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Like birds of a feather: the cultural origins of Iberian geological cooperation and the European Geological Map of 1896



This paper focuses on the relationships between Spanish and Portuguese geologists during the second half of the nineteenth century, and their cooperation in Iberian and European scientific projects, with particular emphasis on the geological map of Europe, whose publication, in 1896, was a symbolic demonstration of Prussia's capacity to dominate the whole continent. We argue that the period from 1857 to 1896 defined a cycle in the relationships between Spanish and Portuguese geologists marked by common generational aspirations, converging intellectual pursuits and political and ideological affinities associated with the intellectual and political movements which stirred the cultural and political life of both Iberian countries. At a time when the unification of Iberia was being discussed on both sides of the Spanish–Portuguese border, this background favoured and shaped cooperation between the Spanish and Portuguese Geological Surveys, in particular their participation in the geological map of Europe, which, nevertheless, coincided with the end of this cycle in Iberian geology.



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1 Artola, Miguel, Historia de España Alfaguara. V. La burguesía revolucionaria (1808–1874), Madrid: Alianza, 1974. Paredes, Francisco J. (ed.), Historia contemporánea de España (siglo XIX), Barcelona: Ariel, 1998.

2 Paredes, op. cit. (1); and Juan I. Ferreras, ‘La generación de 1868’, in Iris M. Zavala (ed.), Historia y crítica de la literatura española. Romanticismo y realismo, vol. 5, Barcelona: Crítica, 1982, part 1, pp. 416–420.

3 The six years’ political crisis can be divided into three stages: constitutional monarchy, federal republic, unitarian and presidential republic. Following these three stages the Bourbon monarchy was restored. Paredes, op. cit. (1).

4 Paredes, op. cit. (1). Mayobre, Purificación, O Krausismo en Galicia e Portugal, Coruña: Edicións do Castro, 1994.

5 Cacho, Vicente, La Institución Libre de Enseñanza, Madrid: Rialp, 1962. Jiménez-García, A., El krausismo y la Institución Libre de Enseñanza, Madrid: Ediciones Pedagógicas, 2002.

6 Paredes, op. cit. (1); Mayobre, op. cit. (4). López-Morillas, Juan, El krausismo español. Perfil de una aventura intelectual, México: FCE, 1956.

7 For the relationships between some leading Spanish scientists and the Free Institution for Teaching and Krausism, see Sánchez-Ron, José M., Cincel, martillo y piedra: Historia de la ciencia en España (siglos XIX y XX), Madrid: Taurus, 1999, pp. 85122.

8 These events were influenced by the Spanish Liberal Revolution of 1820, the Portuguese Constitution being inspired by the Spanish Constitution of 1812.

9 Mónica, Maria Filomena, Fontes Pereira de Melo, Porto: Afrontamento, 1998.

10 The ministry became instrumental in the political measures oriented towards the modernization of the country, notably the construction of basic infrastructure associated with transport, regulation of trade and industry, population census and other statistics, and cartography.

11 Both had attended the Army School and fought in the Liberal civil wars.

12 José Mattoso (ed.), História de Portugal, Lisbon: Editoral Estampa, n.d.; Saraiva, António José and Lopes, Óscar, História da Literatura Portuguesa, Oporto: Porto Editora, 1975; Mónica, Maria Filomena, Vida e obra de José Maria Eça de Queirós, Lisbon: Record, 2001.

13 Díez, Alejandro R., ‘El pasado revalorizado. Orígenes culturales y Arqueología en el Ateneo de Madrid, 1838–1918’, El Ateneo. Revista científica, literaria y artística (1996) 7, pp. 5677.

14 Ana Carneiro, ‘Nery Delgado (1835–1908): Diplomacia e Geologia’, in Minutes of Scientiarum Historia II/Encontro Luso-Brasileiro de História da Ciência, Rio de Janeiro: UFRJ, 2009, pp. 337–343.

15 Catalá-Gorgues, Jesús and Carneiro, Ana, ‘El projecte de la Carta Geològica d'Europa i la participació dels serveis geològics d'Espanya i Portugal’, Actes d'Història de la Ciència i de la Tècnica (2010) 3, pp. 1122.

