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An Additional Factor in the History of the Centigrade Thermometer

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 January 2009

Abstract

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Type
Notes and Communications
Copyright
Copyright © British Society for the History of Science 1971

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References

1 Middleton, W. E. K., A History of the Thermometer and Its Use in Meteorology (Baltimore, 1966), 101.Google Scholar

2 Ibid., 89 et seq. cf., Anon., Description de la méthode d'un Thermomètre Universel (Paris, 1741).Google Scholar

3 Martel, P., An Account of the Glacieres or Ice Alps in Savoy, In Two Letters, One from an English Gentleman to his Friend at Geneva; The other from Peter Martel, Engineer, to the said English Gentleman … As laid before the Royal Society (London, printed for Peter Martel, 1744).Google Scholar

4 Ibid., 28. This advertisement is omitted from the edition published in Ipswich in 1747.

5 Bryden, D. J., “The Jamaican Observatories of Colin Campbell, F.R.S., and Alexander Macfarlane, F.R.S.”. Notes & Records Roy. Soc., Land., xxiv (19691970), 272, note 35.Google Scholar

6 Roy. Soc. Journal Book, 19 01 1743/1744.Google Scholar

7 Ibid., 26 January 1743/44. A bound copy of the book was presented at a meeting of the Royal Society on 16 February 1743/44.

8 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 14Google Scholar. This passage is printed in de Beer, G., “The History of the Altimetry of Mont Blanc”, Annals of Science, xii (1956), 8Google Scholar, where it is noted that Martel was the first person to make trigonometrical measurements of the height of Mont Blanc from close range.

9 Dufour, T., William Windham et Pierre Martel. Relations de leurs deux Voyages aux Glaciers de Chamonix (1741–42) (Geneva, 1879)Google Scholar. (Extrait de l'Écho des Alpes, 1879Google Scholar.)

10 Ferrand, H., Premiers Voyages à Chamouni. Lettres de Windham et de Martel, 1741–42 (Lyon, 1912)Google Scholar. (Extrait de la Revue Alpine de février et mars 1912.)Google Scholar

11 Dufour, , op. cit. (9), 36.Google Scholar

12 Ferrand, , op. cit. (10), 25.Google Scholar

13 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 14.Google Scholar

14 Dufour, , op. cit. (9), 41.Google Scholar

15 Ferrand, , op. cit. (10), 29.Google Scholar

16 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 16.Google Scholar

17 Dufour, , op. cit. (9), 47.Google Scholar

18 Ferrand, , op. cit. (10), 34.Google Scholar

19 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 20.Google Scholar

20 Dufour, , op. cit. (9), 42Google Scholar and Ferrand, , op. cit. (10), 30.Google Scholar

21 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 17.Google Scholar

22 On the difficulties of comparing temperatures read by thermometers graduated to different scales and the differences in instruments supposedly calibrated from the same fixed points, see Martine, G., Essays Medical and Philosophical (London, 1740), 175230Google Scholar; The Gentleman's Magazine, xxiv (London, 1754), 16, 76 and 107108Google Scholar. Middleton, , op. cit. (1), 127Google Scholar, notes that in 1777 a Royal Society Committee reported that thermometers made by various makers were found to vary over a range of 3¼ °F. in steam.

23 Martel, , op. cit. (3), 28.Google Scholar

24 Cundall, F., The Governors of Jamaica in the first half of the Eighteenth Century (London, 1937), 187.Google Scholar

25 Dufour, , op. cit. (9), 18.Google Scholar

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