In recent years the historical relationship between scientific experts and the state has received increasing scrutiny. Such experts played important roles in the creation and regulation of environmental organizations and functioned as agents dispatched by politicians or bureaucrats to assess health-related problems and concerns raised by the public or the judiciary. But when it came to making public policy, scientists played another role that has received less attention. In addition to acting as advisers and assessors, some scientists were democratically elected members of local and national legislatures. In this essay I draw attention to this phenomenon by examining how liberal politicians and intellectuals used Darwinian cognitive science to conceptualize the education of children in Victorian Britain.
1 Desmond Adrian, The Politics of Evolution: Morphology, Medicine, and Reform in Radical London, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1992 . Scull Andrew, The Most Solitary of Afflictions: Madness and Society in Britain, 1700–1900, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2005 .
2 Recent studies of this genre are Leggett Don and Sleigh Charlotte (eds.), Scientific Governance in Britain, 1914–79, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2016 ; Proctor Robert, Golden Holocaust: Origins of the Cigarette Catastrophe and the Case for Abolition, Berkeley: University of California Press, 2011 ; Oreskes Naomi and Conway Erik M., Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, New York: Bloomsbury, 2010 . For Victorian Britain see Hamlin Christopher, ‘Scientific method and expert witnessing: Victorian perspectives on a modern problem’, Social Studies of Science (1986) 16, pp. 485–513 .
3 Hutchinson Horace G., Life of Sir John Lubbock, Lord Avebury, vol. 1, London: Macmillan 1914 . Patton Mark, Science, Politics and Business in the Work of John Lubbock: A Man of Universal Mind, Aldershot: Ashgate, 2013 .
4 Alborn Timothy L., ‘Lubbock, Sir John William, third baronet (1803–1865)’, in Matthew H.C.G. and Harrison Brian (eds.), Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004 . Henderson James P., ‘Sir John William Lubbock's On Currency: “an interesting book by a still more interesting man”’, History of Political Economy (1986) 18, pp. 383–404 .
5 For Lubbock's early life and education see Hutchinson, op. cit. (3), pp. 5–35. A more detailed picture is given, particularly in relation to the influence of Lubbock's mother, in Patton, op. cit. (3), pp. 15–36. For Lubbock's summary of his daily reading in 1852 see Patton, op. cit. (3), p. 23.
6 Winter Sarah, ‘Mental culture: liberal pedagogy and the emergence of ethnographic knowledge’, Victorian Studies (1998) 41, pp. 427–454 . Hadley Elaine, Living Liberalism: Practical Citizenship in Mid-Victorian Britain, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2010 . Winter Sarah gives further details on the educational strategies pursued by liberal intellectuals and politicians in The Pleasures of Memory: Learning to Read with Charles Dickens, New York: Fordham University Press, 2011 ; see especially Chapter 5.
7 The story of the integration of the self-actualizing principles of liberalism into progressive educational circles during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries is told by Simon Brian in The Two Nations and the Educational Structure: 1780–1870, London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1981 .
8 The broader context of the early nineteenth-century pedagogical debates surrounding object lessons is outlined in Tomlinson Stephen, Head Masters: Phrenology, Secular Education, and Nineteenth-Century Social Thought, Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2007 ; and Melanie Judith Keene, ‘Object lessons: sensory science education 1830–1870’, unpublished PhD thesis, Cambridge University, 2009. For Hamilton's Elizabeth thoughts on objects of experience see Letters on Elementary Principles of Education, vols. 1 and 2, 7th edn, London: Longman, 1824 .
9 The overlapping educational and ethnographic themes depicted in Henriette Browne's images of children are explained throughout Reina Lewis, ‘Race – femininity – representation: women, culture and the orientalized other in the work of Henriette Browne and George Eliot, 1855–1880’, PhD thesis, Middlesex University, 1994.
10 The centrality of scientific methods to liberalism and the larger reform movement is detailed in Goldman Lawrence, Science, Reform, and Politics in Victorian Britain: The Social Science Association 1857–1886, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002 ; and in MacLeod Christine, Heroes of Invention: Technology, Liberalism and British Identity, 1750–1914, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007 .
11 The core elements of Victorian liberal politics are succinctly summarized in Parry Jonathan, The Rise and Fall of Liberal Government in Victorian Britain, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1993, pp. 1–20 ; and Otter Chris, The Victorian Eye: A Political History of Light and Vision in Britain, 1800–1910, Chicago: The University of Chicago, 2008, pp. 1–54 .
