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The return of Thomas Salusbury's Life of Galileo (1664)


Thomas Salusbury's Life of Galileo (1664) was the first substantial biography of Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) in any language. All copies but one were destroyed in the Great Fire of London in 1666. The surviving copy was lost in the library of the Earls of Macclesfield at Shirburn Castle in the mid-nineteenth century. With the auction of the library in 2004–7, it temporarily re-emerged. This essay presents a preliminary description of the copy and its contents. It argues that to understand the existence and nature of the book we need to explore the social relations governing the control of information in early modern Europe. It is shown that Salusbury's project was launched in the face of social and political information blockades and in direct competition with other similar ventures. In particular, rumours of the future publication of an official biography by Vincenzo Viviani (1622–1703) and continuing negotiations over the memory and reputation of Galileo in Italy presented insurmountable barriers to the successful completion of his project. Despite these problems Salusbury's biography, produced on the margins of the emerging Royal Society, presents a spirited portrait of Galileo. Moreover, nearly four hundred years after the event, it offers a new and provocative explanation of the famous trial.

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1 On the auctioning of the Macclesfield library see Fara P. and Gaskell R., ‘Selling the family silver: country house libraries and the history of science’, Endeavour (2005), 29, 1419; and N. Barker, ‘What price our literary heritage?’, Times Literary Supplement, 21 June 2006.

2 The title page of the work, like those of other sections, gives the impression that it was intended to be published as a stand-alone piece as well as part of the Mathematical collections and translations: The Life / Of the Most Excellent / PHILOSOPHER / AND / MATHEMATICIAN, / GALILEUS GALILEUS, / A Gentleman of FLORENCE, / Extraordinary and Primary / Professor of PHILOSOPHY and MATHEMATICKS / Unto the Most Serene / GRANDDUKE / Of / TUSCANIE. / ____ / Written by T. S. Esquire. / ____ / LONDON, / Printed in the Year 1664.

3 Contemporary biographical notices by Leone Allacci (1633), Giovanni Vittorio Rossi (1643), Vittorio Siri (1647) and Lorenzo Crasso (1666) are reprinted in Antiche vite di Galileo scritte da contemporanei: ristampate dalle originali e rare edizioni, Firenze, 1907; Viviani's Racconto Istorico (1654), Niccolò Gherardini's Vita (1654) and other observations are collected in Opere di Galileo (hereafter OG), Firenze, 1890–1909, 20 vols., xix, 585–659.

4 An Epitome of so much of the doctrine of projects as may be applyed to Gunnery together with the tables of the ranges of great guns of all sorts: wherein several errors of gunners are detected. Written part in Latine, and part in Italian, by Evangelista Torricellius, Mathematitian unto Ferdinand II. Great Duke of Tuscany. Collected and Translated by Thomas Salusbury, Esq; London, Printed in the Year MDCLXIV; Experiments Statical, Hydrostatical, and Aerostatical. partly Collected, partly Observed, and Examined By T.S.

5 J. E. D. Bethune (John Elliot Drinkwater), The life of Galileo Galilei with Illustrations of the Advancement of Experimental Philosophy, London, 1829; S. Rigaud, Correspondence of Scientific Men of the Seventeenth Century, 2 vols., Oxford, 1841, ii, 463.

6 Favaro A., ‘Rarità bibliografiche galileiane pt. 3: Sopra una traduzione inglese di alcune opere di Galileo’, Rivista delle biblioteche (1899), 18–19, 8191; and idem, ‘Ulteriori notizie intorno alla traduzione inglese di alcune opere di Galileo’, reprinted in idem, Scampoli galileiani (ed. L. Rossetti and M. L. Soppelsa), 2 vols., Trieste, 1992, i, 164–6; Drake S., ‘Galileo gleanings: II: a kind word for Salusbury’, Isis (1958), 49, 2633; Zeitlin J., ‘Thomas Salusbury discovered’, Isis (1959), 50, 455–8.

7 Salusbury, Mathematical Collections and Translations, in Two Tomes, 2 vols., London and Los Angeles, 1968.

8 For full details see P. Quarrie's entry in Sotheby's catalogue to The Library of the Earls of Macclesfield Removed from Shirburn Castle – Part Six: Science P–Z plus Addenda (25 and 26 October 2005), Lot 1800.

