, in which Criseyde warns that worldly joy is brittle and does not last: ‘O brotel wele [wheel/fortune] of mannes joye unstable’ (Book 3, line 820) and ‘Now yf he wot that joye is transitorie, / As every joye of worldly thyng mot fle, / Than every tyme he that hath in memorie, / The drede of lesyng maketh hym that he / May in no parfit selynesse [bliss] be’ (Book 3, lines 827–31). The moral is that one should ‘Repeyreth hom fro worldly vanyte / … / And loveth hym [Christ], the which that right for love / Upon a cros, oure soules for to beye, / First starf [died], and ros, and sit yn hevene above; / For he nyl falsen [betray] no wight, dar I seye, / That wole his herte al holly on hym leye’ (Book 5, lines 1837, 1842–6); Geoffrey Chaucer, The Complete Poetry and Prose, ed. John H. Fisher (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1977), 466, 539. On the influence of Chaucer on Heywood see Axton and Happé, Plays, 16–17, 32–3.

101 A Balade specifienge … mariage, stanza 11, in Heywood, Works, 271; A breefe balet touching the traytorous takynge of Scarborow Castell (London: Thomas Powell, 1557) in ibid., 272–4.

102 On Heywood’s use of legal language see Schoeck, R. S., ‘A Common Tudor Expletive and Legal Parody in Heywood’s ‘Play of Love”, Notes & Queries 201 (1956): 375376 .

103 See Ashbee and Lasocki, Biographical Dictionary, 570; Happé, ‘Heywood’, ODNB.

104 In More, Workes, 339–832 at 507. Cf. Matthew 23:3.

105 ‘bodikin/bodikie, n., 2’, OED.

106 ‘sit, v., PV1, to sit down, 4 [and] PV2, to sit with, 1; PV1, 3a’, OED.

107 ‘euermore’=always; ‘evermore, adv., 2’, OED.

108 The preface To the reader refers to the epigrams as dishes, as if he were entertaining friends.

109 Heywood, Works, 229.

110 Perhaps a pun on ‘taken (for)’: (1) assumed to be, (2) arrested; ‘take, v., PV2. To take for, c(a); I.1e’, OED.

111 ‘stand firm by’=remain, be present; ‘stand, v., I.4a; PV2. To stand by__’, OED. Heywood, Works, 229.

112 Coxe was arrested at Gravesend on 14 April 1561 attempting to go over to Flanders. See Brian Charles Foley, ‘The Breaking of the Storm’, Essex Recusant 3 (1961): 1–21, which includes transcriptions (with some misreadings) of several documents referring to Stubbes. Also see TNA SP 12/16, 50, III, fol. 127, ‘Chr. Stubbes to his wife’ and TNA SP 12/16, fol. 128, ‘Letter from Stubbes to Cecil’. Stubbes was imprisoned at the Gatehouse prison, Westminster, to be examined by Dr William Bill; see TNA 12/16, fol. 150.

113 My italics. See Bolwell, John Heywood, 38–9.

114 Foxe, John, Actes and Monuments of these latter and perillous dayes, touching matters of the Church (London: Iohn Day, 1563), 628 (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 11222.

115 See Louis L. Martz, ‘The Tower Works’, in the Introduction to Thomas More, A Dialogue of Comfort against Tribulation, ed. Louis L. Martz and Frank Manley, in The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, 14 vols (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1976), 12: lvii–lxxxvi.

116 More, Cresacre, The Life of Sir Thomas More, by his great-grandson, Cresacre More, ed. Joseph Hunter (London: William Pickering, 1828), 248 .

117 More, Dyalogue of comforte, in Workes, 1168.

118 Cresacre More, Life of Thomas More, 290.

119 On the events leading up to the condemnation of Heywood and other members of More’s circle in 1544 see Graves, T. S., ‘The Heywood Circle and the Reformation’, Modern Philology 10 (1913): 553572 , especially 557–61; Michael L. Zell, ‘The Prebendaries’ Plot of 1543: A Reconsideration’, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 27/3 (1976): 241–53.

120 Foxe, Actes and Monuments, 628.

121 See More, Confutation, in Workes, 439.

122 Heywood also uses the word ‘hour’ (i.e. the eleventh hour) in lines 93, 146.

123 My italics. More, Workes, 1174–6.

124 Ibid.

125 Annotations to Hebrews 6 in The New Testament of Iesus Christ (Rheims: Iohn Fogny, 1582), 613 (EEBO, copy from Eton College), STC 2884.

126 My italics. More, Confutation, in Workes, 543. Heywood also follows this interpretation in Spider and the Flie, NNia, mentioned above.

127 Byble, part 5, fol. 6r.

128 More, A Dialogue Concernynge Heresyes (1528), in Workes, 143.

129 My italics. As cited in John Stevens, Music and Poetry in the Early Tudor Court (Cambridge, 1961), 369–70.

130 My italics. More, Workes, 1174.

131 Ibid., 1260.

132 Ibid., 1217.

133 Ibid., 1216.

134 My italics. Ibid., 1199.

135 Ibid.

136 Ibid., 1194.

137 Ibid., 1173.

138 Foxe, Actes and Monuments, 628.

139 George Puttenham, The Arte of English Poesie. Contriued into three Bookes: The first of Poets and Poesies, the second of Proportion, the third of Ornament (London: Richard Field, 1589), 1: 49; 3: 230–1 (EEBO, in all three Huntington copies), STC 20519.5. Also see Reed, Tudor Drama, 51; Axton and Happé, Plays, 8.