12 Spencer Herbert, Education: Intellectual, Moral, and Physical, New York: Appleton and Co., 1860, p. 140 . Spencer used the word ‘faculties’ in this case to refer to natural cognitive abilities or proclivities.
13 Winter, ‘Mental culture’, op. cit. (6); and Hadley, op. cit. (6).
14 Knight David, Public Understanding of Science: A History of Communicating Scientific Ideas, London: Routledge, 2006, pp. 135–152 .
15 Middleton Nigel, ‘The Education Act of 1870 as the start of the modern concept of the child’, British Journal of Educational Studies (1970) 18, pp. 166–179 . Stephens W.B., Minutes and Reports of the Committee of Council on Education 1839–1899, Leeds: Microform Academic Publishers, 1985 . Sturt Mary, The Education of the People: A History of Primary Education in England and Wales in the Nineteenth Century, London: Routledge, 1967 .
16 For liberal interpretations of the act see Holdsworth W.A., The Elementary Education, 1870, Popularly Explained, London: Routledge, 1870 ; and Simon Brian, Studies in the History of Education, 1780–1870, London: Lawrence and Wishart, 1960 .
17 For the centrality of patriotism, science and morality to Victorian liberalism see, respectively, the following: Parry, op. cit. (11); Parry Jonathan, The Politics of Patriotism: English Liberalism, National Identity and Europe, 1830–1886, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006 ; and Parry , Democracy and Religion: Gladstone and the Liberal Party 1867–1875, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989 .
18 Vance Norman, The Sinews of the Spirit: The Ideal of Christian Manliness in Victorian Literature and Religious Thought, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985 . Mangan J.A. and Walvin James (eds.), Manliness and Morality: Middle-Class Masculinity in Britain and America, 1800–1940, Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1991 .
19 Hutchinson, op. cit. (3), p. 23. T.H. Huxley would eventually become the editor in chief of the journal, using it to disseminate ‘scientific naturalism’. DeArce Miguel, ‘ The Natural History Review (1854–1865)’, Archives of Natural History (2012) 39, pp. 253–259 .
20 ‘Certificate of a candidate for election’, the Royal Society of London, Special Collections, GB 117, EC/1858/11.
21 Pearn Alison, ‘The teacher taught? What Charles Darwin owed to John Lubbock’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society (2014) 68, pp. 7–19 .
22 Many scientists questioned the connection between the cognitive evolution of humans and Darwin's mechanism of natural selection in the decades following the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859. See Livingston David N., Adam's Ancestors: Race, Religion, and the Politics of Human Origins , Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008 ; and the many works of Bowler Peter J., including Evolution: The History of an Idea, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989 ; and The Eclipse of Darwinism: Anti-Darwinian Evolution Theories in the Decades around 1900, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1992 . For Alfred Russel Wallace's views see Wallace Alfred Russel, Darwinism: An Exposition of Natural Selection, with Some of Its Applications, London: Macmillan, 1889 .
23 Lubbock's views on social evolution are detailed in Patton, op. cit. (3), pp. 53–90.
24 Murray Tim, ‘Illustrating “savagery”: Sir John Lubbock and Ernest Griset’, Antiquity (2009) 83, 488–499 .
25 Darwin wrote about child psychology in his notebooks and publications for his entire career. For his early reflections see Darwin Charles, The Correspondence of Charles Darwin, vol. 4: 1847–1850 (ed. Burkhardt Frederick), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp. 410–433 . For an overview of the evolutionary foundations of Darwin's views on child psychology see Morss John R., Biologising Childhood: Developmental Psychology and the Darwinian Myth, London: Erlbaum, 1990, pp. 11–29 .
26 The place of associationism in nineteenth-century pedagogical theories is addressed throughout Shuttleworth Sally, The Mind of the Child: Child Development in Literature, Science, and Medicine, 1840–1900, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 .
27 Lubbock, like Darwin, treated association as self-evident and used ‘association’ and ‘associated’ (and related cognates) throughout his works to describe the cognitive process through which ideas were retained and grouped in the mind. See, for example, his discussion of ‘incongruous association’ in Lubbock John, The Origin of Civilisation, London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1870, p. 273 .