9 William Stokeham to Edward (i.e. Thomas?) Salusbury, 2 August 1663; Sir John Finch to Thomas Salusbury, 17 April 1664.

10 Salusbury's letters to Theophilus, seventh Earl of Huntingdon are divided between the Carte Papers in the Bodleian Library (hereafter Carte) and the Hastings Manuscripts in the Huntington Library (hereafter HA). The Carte material was not known to Drake. The reintegrated correspondence, ordered chronologically, runs as follows: 29 June 1663, Carte 77, ff. 645rv; 13th July 1663, Carte 77, ff. 524rv; 27 July 1663, HA 10653; 12 September 1663, HA 10654; 24 October 1663, Carte 76, f. 5rv; 28 November 1663, Carte 77, f. 526r; 17 December 1663, HA 10656; 7 January 1664, Carte 78, f. 90; 20 January 1664, HA 10657; March 1664(?), Carte 76, f. 7r–v; 29 March 1664, HA 10658; 19 April 1664, HA 10659; 5 May 1664, Carte 77, ff. 676rv; 14 July 1664, HA 10660; 16 August 1664, HA 10661; 9 January 1665, HA 10663; 5 April 1665, HA10664.

11 T. Birch, A General Dictionary, Historical and Critical, 10 vols., London, 1734–41, v, 372. See Osborn J. M., ‘Thomas Birch and the “General Dictionary” (1734–41)’, Modern Philology (1938), 36, 2546. The original of this entry is not, however, present in Birch's papers in the British Library.

12 J. Bullord, The Library of the Right Honourable William Late Lord Bereton [sic], London, 1697, 19. This evidence was kindly provided by Noel Malcolm.

13 Collins to Pell, 13 October 1666, British Library (hereafter BL) MS Add. 4278, f. 119v.

14 Collins to Pell, 4 December 1666, Cambridge University Library (hereafter CUL), MS Add. 9597/13/1, f. 86r.

15 E. Waterhouse, A Short Narrative of the Late Dreadful Fire in London, 1667, 77–8. For the lower estimate see The Diary of Samuel Pepys (ed. R. Latham and W. Matthews), 11 vols., London, 1970–83, vii, 297; for the higher see John Evelyn to Sir Samuel Tuke, 27 November 1666, in Memoirs of John Evelyn (ed. W. Bray), 5 vols., London, 1827, iv, 178.

16 See the broadside The Case of Cornelius Bee and his Partners Richard Royston, William Wells, Samuel Thompson, Thomas Robinson, and William Morden, Booksellers, 1666(?). S. Porter, The Great Fire of London, Stroud, 1996, 78.

17 See Boswell E., ‘The Library of the Royal College of Physicians in the Great Fire’, The Library: Transactions of the Bibliographical Society (1929), 10, 313–26. Roger Gaskell is in the process of reconstructing the contents of the pre-Great Fire Harveian Library.

18 Diary of Samuel Pepys, op. cit. (15), vii, 309–10. Pepys is referring to the recently completed Biblia sacra polyglotta, London, 1655–7.

19 Branker to Pell, 18 September 1666, BL Ms Add 4278, f. 53r. ‘The Presse is all preserved and all their books (as also all Little Britain) but so disordered they have been by removing things, that it will be 10 or 12 dayes yet ere they can to work. Especially bec[ause] my Printer buried 7000 weight of letter in his Grass plot and that confusedly, wch caused for much pains and time to find again.’

20 Memoirs of John Evelyn, op. cit. (15), iv, 178.

21 J. Wilkins, An Essay Towards a Real Character, and a Philosophical Language, London, 1668, ar. The only fragment of the lost first draft of the Essay known to have survived the Great Fire is preserved in the Bodleian Library and reproduced in facsimile in R. Alston, Bibliography of the English Language, Volume 7, Bradford, 1967, Plate XXIII. See also Lewis R., ‘The publication of John Wilkins's Essay (1668): some contextual considerations’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society (2002), 56, 133–46, note 23.