16 Catalá-Gorgues and Carneiro, op. cit. (15).

17 Rudwick, Martin J.S., ‘The emergence of a visual representation for geological science 1760–1840’, History of Science (1976) 15, pp. 149195.

18 Ana Carneiro, ‘L'usage technique et symbolique des cartes à la Commission Géologique du Portugal (1857–1908)’, in Isabelle Laboulais (ed.), Les usages des cartes (XVIIe–XIXe siècle). Pour une approche pragmatique des productions cartographiques, Strasbourg: Presses universitaires de Strasbourg, 2008, pp. 257–270.

19 Questions such as the most ancient human vestiges found in Sweden or Hungary or the craniological differences between races which populated Italy were debated in the ICAPA meetings. Recently, the tensions between nationalism and internationalism in anthropology have been dealt with by Manias, Chris, ‘The race prussienne controversy: scientific internationalism and the nation’, Isis (2009) 100, pp. 733757.

20 The meetings of the ICAPA had the following sequence: 1866, Neuchâtel; 1867, Paris; 1868, Norwich; 1871, Bologna; 1872, Brussels; 1874, Stockholm; 1876, Budapest; 1879, Paris; 1880, Lisbon; 1889, Paris; 1892, Moscow. See the Compte rendu of each of these meetings.

21 Ellenberger, François, ‘The First International Geological Congress, Paris, 1878’, Episodes (1999) 22, pp. 113117 (originally published in Episodes (1978) 1, pp. 20–24); Compte rendu du Congrès internationale de géologie, 1ère session, Paris, 1880. The meetings of IGC were held in Paris (1878), Bologna (1881), Berlin (1885), London (1888), Washington (1891), Zurich (1894) and so on.

22 Vai, Gian Battista, ‘The Second International Geological Congress, Bologna, 1881’, Episodes (2004) 27, pp. 1320.

23 Delgado, J.F. Nery, Relatorio ácerca da Quarta Sessão do Congresso Geologico Internacional realisada em Londres no mez de Setembro de 1888, Lisbon: Imprensa Nacional, 1889.

24 In his missions in Spain of 1872 and 1878, and the IGC meeting held in London in 1888, Delgado visited the Portuguese ambassadors.

25 Beyrich, in addition, was one of the IGC vice-presidents, together with Delgado Vilanova. See Vai, Gian Battista, ‘Giovanni Capellini and the origin of the International Geological Congress’, Episodes (2002) 25, pp. 248254.

26 Compte rendu de la 2e session du Congrès geologique international, Bologna: Imprimerie Fava et Garagnani, 1882. In addition to these was W.T. Blanford, representative of British Indies. In the 1888 London meeting there were no delegates from foreign governments, or if there were the British did not bother to print their names in the minutes. In the next meeting held in Washington, 1891, the delegates were: von Zittel, Bavarian government; M. Boule, Ministry of Education of France; A.D. Hodgesjr and E.C. Ochsenius, government of Peru; H. Golliez and C. Schmidt, Swiss government. See the Compte rendu of each of these meetings.

27 Oldroyd, David, Thinking about the Earth: A History of Ideas in Geology, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996, p. 120.

28 Vai, Gian Battista, ‘A history of chronostratigraphy’, Stratigraphy (2007) 4, pp. 8397.

29 Butcher, Norman E., ‘The advent of colour-printed geological maps in Britain’, Proceedings of the Royal Institution of Great Britain (1983) 55, pp. 149161. Cook, Karen S., ‘From false starts to firm beginnings: early colour printing of geological maps’, Imago Mundi (1995) 47, pp. 155172. See also the thematic set of articles on geological mapping and geological surveys in Earth Sciences History (2007) 26, pp. 5–171, edited by Pietro Corsi.

30 Ana Blázquez, ‘La contribución geológica del naturalismo: los trabajos del Mapa Geológico Nacional’, in Josefina Gómez-Mendoza and Nicolás Ortega (eds.), Naturalismo y geografía en España, Madrid: Fundación Banco Exterior, 1992, pp. 79–134. Gutiérrez-Gárate, Margarita and Rubi, María Ángeles, Cartografía geológica española del IGME, Madrid, 2007. Rábano, Isabel and Aragón, Santiago, ‘Nuevos datos históricos sobre la Comisión del Mapa Geológico de España’, Boletín Geológico y Minero (2007) 118, pp. 813826.