28 The permeability of associationism as a metaphor in cognitive psychology, politics and literature is explained in Rylance Richard William, Victorian Psychology and British Culture 1850–1880, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000 ; and in Young Robert M., Mind, Brain, and Adaptation in the Nineteenth Century: Cerebral Localization and Its Biological Context from Gall to Ferrier, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970 .
29 For associationism's connections to early childhood instruction (including home schooling, literacy and pedagogy) and delinquency see, respectively, Winter, The Pleasures of Memory, op. cit. (6); May Margaret, ‘Innocence and experience: the evolution of the concept of juvenile delinquency in the mid-nineteenth century’, Victorian Studies (1973) 17, pp. 7–29 ; esp. 13–14. For the ubiquitous presence of the associationist model in nineteenth-century children's literature and literature about children see Vrettos Athena, ‘Victorian psychology’, in Brantlinger Patrick and Thesing William B. (eds.), A Companion to the Victorian Novel, Oxford: Blackwell, 2002, pp. 67–83 .
30 Hamilton, op. cit. (8), Martineau Harriet, How to Observe: Morals and Manners, London: Charles Knight and Co., 1838 ; Spencer, op. cit. (12). For John Stuart Mill's associationism see Mill John Stuart, An Examination of Sir William Hamilton's Philosophy, London: Longmans, 1865, esp. pp. 251–270 . Mill's school of thought is often called that of ‘experience and association’. Skorupski John M., John Stuart Mill, London: Routledge, 2010, pp. 16–23 .
31 The importance of Lubbock's publications and collections to the field of prehistory has recently been underscored by a number of authors: Owen Janet, ‘From Down House to Avebury: John Lubbock, prehistory and human evolution through the eyes of his collection’, NRRS (2014) 68, pp. 21–34 ; Pettitt Paul and White Mark, ‘John Lubbock, caves, and the development of Middle and Upper Palaeolithic archaeology’, NRRS (2014) 68, pp. 35–48 ; Bridgeland David R., ‘John Lubbock's early contribution to the understanding of river terraces and their importance to geography, archaeology and earth science’, NRRS (2014) 68, pp. 49–63 .
32 Lubbock John, Pre-historic Times, Illustrated by Ancient Remains, and the Manners and Customs of Modern Savages, London: Williams and Norgate, 1865, pp. 487, 465. His views on the perception of time and language are given on pp. 460 and 464. The relationship between children and ‘savages’ is also flagged in the table of contents (under Chapter 13) and in the index under ‘Savages and children’ (where the reader is directed to page 462).
33 Lubbock, op. cit. (27), p. 355. For his comments on children and language, see pp. 4, 283, 356, 360.
34 The long-standing presence of the model of the child as savage or animal is addressed throughout Shuttleworth, op. cit. (26). It is succinctly summarized on pp. 4–5.
35 Lubbock, op. cit. (32), pp. 462–463.
36 Lubbock John, Pre-historic Times, 3rd edn, London: Williams and Norgate, 1872, p. 570 .
37 Crawford Sally, ‘“Our race had its childhood”: the use of childhood as a metaphor in post-Darwinian explanations for prehistory’, Childhood in the Past (2010) 3, pp. 107–122 .
38 These two themes occur throughout his popular essays and speeches. See, for example, his essay on ‘Self-education’ in Lubbock John, The Uses of Life, London: Macmillan, 1894, pp. 111–126 .
39 The discourse of honesty was often addressed by Victorian educationalists under the rubric of ‘moral character’. This point is raised throughout Aldrich Richard, School and Society in Victorian Britain: Joseph Payne and the New World of Education, London: Routledge, 2011 . Moral concerns also played an important role in the nineteenth-century emergence of child psychiatry. Leticia Fernández-Fontecha Rumeu, ‘Pain, childhood and the emotions: a cultural history’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Greenwich, 2017.
40 Lubbock, op. cit. (27), pp. 270–274.
41 Lubbock, op. cit. (27), p. 274.
42 Spencer's position on inherited intuitions was famously communicated to the reading public via a letter (written to John Stuart Mill) that was included by Bain Alexander in Mental and Moral Science, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1868, pp. 721–722 . Spencer's views on education are given in Spencer, op. cit. (12). For further relevant details of Spencer's conception of education, nature and science see Cavanaugh F.A., ‘Introduction’, in Spencer Herbert, Herbert Spencer on Education, ed. Cavanaugh F.A., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1932, pp. vii–xxxiii .