22 T. Sprat, The History of the Royal-Society of London for the Improving of Natural Knowledge, London, 1667, 120–2. See also Rivington C., ‘Early printers to the Royal Society 1663–1708’, Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London (1984), 39, 127, for an account of the effect of the fire on the Philosophical Transactions. Birch's History of the Royal Society, 4 vols., London, 1756–7, ii, 142, notes that all unsold copies of the Philosophical Transactions had been moved into St Faith's, where they were incinerated. The frontispiece of Sprat's History was originally intended for a book by John Beale tentatively titled Lord Bacons Elegyes, but was diverted to Sprat in 1667. See M. Hunter, Science and Society in Restoration England, Cambridge, 1981, 194–7.

23 Wilson H., ‘The publication of Paradise Lost, the occasion of the first edition: censorship and resistance’, Milton Studies (1999), 37, 1841.

24 Collins to Pell, op. cit. (13).

25 See William Dugdale to Daniel Fleming, 28 May 1667: ‘my whole copy, except 30 sheets which were printed, of the third volume of the Monasticum Anglicanum, through the great negligence of my printer [perished also in these flames]’. D. McKenzie and M. Bell, A Chronology and Calendar of Documents Relating to the London Book Trade, 1641–1700, 3 vols., Oxford, 2005, i.

26 Oldenburg to Boyle, 10 October 1665, in H. Oldenburg, Correspondence (ed. and trans. A. R. Hall and M. B. Hall), Madison and London, 13 vols., 1965–86, ii, 556.

27 [T. Rooke], The late conflagration, 1667(?).

28 Collins to Pell, op. cit. (13).

29 I.e. Vincenzo Viviani, De maximis et minimis, Florentiae, 1659.

30 William Stokeham to Thomas Salusbury, 2 August 1663. Note inserted by the present author. See also note 9 above.

31 The paper of Kk is n. 1782 in E. Heawood, Watermarks, Mainly of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Hilversum, 1950. This is identified as being made in Amsterdam in 1686, though watermark dating is notoriously difficult.

32 Thomas Salusbury to Theophilus, seventh Earl of Huntingdon, 9 January 1665, HA 10663. ‘Term’ generally means a period of three months.

33 Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), ii, 653.

34 W. Bell, The Great Plague in London in 1665, London, 1924, 216.

35 Guildhall Ms 9168, r. 21, f. 41v. Salusbury mentions Stepney in his letter of 5 April 1665 to Theophilus, seventh Earl of Huntingdon, HA10664.

36 Salusbury to Earl of Huntingdon, 5 April 1665, HA 10664.

37 Public Records Office (hereafter PRO), PROB 6/41/153 (original in Latin).

38 PRO, PROB 32/1/22.

39 CUL, Ms Add 95 97/13/6, f. 186rv. Published in The Correspondence of John Wallis (ed. P. Beeley and C. Scriba), 2 vols., Oxford, 2005, ii, 276.

40 Sir John Finch to Thomas Salusbury, 17 April 1664. See note 9 above.

41 T. Salusbury, Mathematical Collections and Translations, 2 vols., London, 1661–5, ii, 2, Ff3v, 140.

42 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Ff3v, 140.

43 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Nn1r–v. The 1661 chapter description of Book IV, Chapter 5 provides an interesting description of this aborted project: ‘His Dialogues of the Systeme in particular, containing Nine Sections. Section 1. Of Astronomy in General; its Definition, Praise, Original. 2. Of Astronomers: a Chronological Catalogue of the most famous of them. 3. Of the Doctrine of the Earths Mobility, &c. its Antiquity, and Progresse from Pythagoras to the time of Copernicus. 4. Of the Followers of Copernicus, unto the time of Galileus. 5. Of the severall Systemes amongst Astronomers. 6. Of the Allegations against the Copern. Systeme, in 77 Arguments taken out of Ricciolo, with Answers to them. 7. Of the Allegations for the Copern. Systeme in 50 Arguments. 8. Of the Scriptures Authorities produced against and for the Earths mobility. 9. The Conclusion of the whole Chapter.’

44 A. Favaro, Amici e corrispondenti di Galileo (ed. P. Galluzzi), Firenze, 1983, 1106.

45 Opere di Galileo Galilei … in questa nuoua editione insieme raccolte, e di varij trattati dell'istesso autore non più stampati accresciute, 2 vols., In Bologna: per gli hh. del Dozza, 1656.