140 Graves, ‘Heywood Circle’, 563; Schoeck, R. J., ‘Anthony Bonvisi, the Heywoods and the Ropers’, Notes and Queries, 197 (1952): 178179 . Also see Peter Marshall, ‘Religious Exiles and the Tudor State’, in Kate Cooper and Jeremy Gregory, eds. Discipline and Diversity, Studies in Church History, 43 (Woodbridge: Boydell, 2007), 263–84 at 266–7, where he refers to John Story (discussed below), who also lived at Bonvise’s during Edward’s reign.

141 More, Workes, Preface.

142 Henry Machyn, The Diary of Henry Machyn, Citizen and Merchant-Taylor of London from AD 1550AD 1563, ed. John Gough Nichols, Camden Society 42 (London, 1848), 206.

143 Merriam, Thomas, ‘John Clement: His Identity, and his Marshfoot House in Essex’, Moreana 25 (1988): 145152 at 147.

144 See Brown, Arthur, ‘Three notes on Sebastian Westcott: III. Sebastian Westcott, John Heywood and Thomas Prideaux’, Modern Language Review 44 (1949): 229232 .

145 Calendar of Letters and State Papers relating to English Affairs, Preserved Principally in the Archives of Simancas, vol. I, Elizabeth, 1558–1567, ed. Martin A. S. Hume (London: her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1892) [hereafter, CSPS], 224.

146 Foxe, Actes and Monuments, 627–8. The second and third editions of 1570 and 1576 omitted it (though they refer to the first edition); it was restored in the fourth edition: John Foxe, The second Volume of the Ecclesiasticall Historie, conteining the Acts and Monuments of Martyrs (London: Iohn Day, 1583), 1231 (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 11225. In 1559 Crowley had reported only that ‘In Februarye [1544] Germin Gardiner, Ihon Heiwod, with other, for deniyng the kynges supremitee, were arrayned and condemned to die … Germin Gardyner, and Larke person of Chelsei beside London, were executed at Tyburne’; Robert Crowley, Epitome of Cronicles (London: William Seres, 1559), fol. [288v]; folios unnumbered after fol. 280 and printed in the wrong order after fol. [285]; the recto of fol. [288v] is marked Ccccii (EEBO, Huntington copy) STC 15217.5.

147 Escobedo, Andrew, ‘John Foxe’s Acts and Monuments, 1563–1583: Antiquity and the Affect of History’, in Mike Pincombe and Cathy Shrank, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Tudor Literature 1485–1603 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), 504520 at 506.

148 Bald, John Donne, 32.

149 Henk Dragstra, Sheila Ottway and Helen Wilcox, Introduction to Betraying Our Selves: Forms of Self-Representation in Early Modern English Texts, Early Modern Literature in History (Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2000), 4–12 at 9, 12.

150 Reed, Early Tudor Drama, 68.

151 Vat. Arch. Arm. lxiv. vol. 28. fol. 167, in Calendar of State Papers, Relating to English Affairs, Preserved Principally at Rome, in the Vatican Archives and Library, Volume 1, Elizabeth, 1558–1571, ed. J. M. Rigg (London: his Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1916), 70.

152 Marshall, ‘Religious Exiles’, 268.

153 Robert Lechat, Les Réfugiés anglais dans les Pays-Bas espagnols durant le règne d’Elisabeth 1558–1603 (Louvain: Bureaux du Recueil, 1914), 39–114.

154 R. W., A Recantation of famous Pasquin of Rome (London: Iohn Day, 1570), Ciib–Ciiib (EEBO, copy from the British Library), STC 24913a.5.

155 For a comparison between 13 Eliz. c. 3 and the Marian exiles bill, which was hotly debated and defeated in 1555, see Jennifer Loach, Parliament and the Crown in the Reign of Mary Tudor (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1986), 136–43; Marshall, ‘Religious Exiles’, 278.

156 Bald, John Donne, 31–3.

157 TNA E178/1095; Marshall, ‘Religious Exiles’, 278.

158 Reed, Tudor Drama, 68.

159 TNA SP 70/132, fol. 139, extracts relating to Heywood. (Wilson’s previous letter to Burghley was dated 12 December.)

160 Lechat, Les Réfugiés anglais, 94–98; Ronald Pollitt, ‘The Abduction of Doctor John Story and the Evolution of Elizabethan Intelligence Operations’, Sixteenth-Century Journal 14 (1983): 131–56; Alan Harding, ‘Lee, John (c.1535–c.1603), of London’, in The House of Commons, 1558–1603, 3 vols, ed. P. W. Hasler, The History of Parliament (London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1981), 2: 448.