43 Lubbock's critique of Spencer's position is given on pp. 270–272 of Lubbock John, The Origin of Civilisation and the Primitive Condition of Man: Mental and Social Condition of Savages, London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1870 . To aid his critique, he cites Hutton's R.H. famous anti-Spencerian essay ‘A questionable parentage for morals’, Macmillans Magazine (1869) 20, pp. 266–273 .
44 Scholars interested in Darwin's views on child development often approach them via his comments on habit, instinct and the ‘moral sense’. See Richards Robert J., Darwin and the Emergence of Evolutionary Theories of Mind and Behavior, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1989, pp. 206–217 . For a succinct summary of Darwin's views on the social causes of instinct and habit in humans see Krebs Dennis, The Origins of Morality: An Evolutionary Account, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 46 .
45 Lubbock, op. cit. (43), pp. 270–272.
46 Simon, op. cit. (7).
47 Crary Jonathon, Suspensions of Perception: Attention, Spectacle, and Modern Culture, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1999 . See also Otter, op. cit. (11), Chapter 1.
48 Kuklick Henrika, The Savage Within: The Social History of British Anthropology, 1885–1945, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991, pp. 20–26 . Stocking George, Victorian Anthropology, New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991, pp. 248–252 .
49 For George O. Cutler's views on the connection between ethnology, education and attention see Cutler George O., The Philosophy of Intellectual Education, Ancient and Modern: An Essay, London: Simpkin and Marshall, 1862 . For Gilbert Malcolm Sproat's views on prehistoric people and education see, respectively, Sproat Gilbert Malcolm, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, London: Smith, Elder and Co., 1868 ; and Sproat, Education of the Urban Poor, with a Full Discussion of the Principles and Requirements of Remedial Legislation Thereon, London: Bush, 1870 .
50 John Lubbock, op. cit. (43), pp. 4–5. The quotation is taken from Sproat, Scenes and Studies of Savage Life, op. cit. (49), p. 120.
51 Sully James, The Teacher's Handbook of Psychology, London: Longman's, Green and Co., 1898, p. 223 . Sully's understanding of childhood psychology was notably influenced by his evolutionary views, as were the views of other writers such as George Romanes during the last decade of the century. For Sully and Romanes see Shuttleworth, op. cit. (26), pp. 145–148, 253–263.
52 Crary argues that the techniques of observation were inherently based on a technology-driven visual epistemology that emerged during the late eighteenth century. See Crary Jonathon, Techniques of the Observer: On Vision and Modernity in the Nineteenth Century, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992 . Lubbock's views on the uses of devices, specimens and apparatus are discussed throughout Lubbock John, ‘Our present state of elementary education’, in Lubbock , Addresses, Political and Educational, London: Macmillan, 1879, pp. 70–102 .
53 John Tenniel, ‘The three R's; or, better late than never’, Punch, 26 March 1870, p. 121.
54 One of his more popular essays was Lubbock John, ‘On the present system of public school education’, Contemporary Review (1876) 27, pp. 163–171 .
55 House of Commons, Elementary Education Code – Choice of Subjects Debate, 10 March 1876, vol. 227, §1809.
56 Vallgårda Karen, Imperial Childhoods and Christian Mission: Education and Emotions in South India and Denmark, London: Palgrave Macmillan 2014 .
57 For progressivism see Stocking, op. cit. (48); and Stocking George, After Tylor: British Social Anthropology, 1888–1951, Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1995 . For the developmental unity of humankind (monogenism) see Augstein H.F., James Cowles Prichard's Anthropology: Remaking the Science of Man in Early Nineteenth Century Britain, Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1999 ; and Desmond Adrian and Moore James, Darwin's Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin's Views on Human Evolution, London: Penguin, 2009 .
58 House of Commons, Elementary Education – Revised New Code (1871) Debate, 19 July 1872, vol. 212, §1462.
59 Seaman once astutely noted that, while Victorian liberalism promoted a laissez-faire ‘I'm-all-right-Jack’ mantra, its view of the poor was ‘that's your bad luck, mate’. Seaman L.C.B., Victorian England: Aspects of English and Imperial History, 1837–1901, London: Routledge, 2002, p. 303 .