46 Biblioteca comunale dell'Archiginnasio di Bologna, ex-Liber Expeditorum (1635–60), now ms. B. 1875, f. 49r. See Inventari dei Manoscritti delle Biblioteche d'Italia, Volume LXXIX, Firenze, 1954, 94; and P. Belletini, ‘Scienza e Tipografie nel XVII secolo’, in Alma mater librorum. Nove secoli di editoria bolognese per l'Università, Padova, 1988, 157. This document was first published in A. Battistella, Il S. Officio e la Riforma Religiosa in Bologna, Bologna, 1905, 159–60.

47 A. Quondam, Le ‘Carte messaggiere’: retorica e modelli di comunicazione epistolare per un indice dei libri di lettere del Cinquecento, Roma, 1981, 35.

48 Ruffo P., ‘Da Firenze a Lima: origine e fortuna della Vita di Galileo di Vittorio Siri’, Galilæana (2005), 2, 181–92.

49 S. Salvini, Fasti consolari dell'Accademia fiorentina, Firenze, 1717. See note 3 above.

50 A. Favaro, ‘Appunti di Vincenzio Viviani alla “Vita di Galileo” scritta da Niccolò Gherardini,’ in idem, Scampoli, op. cit. (6), ii, 465–9.

51 See also M. Segre, In the Wake of Galileo, New Brunswick, 1991, 104–26.

52 A. Favaro, ‘Un mancato biografo di Galileo’, in idem, Scampoli, op. cit. (6), ii, 732–9.

53 Robert Southwall to Vincenzo Viviani, 2 February 1662, Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Firenze (hereafter BNCF), Manoscritti Galileiani, 161, f. 362r–3v. In return, Viviani drafted a letter from Ferdinando de' Medici to Charles II, recommending Southwell, on 24 March 1661 (BNCF, Mss. Gal, 258, f. 40rv; W. E. Middleton, The Experimenters: A Study of the Accademia del Cimento, Baltimore, 1971, 283, note 4).

54 A. Favaro ‘Intorno ad un manoscritto di Vincenzio Viviani nella Biblioteca Marciana di Venezia’, in idem, Scampoli, op. cit. (6), ii, 555, referring to Biblioteca Marciana, Mss Italiani, Cl. 11, note 37.

55 The portrait, a copy of the famous Sustermans original, was first mentioned on 6 October 1660 in Viviani to Southwell, Royal Society, BL 5, f. 166r–167r, cited in Middleton, op. cit. (53), 283. The gift was entered into the Benefactors' Register on 26 April 1661 (reproduced in J. J. Fahie, Memorials of Galileo Galilei, 1564–1642, Leamington and London, 1929, 45). Thomas Barlow wrote on 15 May 1661 to Viviani in Florence, thanking him for the ‘effigiem Galilei’ (BNCF, Mss Gal. 254, f. 183rv).

56 HA 10663, 9 January 1665.

57 Collins to Pell, 4 December 1666, CUL MS Add. 9597/13/1, f. 86r. The name ‘Barrett’ is mistranscribed as ‘Bargett’ in Rigaud, op. cit. (5). It seems very likely, given the absence of any other suitable ‘Mr. Barrett’, given Collins's description of the writer as ‘an Oxford Scholar’ who was in touch with Viviani and given his surprising lack of familiarity with Barlow (he referred to him ‘Barton’ even in 1669), that he intended the Bodleian librarian. See N. Malcolm and J. Stedall, John Pell (1611–1685) and his Correspondence with Sir Charles Cavendish: The Mental World of an Early Modern Mathematician, New York, 2005, 222, for the later slip with his name.

58 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), X4v, 78, Chapter 4, Section 4.

59 Ambrose Salusbury promised his bond as a factor in 1657. See ‘Early East India Company bonds & covenants – an index transcribed from manuscript (Eng Ms. 153) held by the John Rylands Library, Deansgate, Manchester’ (typescript, Oriental and India Offices Collections, British Library, 1996) Book 2, Item 13. A full description of Ambrose Salusbury's time in India is available in Anstey's L. M., ‘Some Anglo-Indian worthies of the seventeenth century. No. III. Ambrose Salisbury’, Indian Antiquary (1908), 37, 213–27; 263–76, 284–98 and 309–28. Further documentation is to be found in E. Sainsbury, A Calendar of the Court Minutes etc. of the East India Company 1655–1659, Oxford, 1916, 212; 1660–1663, 1922, 136; 1664–1667, 1925, 177; 1668–1670, 1929; 1671–1673, 1932, 92; 1677–1679, 1938, 104, 230, 320; W. Foster, The English Factories in India 1655–60, Oxford, 1921, 180–2, 248, 278; C. Fawcett, The English Factories in India 1670–77, Volume 2, Oxford, 1952, 194, 313–14; R. Temple (ed.), The Diaries of Streynsham Master 1675–1680, 2 vols., London, 1911, i, 287–90.