31 de Azcona, Juan M. López, ‘Mineros destacados del siglo XIX. Francisco de Luján y Miguel-Romero (1798–1867)’, Boletín Geológico y Minero (1984) 95, pp. 610617.

32 de Castro, Manuel Fernández, ‘Notas para un estudio bibliográfico sobre los orígenes y el estado actual del Mapa Geológico de España’, Boletín de la Comisión del Mapa Geológico de España (1874) 1, pp. 1768, 309–320; ‘Noticia del estado en que se hallan los trabajos del Mapa Geológico de España en 1.º de julio de 1874’, Boletín de la Comisión del Mapa Geológico de España (1876) 3, pp. 1–89.

33 Blázquez, op. cit. (30). de Azcona, Juan M. López and Meseguer, José, Contribución a la historia de la geología y minería españolas, Madrid: Instituto Geológico y Minero de España, 1964, pp. 137163. Argimiro Huerga, ‘Evolución histórica de la Comisión para la Carta Geológica de Madrid y General del Reino’, in idem (ed.), Ciento cincuenta años. 1849–1999. Estudio e Investigación en las Ciencias de la Tierra, Madrid: Instituto Tecnológico Geominero de España, 2000, pp. 49–68.

34 Solé, Lluís, ‘Los más antiguos mapas geológicos de España’, Mundo Científico (1983) 11 (23), pp. 252262. The tensions between mining engineers on the one hand and university geologists and the naturalist tradition on the other have been generally acknowledged by Spanish geological historiography. Specifically the role ascribed to Vilanova has been object of some debate. Sequeiros, Leandro, ‘Lucas Mallada y Pueyo (1841–1921): 150 aniversario de su nacimiento’, Revista Española de Paleontología (1992) 7, pp. 12. Gozalo, Rodolfo, ‘El inicio de la polémica sobre los sufijos utilizados para denominar los “terrenos”: -ano versus -ico o Casiano de Prado versus Juan Vilanova’, Geogaceta (1998) 23, pp. 7174. Rábano, Isabel, ‘Casiano de Prado – Juan Vilanova, una relación imposible’, Boletín de la Comisión de Historia de la Geología de España (2006) 28, pp. 26. There is, however, no work analysing this question systematically.

35 Daniel Sharpe, a British wine merchant and amateur geologist who lived in Portugal between 1835 and 1838, emerges as one of the most relevant. He introduced palaeontology with a geological purpose and stratigraphy, and authored the first geological maps published in Portugal: one of the surroundings of Lisbon and another of the Oporto region.

36 Vanda Leitão, ‘Assentar a primeira pedra: As primeiras Comissões Geológicas portuguesas (1848–1868)’, PhD dissertation, New University of Lisbon, 2005.

37 These were the cases of Oswald Heer, Perceval de Loriol, Gaston de Saporta and J.F. Pompekj.

38 The involvement of the Portuguese Geological Survey in tasks of this kind and the relative influence it might have had in the course of events is shown in the International Commission on Nomenclature's suggestion at the meeting held in Berlin in 1885 of the adoption of the Portuguese proposal regarding the division of the Tertiary. See Vai, op. cit. (28), p. 89.

39 Leitão, Vanda, ‘The travel of the geologist Carlos Ribeiro (1813–1882) in Europe, in 1858’, Comunicações do Instituto Geológico e Mineiro (2001) 88, pp. 293300. Ana Carneiro, Maria Dores Areias, Vanda Leitão and Luís T. Pinto, ‘The role of travels in the internationalization of nineteenth-century Portuguese geological science’, in Ana Simões, Ana Carneiro and Maria Paula Diogo (eds.), Travels of Learning: A Geography of Science in Europe, Dordrecht: Kluwer, 2003, pp. 249–297.

40 This reinforces the argument of Truyols against the veracity of the episode mentioned in publications on the history of geology in Spain according to which, in 1862, Verneuil was requested by the Spanish government to produce a national geological map because nobody in Spain had the skills. When Verneuil arrived at Madrid and met Casiano de Prado, he gave in because he found his colleague fit for the job. In fact, Prado and Verneuil knew each other long before that date, which is also corroborated by Ribeiro's letter. Truyols, Jaume, ‘Sobre el origen de la relación científica que existió entre Casiano de Prado y Edouard de Verneuil’, Geogaceta (1998) 23, pp. 151153.

