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    Romano, Marco Console, Fabiana Pantaloni, Marco and Fröbisch, Jörg 2016. One hundred years of continental drift: the early Italian reaction to Wegener’s ‘visionary’ theory. Historical Biology, p. 1.

    Šešelja, Dunja and Weber, Erik 2012. Rationality and irrationality in the history of continental drift: Was the hypothesis of continental drift worthy of pursuit?. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, Vol. 43, Issue. 1, p. 147.

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    Laudan, Rachel 1982. Tensions in the Concept of Geology: Natural History or Natural Philosophy?. Earth Sciences History, Vol. 1, Issue. 1, p. 7.

    Frankel, Henry 1979. The career of continental drift theory: An application of Imre Lakatos' analysis of scientific growth to the rise of drift theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A, Vol. 10, Issue. 1, p. 21.

  • The British Journal for the History of Science, Volume 11, Issue 2
  • July 1978, pp. 130-150

Arthur Holmes and Continental Drift

  • Henry Frankel (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 January 2009

Although there are numerous and significant differences between the theories of scientific growth and change proposed by Kuhn, Lakatos, and Laudan, they all hold that specific scientific theories should be viewed as constitutive of more comprehensive theories. Kuhn calls those more general theories ‘paradigms’, Lakatos labels them ‘research programmes’ and Laudan refers to them as ‘research traditions’. They all argue that scientists are much more willing to give up the specific theory within a given research programme rather than the programme itself, and that individual theories should be viewed as attempts to increase the overall explanatory power of the more general theories, since the ultimate concern of the scientist is with the success of the general rather than the specific theory. When a basic theory or research programme is confronted with severe criticism, proponents attempt to protect the hard core or central elements of their programme through the invention of auxiliary hypotheses. Good auxiliary hypotheses adequately answer the objections for which they are designed, and suggest new avenues of research. In 1928, Arthur Holmes provided proponents of continental drift theory with an auxiliary hypothesis which afforded them a badly needed account of the forces responsible for continental drift. Although Holmes' proposal was not ultimately correct, it was the first plausible alternative offered by an exponent of the continental drift research programme.

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Imré Lakatos and Alan Musgrave (eds.) Criticism and the growth of knowledge, London, 1970.

P. Lake , ‘Wegener's displacement theory’, Geological magazine, 1922, 59, 338–46 (338).

J. Gregory , ‘Continental drift’, Nature, 1925, 115, 255–7.

A. Coleman , ‘Permo-carboniferous glaciation and the Wegener hypothesis’, Nature, 1925, 115, 602.

R. Dietz , ‘Continent and ocean basin evolution by spreading of the sea floor’, Nature, 1961, 190, 854–7.

A. Holmes , ‘Radioactivity and the earth's thermal history. Pt. I. ‘The concentration of the ratioactive elements in the earth's crust’, Geological magazine, 1915, 2, 6071.

A. Holmes . ‘Continental drift’, Nature, 1928, 122, 431–3.

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The British Journal for the History of Science
  • ISSN: 0007-0874
  • EISSN: 1474-001X
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