60 John Finch to Thomas Salusbury, 17 April 1664. See note 9 above.

61 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), [Nn2r].

62 For Viviani's celebration of Galileo see P. Galluzzi, ‘The sepulchers of Galileo: the “living” remains of a hero of science’, in The Cambridge Companion to Galileo (ed. P. Machamer), Cambridge, 1998, 417–47, 426–7.

63 C. Maffioli, Out of Galileo: The Science of Waters 1628–1718, Rotterdam, 1994.

64 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Letter to the Reader, *2v. This kind of advertisement of future works is characteristic of Salusbury's truncated opus: in addition to the hydrographic collection, he announces a universal bibliography, a biography of Campanella, a collection of Galileo's correspondence and other projects.

65 William Stokeham to Thomas Salusbury, 2 August 1663. See note 9 above.

66 John Finch to Thomas Salusbury, 17 April 1664. See note 9 above.

67 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), P1r, 23, Chapter 2, Section 3.

68 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), P1r, 23, Chapter 2, Section 3, referring to Jani Nicii Erytraei, Pinacotheca imaginum illustrium, doctrinae vel ingenii laude, virorum qui, auctore superstite, diem suum obierunt (by Giovanni Vittorio Rossi), Coloniae Agrippinae, 1643.

69 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), U2, 65, Chapter 2, Section 5.

70 ‘A Reverend and Honourable Divine of which Church, now Dean of B. hath told me, that his entertainment at the visit of GALILAEUS was so frank and courteous, as argued him to have conversed altogether with Coelestial Creatures.’ Bb2r. Unless this is a misprint or false clue, the only contenders are Henry Glenham (Dean of Bristol, 1660–7), Griffith Williams (Dean of Bangor, 1634–72) or possibly Robert Creighton (Dean of Wells, 1660–70, which Salusbury might have thought was the Deanery of Bath and Wells). See J. Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiæ Anglicanæ, [London], 1716, 29, 37, 50. I have found no further evidence to suggest that any of these deans visited Galileo.

71 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Ff3v, 140.

72 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Ff3v, 140.

73 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), [Nn2r].

74 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), [Nn2rv].

75 Maurice A. Finocchiaro, Retrying Galileo, 1633–1992, Berkeley, 2005, 79. Galileo was first made aware of Urban's self-identification with Simplicius in 1635 (Castelli to Galileo, 22 December 1635, in OG, xvi, 363–4). See Finocchiaro, op. cit., 62.

76 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Dd1v, 120.

77 R. Frank, Harvey and the Oxford Physiologists, Berkeley, 1980, 172.

78 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Bb4v, 110.

79 HA 10660, 14 July 1664.

80 Royal College of Physicians, Archive, Ms 2000/81. On the library and house see Fulton J., ‘The Library of Henry Pierrepont, first marquis of Dorchester (1606–1680), F.R.C.P., F.R.S.’, Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences (1959), 14, 8990.

81 HA, Hastings Accounts and Financial Papers, 18 and 19 (1663–9). The accounts are not complete. HAP (Personal) Box 21 (17) contains a notice of the appointment by Theophilus of ‘Jervase Jaques’, whom Salusbury temporarily replaced as newsletter writer, as his agent as administrator of the goods, etc. of Henry Lord Loughborough on 13 March 1666 or 1667, but has no records relating to Salusbury. HA LIT BOX 1 (5) is promisingly catalogued as ‘A volume of Anecdotes, sayings, etc. dedicated to Lady Christiana, in Italian, c. 1665’, but this volume is not by Salusbury. HAP (Personal ) Box 21 (5) contains Theophilus's student notebooks from 1663–4, but there is no evidence that Salusbury served as a tutor to the young earl. HAP (Personal) Box 21, (2), a ‘License to Lucy Countess of Huntingdon to eat flesh’, 8 March 1662 (st. Angl), is signed by ‘Jo. Berkenhead ad Facultas Mag.’, who may be a relative of Salusbury's wife.