41 Ribeiro, Carlos, [Relatório da sua viagem a Espanha em 1858], Boletim do Ministerio das Obras Publicas, Commercio e Industria (1859) 2, pp. 150166, p. 163.

42 Rábano, Isabel and Truyols, Jaume (eds.), Miscelánea Guillermo Schultz (1805–1877), Madrid: IGME, 2007. Rodolfo Gozalo, ‘Biografía de Juan Vilanova y Piera’, in Homenaje a Juan Vilanova y Piera. Valencia, 25–27 de noviembre de 1993, Valencia: Universitat de València/Servicio de Investigación Prehistórica de la Diputación de Valencia/Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País de Valencia, 1993, pp. 11–83; Rodolfo Gozalo and Vicent L. Salavert, ‘Joan Vilanova i Piera (València, 1821–Madrid, 1893). Geòleg, paleontòleg i prehistoriador’, in Josep Maria Camarasa and Antoni Roca (eds.), Ciència i Tècnica als Països Catalans: una aproximació biográfica, Barcelona: Enciclopèdia Catalana, 1995, pp. 287–313.

43 Ribeiro, op. cit. (41), p. 163.

44 See letter from the Spanish engineer Joaquín Gonzalo y Tarín (1838–1910) to Delgado: ‘As an engineer of the Mining Corps … I have the honour of addressing you with no other merit or link than that which unites the engineers of the various countries.’ Letter from Gonzalo y Tarín to Delgado, Huelva, 26 December 1876. Historical Archive of the Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia (hereafter LNEG), available at

45 LNEG, Prado to Ribeiro, 10 March 1860.

46 LNEG, Prado to Ribeiro, 1 May 1860.

47 de Prado, C., Reseña física y geológica de la Provincia de Madrid, Madrid: Imprenta Nacional, 1864.

48 LNEG, letter from Prado, Madrid, April 1865.

49 The map by Collomb and Verneuil preceeded by three years the making of the first sketch of the geological map of Portugal in the 1:500,000 scale, dating from 1867, and was presented at the Paris World Exhibition.

50 The suspension of the Survey occurred due to deep disagreements opposing Ribeiro against his co-director, Pereira da Costa. Costa's conceptions on geological work, and the fact that he appropriated Ribeiro's and Delgado's work without their consent, led to deep disagreements. Costa, however, was well connected in the political sphere and friendly with the minister of public works. They joined forces and managed to get the Survey suspended, a situation which extended from 1868 to 1869. Leitão, op. cit. (39).

51 LNEG, Tubino to Delgado, 19 February 1869.

52 Among whom were Carl Christoph Vogt, Paul Broca, Alfred Russel Wallace, Tylor, Joseph Dalton Hooker and George Busk.

53 Respectively in Prado, op. cit. (48); and in Vilanova, Juan, Compendio de Geología, Madrid: Imprenta de Alejandro Gómez, 1872.

54 LNEG, Tubino to Delgado, 19 February 1869.

55 LNEG, Tubino to Delgado, 2 May 1869.

56 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 2 May 1869.

57 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 2 May 1869.

58 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 2 May 1869.

59 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 2 May 1869.

60 LNEG, Tubino to Delgado, 5 May 1869.

61 LNEG, Tubino to Delgado, 5 May 1869.

62 Perthes concluded that Man was contemporary of certain extinct animals, in a period prior to the flood; climates had changed since there were elephants and rhinoceros in the Somme valley. One was thus able to distinguish a tropical from a glacial and a mild period. Perthes's findings were dated from c.500,000 years ago, and were ascribed to Neanderthal populations, although some experts think they date from c.1,000,000 years ago; that is, that they are associated with Homo erectus.

63 To Delgado, Rola was ‘one of the most fervent apostles of democratic ideas and healthy principles of reform’ in Portugal. LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 23 July 1869.

64 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 23 July 1869.

65 LNEG, Delgado to Tubino, 23 July 1869.

66 José Macpherson y Hemas, geologist, and his brother Guillermo Macpherson y Hemas (1824–1898), naturalist, archaeologist and translator of Shakespeare into Castillian. See also Compte rendu de la 9ème session du Congrès international d'anthropologie et d'archeologie prehistoriques en 1880, Lisbon, 1884.