60 House of Commons, Extra Subjects in Elementary Schools Debate, 1 May 1874, vol. 218, §§1531–1537.
61 House of Commons, Extra Subjects in Elementary Schools Debate, 1 May 1874, vol. 218, §1534.
62 The ideological and intellectual context of the Victorian fear of children being savages or returning back to savagery is discussed throughout Herbert Christopher, Culture and Anomie: The Ethnographic Imagination in the Nineteenth Century, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991 . Lubbock's discussion of the topic occurs in House of Commons (1874), vol. 218, §§1534. Notably, Lubbock extracted the quotation from Huxley's T.H. More Criticisms on Darwin and Administrative Nihilism, New York: Appleton, 1872, p. 45 . But Huxley himself was quoting from pp. 207–208 of Chapter 5, ‘On instinct in man and animals’, in Wallace's Alfred Russel Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection, London: Macmillan, 1871 . So Lubbock was actually quoting Wallace.
63 House of Commons, Extra Subjects in Elementary Schools Debate, 1 May 1874, vol. 218, §1537.
64 HC Debate, 10 March 1876, vol. 227, §§1800–1812, quotation taken from §1805. He makes the same autodidactic point in HC Debate, 19 July 1872, Vol. 212, §1463.
65 Winter, ‘Mental culture’, op. cit. (6), p. 447. See especially the discussion on self-possession that occurs at pp. 447–448.
66 HC Debate, 19 July 1872, vol. 212, §1457. Lubbock discusses the relationship between capital and science by approvingly quoting from an unspecified report written by the Social Science Association for the Committee of Council on Education.
67 HC Debate, 10 March 1876, vol. 227, §§1801, 1804. House of Commons, Education, Science, and Art, 12 July 1877, vol. 235, §1217. House of Commons, Elementary Education Code – Natural Science – Resolution, 4 July 1878, vol. 241, §§777–780. House of Commons, Education, Science, and Art, 8 August 1881, vol. 264, §1319–1320. House of Commons, Education Department – The New Code – Observations, 3 April 1882, vol. 268, §598–605.
68 Lubbock discussed object lessons on a number of occasions. See House of Commons, Elementary Education Code Debate, 4 July 1878, vol. 241, §778. HC Debate, 19 July 1872, vol. 212, §1459. HC Debate, 10 March 1876, vol. 227, §1802. HC Debate, 4 July 1878, vol. 241, §778. HC Debate, 3 April 1882, vol. 268, §600.
69 Spencer, op. cit. (12). Committee of Council on Education, Minutes of the Committee of Council on Education 1850–1851, London: Clowes and Sons, 1851, p. 741 . References to ‘object lessons’ occur throughout the report. The word ‘faculty’ here is being used to denote a natural ability.
70 Lubbock's comments were based on his own observations in school visitations and upon the testimony of male and female teachers who used object lessons. HC Debate, 3 April 1882, vol. 268, §§604–605.
71 John Lubbock, ‘National Education’, in Lubbock, op. cit. (38), pp. 98–101.
72 Lubbock associated this form of acceptance with ‘happiness’. He discusses this state of mind throughout his works as well as in an essay entitled ‘On peace and happiness’ published in Lubbock, op. cit. (38), pp. 281–296.
73 The text of Huxley's speech was reprinted in ‘Notes upon passing events’, Journal of Gas Lighting, Water Supply & Sanitary Improvement, 28 February 1871, p. 142.
74 Sutherland Gillian, ‘Education’, in Thompson F.M.L., ed., The Cambridge Social History of Britain 1750–1950, vol. 3, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990, pp. 149–151 . Huxley Thomas Henry, T.H. Huxley on Education (ed. Bibby Cyril), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1971, pp. 32–35 .
Versions of this essay were presented at the Royal Society of London, Princeton University, and a workshop on Victorian medicine and philosophy that I co-organized with my colleague Nancy Cartwright for Durham University's Centre for Humanities Engaging Science and Society (CHESS). Research during the final stages was supported by fellowships at Durham University's Institute for Advanced Study and the Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Berlin. The essay was greatly enriched by anonymous referee reports, the sharp editorial eye of Charlotte Sleigh, and conversations over the years with Sally Shuttleworth, John Christie, Jonathon Hodge, Gregory Radick, David Knight, Matthew Ratcliffe, Veronica Strang, Nick Saul, Bennett Zon and Tom Rossetter.
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