82 Carte 77, ff. 645rv, 29 June 1663.

83 Carte 77, ff. 524rv, 13 July 1663.

84 HA 10653, 27 July 1663; Carte 76, f. 5rv, 24 October 1663.

85 Some of Salusbury's letters now in the Huntington Library are printed in the Report on the Manuscripts of the Late Reginald Rawdon Hastings, Esq., of the Manor house, Ashby de la Zouche, 78th Report of the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, 4 vols., London, 1928–47, ii, 141–50.

86 Carte 77, ff. 645rv, 29 June 1663.

87 HA 10654, 12 September 1663; Carte 76, f. 5rv, 24 October 1663.

88 Carte 78 (miscatalogued in Calendar as 79), ff. 90rv, 7 January 1664.

89 Salusbury reports with pleasure, and perhaps for the first time in print, the most famous attack on Barberini cultural patronage: ‘a great Wit to shew his Poetick rage at the Barbarini for converting them [the brass pillars of the Pantheon] into Canon, clapt up a Pasquil or Morphoreo which said Quod non fecere Barbari, fecere Barbarini.’ Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Ff3v, 140. This line was apparently coined by Urban VIII's physician Giulio Mancini in an avviso dated 20 September 1625. See L. Von Pastor, The History of the Popes: From the Close of the Middle Ages, 40 vols., London, 1938–53, xxix, 363 and 463.

90 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Bb4v, 110.

91 Coffee houses and their dangerous opinions are discussed in Carte 77, ff. 676rv, 5 May 1664. See, most recently, M. Ellis, The Coffee-House: A Cultural History, London, 2004; and Pincus S., ‘“Coffee Politicians Does Create”: Coffeehouses and Restoration political culture’, Journal of Modern History (1995), 67, 807–34.

92 Carte 78 (miscatalogued in Calendar as 79), ff. 90rv, 7 January 1664.

93 See S. Shapin, A Social History of Truth: Civility and Science in Seventeenth-Century England, Chicago, 1994.

94 See Finocchiaro, op. cit. (75), 82, for the surprising longevity of this claim.

95 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), N4v, 14, Chapter 1, Section 4.

96 John Finch to Thomas Salusbury, 17 April 1664. See note 9 above.

97 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), P1r, 23, Chapter 2, Section 3.

98 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), U1v, 64.

99 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), P1r (23)–U2r (65).

100 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), U2, 65, Chapter 2, Section 5.

101 See, for example, Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), v, 298, and vii, 271.

102 Vogel's initial enquiry to Oldenburg is dated 4 April 1671 (Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), vii, 547).

103 Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), vii, 573–4.

104 Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), viii, 173–4.

105 Oldenburg, Correspondence, op. cit. (26), viii, 331–3; ix, 31–2.

106 E. Sherburne, The Sphere of Marcus Manilius Made an English Poem: with Annotations and an Astronomical Appendix, London, 1675, 82: ‘A farther Account of his Inventions or Discoveries is to be had in his life, published, by his Scholar Signore Viviani, which we have not seen’.

107 Sherburne, op. cit. (106), 116–18, 117. Strangely, this claim was transmuted into its near opposite in D. T. Whiteside's entry on Collins in the Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 16 vols., New York, 1970–80, iii, 384–9, where Collins is credited with seeing the Mathematical Collections through the press.

108 See most recently O. Gingerich, The Book Nobody Read: Chasing the Revolutions of Nicolaus Copernicus, New York, 2004, 91–3.

109 Salusbury, op. cit. (41), Cc1v, 112.

I would like to thank the following for their generosity and help: Paul Quarrie, Charlotte Miller, Giles Mandelbrote, Roger Gaskell, Simon Schaffer, Noel Malcolm, Seth Fagen, Maria Gioia Tavoni, Lesley Whitelaw, Philip Oldfield, Theresa Thom, Pierangelo Bellettini, Caroline Moss-Gibbons, Maurice Finocchiaro and Patrizia Ruffo. Apologies to Freddie Mercury.

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