67 They had founded in 1864 the journal Matériaux pour l'histoire positive et philosophique de l'homme. Mortillet was thrilled by Ribeiro's discovery of the ‘Tertiary Man’, on which subject he taught in Paris.

68 Cardoso, João L., ‘As Investigações de Carlos Ribeiro e de Nery Delgado sobre o “Homem do Terciário”: Resultados e Consequências na época e para além dela’, Estudos Arqueológicos de Oeiras (1999–2000) 8, pp. 3354.

69 LNEG, letter from Felipe Naranjo y Garza, 7 July 1873.

70 Catalá-Gorgues, Jesús, ‘Ligados pela natureza: os inícios da colaboração científica entre Nery Delgado e os geólogos espanhóis, em 1872’, Comunicações Geológicas (2007) 94, pp. 161174.

71 Catalá-Gorgues, op. cit. (70).

72 de Azcona, Juan M. López, ‘Mineros destacados del siglo XIX. Justo Egozcue y Cía. 1833–1900’, Boletín Geológico y Minero (1988) 99, pp. 986989.

73 de Azcona, Juan M. López, ‘Mineros destacados del siglo XIX. Ramón Rua Figueroa y Fraga (1825–1875)’, Boletín Geológico y Minero (1988) 99, pp. 139143.

74 Delgado, J.F. Nery, ‘Breves apontamentos sobre os terrenos paleozoicos do nosso paiz’, Revista de Obras Publicas e Minas (1870) 1, pp. 1527, 98–110, 168–175.

75 Delgado, J.F. Nery, ‘Breves apuntes sobre los terrenos paleozoicos de Portugal’, Revista Minera (1870) 21, pp. 505516, 529–545, 553–556.

76 Calvo, Antonio, Lucas Mallada (1841–1921). Un geólogo preocupado por España, (Zaragoza): Gobierno de Aragón, 2005.

77 Catalá-Gorgues, op. cit. (70).

78 Catalá-Gorgues, op. cit. (70).

79 There are some doubts as to the biography of this character, beginning with his full name. It is not clear whether or not ‘Donayre’ is the first or second surname, because in Castilian ‘Martín’ can be either a first name or a surname, which renders bibliographic references problematic. Here the suggestion of Gozalo, who argued that ‘Martin’ is the name and ‘Donayre’ the surname, is followed. Gozalo, Rodolfo, ‘Donayre, Felipe Martín o Martín Donayre, Felipe: una disquisición nominal’, Noticias Paleontológicas (1999) 34, electronic version, available at

80 Urteaga, Luis, ‘Lucas Mallada y la Comisión del Mapa Geológico’, Boletín de la Real Sociedad Geográfica (1988) 124125, pp. 213–231.

81 LNEG, ‘Sueldos de los Cuerpos de Ingenieros de Caminos, Minas y Montes’, p. 1, followed by ‘Comisión geologica’, pp. 2–4.

82 LNEG, ‘Nota de los planos y memorias geológicas publicadas’, pp. 1–2, followed by ‘Nota de los planos, memorias y reseñas geológicas no publicadas’, pp. 3–4.

83 Naranjo, op. cit. (69).

84 The third Carlist War lasted from 1872 to 1876, and was fought between the partisans of Carlos, Duke of Madrid, the Carlist claimant to the throne of Spain with the name Carlos VII, and the governments of Amadeo I, the First Republic and Alfonso XII. The claimant, who for months had been preparing the insurrection from exile, defined 21 April 1872 as the date of the rebellion. The war was fought especially in Navarre and the Basque country, but also in Catalonia, Valencia and Aragon. Alfonso Bullón de Mendoza, ‘Las Guerras Carlistas’, in idem (ed.), Las Guerras Carlistas, Madrid: Ministerio de Cultura, 2004, pp. 19–67.

85 Catalá-Gorgues, op. cit. (70).

86 Rudwick, Martin J.S., ‘Geological travel and theoretical innovation: the role of “liminal” experience’, Social Studies of Science (1996) 26, pp. 143159.

