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    Jenkin, John G. 1981. The development of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy; 1900–1960. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 23, Issue. 2, p. 187.

    Jenkin, J.G. Liesegang, J. Leckey, R.C.G. and Riley, J.D. 1979. Was the ”first“ angle-resolved photoemission experiment done by a nobel-prize winning physicist at adelaide university in 1908?. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 307.

    Whitaker, M A B 1979. History and quasi-history in physics education. I. Physics Education, Vol. 14, Issue. 2, p. 108.

    Jenkin, J.G. Riley, J.D. Liesegang, J. and Leckey, R.C.G. 1978. The development of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (1900–1960): a postscript. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena, Vol. 14, Issue. 6, p. 477.

  • The British Journal for the History of Science, Volume 5, Issue 3
  • June 1971, pp. 258-281

William H. Bragg's Corpuscular Theory of X-Rays and γ-Rays


The modern corpuscular theory of radiation was born in 1905 when Einstein advanced his light quantum hypothesis; and the steps by which Einstein's hypothesis, after years of profound scepticism, was finally and fully vindicated by Arthur Compton's 1922 scattering experiments constitutes one of the most stimulating chapters in the history of recent physics. To begin to appreciate the complexity of this chapter, however, it is only necessary to emphasize an elementary but very significant point, namely, that while Einstein based his arguments for quanta largely on the behaviour of high-frequency black body radiation or ultra-violet light, Compton experimented with X-rays. A modern physicist accustomed to picturing ultra-violet light and X-radiation as simply two adjacent regions in the electromagnetic spectrum might regard this distinction as hair-splitting. But who in 1905 was sure that X-rays and γ-rays are far more closely related to ultra-violet light than to α-particles, for example ? This only became evident after years of painstaking research, so that moving without elaboration from Einstein's hypothesis to Compton's experiments automatically eliminates from consideration an important segment of history—a segment in which a major role was played by William Henry Bragg.

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The British Journal for the History of Science
  • ISSN: 0007-0874
  • EISSN: 1474-001X
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