161 A declaration of the lyfe and Death of Iohn Story (London: Thomas Colwell, 1571) (EEBO, copy from St John’s College, Cambridge), STC 23297; A Copie of a Letter … concernyng D. Story (London: [John Day?], 1571) (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 23296; see Relations politiques, 6: 140–42.

162 A declaration, Diib.

163 For example, Foxe, Actes and Monuments, 1703. Furthermore, the second edition (1570, p. 1867) includes a woodcut depicting the involvement of Story (clearly labelled) in the martyrdom of John Denley; Elizabeth Evenden and Thomas S. Freeman, Religion and the Book in Early Modern England: The Making of Foxe’s ‘Book of Martyrs’ (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 202.

164 De Quadra to King Philip, 9 May 1563; CSPS, 323–4.

165 Nicholas Sanders, De visibili monarchia ecclesiae (1592), 712–13, as cited in Julian Lock, ‘Story, John (1503/4?–1571)’, ODNB; online edn, Jan 2008 [, accessed 30 Sept 2016].

166 Barron, Caroline M., ‘The Making of a London Citizen’, in George M. Logan, ed. The Cambridge Companion to Thomas More (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 321 at 13–16.

167 TNA SP 15/20, fol. 140, Lee to Burghley, 5 July 1571, in Relations politiques, 6: 150–51.

168 Since Burghley’s own brother-in-law, Sir John Cheke, Edward VI’s tutor and a Marian exile, had been repatriated in 1556, the exiles had reasons to suspect his motives. Sarah Covington, ‘Heretic Hunting beyond the Seas: John Brett and his Encounter with the Marian Exiles’, Albion 36/3 (2004): 407–29 at 410–12. According to John Strype, The Life of the Learned Sir John Cheke (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1821), 106–7, ‘Seldom hath such an act [as Cheke’s seizure] been heard of, or read in history, unless perhaps the seizing of Dr. Story in the year 1569 may have some resemblance of it; who was surprised also in Flanders, and brought to the Tower by a wile … Whether this were to make some atonement for the treacherous apprehension of Cheke, I leave others to conjecture’. I am grateful to the anonymous reader who directed my attention to Cheke’s case.

169 TNA SP 15/23, fol. 48, Lee to Burghley, 10 May 1573, in Relations politiques, 6: 727–8.

170 TNA SP 46/30, fol. 44, ‘John Lee to [Burghley]’, 6 July 1574. See G. Martin Murphy, ‘Hopkins, Richard (b. c.1546, d. in or before 1596)’, ODNB; [, accessed 30 Sept 2016].

171 See E. C. Knowlton, ‘Nature in Middle English’, The Journal of English and Germanic Philology 20/2 (1921): 186–207, especially 193–7.

172 Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique ([London]: Richard Grafton, 1553), fols 93v–94r (EEBO, Huntington copy), STC 25799.

173 Reed, Tudor Drama, 68. TNA E 178/2587 (Bulmer Inquisition).

174 Reed, Tudor Drama, 65; Flynn, John Donne, 72.

175 See Bald, John Donne, 36–7.

176 Reed, Tudor Drama, 35–7 at 36.

177 Ibid., 237–8.

178 ‘the [inquest of] office is allreddy found’=a verdict has already been returned showing the Crown’s entitlement to the property; ‘office, n., 8’, OED.

179 ‘office’=department; ‘office, n., 6a’, OED.

180 ‘Burghley to Fanshaw’, 19 October 1575, TNA SP 46/30, fol. 130.

181 Reed, Tudor Drama, 70–71; Flynn, John Donne, 76–7.

182 There is a possibility that Samwell came across the ballad c.1564, perhaps through the Teller of the Exchequer, Richard Stonley. Heywood gave Stonley an inscribed copy of his Works (1562) before he left England; see Jason Scott-Warren, ‘Books in the Bedchamber: Religion, Accounting and the Library of Richard Stonley’, in John N. King, ed. Tudor Books and Readers: Materiality and the Construction of Meaning (Cambridge University Press, 2010), 232–52 at 245.

183 TNA PROB 11/69/113.

184 All but the last two entries (on fol. 37v) are in the hand of Samwell himself, who makes frequent personal references to family and servants: ‘my man’, ‘my Cosyn’, ‘my sone Richarde’ (fol. 23v). After his death (1585), two entries relating to Bill’s will in a different hand were likely added by Francis Samwell’s son William Samwell of Upton Hall, one of Francis’s executors.

186 Charles Moïse Briquet, Les Filigranes, 2nd edition, 4 vols (Leipzig: Hiersemann, 1923); Edward Heawood, Watermarks Mainly of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Monumenta Chartae Papyraceae Historiam Illustrantia 1, ed. E. J. Labarre (Hilversum: Paper Publications Society, 1950), 143, plate 480.

187 Helen Wallis and Anita McConnell, eds, Historians’ Guide to Early British Maps, Royal Historical Society Guides and Handbooks, 18 (London: Royal Historical Society, 1994), 67.

* I wish to thank Sarah-Jane Hunt, assistant librarian at Durham Cathedral Library, for her kind assistance in facilitating my access to the manuscript.

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