87 Víctor Navarro, ‘Viatgers científics valencians’, in Gonzalo Montiel and Elena Martínez (eds.), Viatjar per saber. Mobilitat i comunicació a les universitats europees, València: Universitat de València, 2004, pp. 91–113.

88 Ana Carneiro, ‘Sharing common ground: Nery Delgado (1835–1908) in Spain in 1878’, in Patrick N. Wyse Jackson (ed.), Four Centuries of Geological Travel: The Search for Knowledge on Foot, Bicycle, Sledge and Camel, London: Geological Society, 2007, pp. 119–134.

89 ‘Homenaje a José MacPherson y Hemas (1839–1902)’, Boletín de la Institución Libre de Enseñanza (2002), 45–46, pp. 9–155.

90 Delgado, J.F. Nery, Relatorio da commissão desempenhada em Hespanha no anno de 1878, Lisbon: Typographia da Academia Real das Sciencias, 1879, p. 11.

91 LNEG, Benot to Delgado, 8 August 1878. Ibáñez was then director of this institution, but the next year he travelled in order to carry out the triangulation of Spain and Algiers, by using electrical signals and Gauss heliotropes. The purpose was to take triangulation to the desert.

92 Carneiro, op. cit. (88).

93 Carneiro, Ana, ‘Outside government science, “Not a single tiny bone to cheer us up!”: the Geological Survey of Portugal (1857–1908), the involvement of common men, and the reaction of civil society to geological research’, Annals of Science (2005) 62, pp. 141204.

94 Vai, op. cit. (28).

95 LNEG, copy of the official letter of Delgado to the minister of public works, 2 August 1894, Registo da correspondência administrativa 1893–1899, pp. 533–535.

96 Beyschlag, Franz‚ ‘Gedächtnissrede auf Wilhelm Hauchecorne gelegentlich der Enthüllung seiner Büste in der Aula der Königl. Geologischen Landesanstalt und Bergakademie am 15. Januar 1902’, Jahrbuch der Königlich Preussischen geologischen Landesanstalt und Bergakademie zu Berlin (1901) 21, pp. xvcicxiv. Bentz, Alfred, ‘The history of the German Geological Survey’, Geological Magazine (1947) 84, pp. 169177.

97 Oldroyd, op. cit. (27), p. 124.

98 Guntau, Martin, ‘The history of the origins of the Prussian geological survey in Berlin (1873)’, History and Technology (1988) 5, pp. 5158.

99 Brigitte Schroeder-Gudehus, ‘Nationalism and internationalism’, in R.C. Olby, G.N. Cantor, J.R.R. Christie and M.J.S. Hodge (eds.), Companion to the History of Modern Science, London: Routledge, 1990, pp. 909–919.

100 Vai, op. cit. (22); idem, op. cit. (28).

101 Paul Choffat, ‘Troisième session du Congrès géologique international’, Communicações da Comissão dos Trabalhos Geologicos de Portugal (1887) 1, pp. 211–221. Compte rendu de la 3e session du Congrès geologique international, Berlin, 1888.

102 LNEG, J. Macpherson to Nery Delgado, 13 November 1888.

103 Choffat, op. cit. (101), p. 220.

104 Delgado, J.F. Nery, Relatorio ácerca da Quarta Sessão do Congresso Geologico Internacional realisada em Londres no mez de Setembro de 1888, Lisbon, 1889, p. 32. Compte rendu de la 4e session du Congrès geologique international, London, 1891.

105 LNEG, Marcou to Delgado, 26 February 1886. Marcou added that, ‘Fontannes de Lyon, le secrétaire du congrès, est surtout un nombre de ces excellents savants qui recherchent et proposent ce travail d'Encyclopédistes. Avec l’âge, ils apprendront tous que le meilleur de tous les moyens, est de laissez faire la liberté et le temps avec ces deux facteurs tout se lasse et tout se casse. Tandis qu'avec les coteries, toujours plus ou moins despotiques, et les cliques de meneurs, eh bien ! Tout lasse, tout casse, et tout passe ! Voilà ma vieille expérience de quarante années des hommes et des théories dans les deux mondes.’ Marcou's underlining.

106 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Hauchecorne. Lisbon, 23 November 1882, Livro de registro de correspondencia de 1882, and Registo da correspondência administrativa, 1882–1886, p. 20.

107 LNEG, translation from German to Portuguese of a letter from Beyrich and Hauchecorne to Delgado (two versions), 18 July 1888. For the Swedish Geological Survey see Nordlund, Christer, ‘Between science and industry: on the establishment, organisation and practices of the Swedish Geological Survey in the nineteenth century’, Earth Sciences History (2007) 26, pp. 127149.

108 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to the directors of the Commission of the International Geological Map of Europe, Lisbon, 13 August 1888, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1886–1890, pp. 304–305.

109 Delgado, op. cit. (104).

110 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Hauchecorne, 5 November 1888, Registo da correspondência científica 1886–1890, pp. 311–312.

111 LNEG, translation from German into Portuguese of the letter from Ernst Beyrich to Nery Delgado, 16 June 1892.

112 Not located.

113 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Renevier, 10 March 1894, Registo da correspondência científica 1893–1897, pp. 619–620.

114 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Hauchecorne, 5 November 1888, Registo da correspondência científica 1886–1890, pp. 311–312.

115 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro. Lisbon 3 November 1888. Registo da correspondência científica 1886–1890, pp. 310–311.

116 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 6 July 1888.

117 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 2 August 1888. Registo da correspondência scientifica 1886–1890, pp. 298–299.

118 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to the Minister of Public Works, 11 April 1893, Registo da correspondência administrativa 1886–1893, pp. 483–484.

119 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 1 July 1893. Registo da correspondência administrativa 1886–1893, pp. 495–495.

120 LNEG, Cortázar to Delgado, 8 December 1894, and letter from Manuel Fernández de Castro to Delgado, Madrid, 12 December 1894.

121 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 5 April 1890, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1886–1890, pp. 388–389.

122 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 6 August 1890, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1890–1893, pp. 417–419.

123 The geological map of Spain, in the 1:400,000 scale, was released in two versions: one deluxe (sixteen sheets), and the other economy (sixty-four sheets). Blázquez, op. cit. (30).

124 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to the Spanish Geological Survey, 4 October 1890, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1890–1893, p. 425.

125 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 11 October 1890.

126 LNEG, Delgado to Castro, 6 December 1890, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1890–1893, pp. 435–439.

127 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 3 February 1891.

128 Manuel Fernández de Castro, Mapa Geológico de España. Conjunto reducido del que en escala de 1:400 000 ha formado y publica por orden del Ministerio de Fomento [la] Comisión de Ingenieros de Minas creada en 28 de marzo de 1873 bajo la dirección del Inspector Gral. Exmo. Sr. Don … (scale 1:1,500,000), Madrid: Ministerio de Fomento, 1889–1893.

129 LNEG, Hauchecorne to Delgado, 18 February 1895.

130 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 31 March 1895.

131 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 16 April 1895, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1893–1897, pp. 685–688.

132 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 25 April 1895.

133 LNEG, Castro to Delgado, 25 April 1895.

134 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Castro, 13 May 1895, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1893–1897, pp. 691–693.

135 Sent when Castro had passed away.

136 LNEG, Egozcue to Delgado, 22 June 1895.

137 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Egozcue, 4 July 1895, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1893–1897, pp. 705–709.

138 LNEG, Egozcue to Delgado, 9 July 1895.

139 LNEG, copy of the letter from Delgado to Hauchecorne, 27 June 1895, Registo da correspondência scientifica 1893–1897, pp. 765–771.

The research underlying this paper was carried out in the context of the research project PTDC/HCT/65345/2006, Das Comissões Geológicas aos Serviços Geológicos (1848–1970): História e Herança Científica, funded by Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal; and of the scholarship programme promoting mobility of teaching staff of the Fundación Universitaria CEU – San Pablo and Universidad CEU – Cardenal Herrera, Spain. Both authors wish to thank Isabel Rábano, director of the Museo Geominero, Instituto Geologico y Minero de España, for kindly supplying the images of the maps included in this article, and the staff of the Historical Archive of Laboratório Nacional de Energia e Geologia, Portugal, in particular Mrs Paula Serrano, for their kind help.

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The British Journal for the History of Science
  • ISSN: 0007-0874
  • EISSN: 1474-001X
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-for-the-history-of-science
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