Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-g4d8c Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-29T02:12:43.694Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Bi-musicality and dialogical musicality: Influences of Javanese gamelan participation on Western instrumental learning

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 July 2016

Elizabeth Haddon*
Music Department, University of York, Heslington, York YO10


This qualitative research examines the influence of learning Javanese gamelan on aspects of musicianship, attitudes and approaches relating to the learning and performance of Western instruments experienced by a sample of UK university music students. In addition to benefits to musicianship, students delineated positive developments in attitudes and approaches to learning and performance. While bi-musicality may be the prerogative of only those who can maintain expertise concurrently in more than one musical style, the concept of dialogical-musicality is proposed as a construct emphasising productive inter-relationships arising from practical engagement with different musical styles at any level.

Research Article
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2016 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)


AUBERT, L. (2007) The Music of the Other: New Challenges for Ethnomusicology in a Global Age. Translated by Ribeiro, C.. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
BAILY, J. (2001) Learning to perform as a research technique in ethnomusicology. British Journal of Ethnomusicolgoy, 10 (2), 8598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BAKAN, M. B. (1993/4) Lessons from a world: Balinese applied music instruction and the teaching of Western ‘art’ music. College Music Symposium, 33/34, 122.Google Scholar
BECKER, J. (1983) One perspective on gamelan in America. Asian Music, 15 (1), 8189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BERGER, D. S. (2004) Music Therapy, Sensory Integration and the Autistic Child. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
BLACKING, J. (1987) A Commonsense View of All Music: Reflections on Percy Grainger's Contribution to Ethnomusicology and Music Education. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
BRAUN, V. & CLARKE, C. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3 (2), 77101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BRINNER, B. (1995) Knowing Music, Making Music: Javanese Gamelan and the Theory of Musical Competence and Interaction. London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
CAMPBELL, P. S. (2004) Teaching Music Globally: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
COTTRELL, S. J. (2007) Local bimusicality among London's freelance musicians. Ethnomusicology, 51 (1), 85105.Google Scholar
DIAMOND, J. (1979) Modes of consciousness and the learning process: An alternative model for music education. Available from: Scholar
DIAMOND, J. (1990) There is no they there. MusicWorks, 47, 1223. Retrieved from Scholar
GOLDSWORTHY, D. (1997) Teaching gamelan in Australia: Some perspectives on cross-cultural music education. International Journal of Music Education, 30 (1), 314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HADDON, E. (2014) Hidden instrumental and vocal learning in undergraduate university music education. In Papageorgi, I. & Welch, G. (Eds.) Advanced Musical Performance: Investigations in Higher Education Learning (pp. 247263). Farnham: Ashgate.Google Scholar
HOOD, M. (1960) The challenge of ‘bi-musicality’. Ethnomusicology, 4 (2), 5559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HOOD, M. (1971) The Ethnomusicologist. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
HOWAT, R. (2009). The art of French Piano Music: Debussy, Ravel, Fauré, Chabrier. London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
HUGH, B. (1998) Claude Debussy and the Javanese gamelan. Retrieved from: Scholar
KRÜGER, S. (2009) Experiencing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Learning in European Universities. Farnham: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
LINDSAY, J. (1979) Javanese Gamelan. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
MCLACHLAN, N.M. (2012) Educating amateurs: New technologies and models to enhance music participation in western societies. In Rickard, N. & McFerran, K. (Eds.), Lifelong Engagement in Music: Benefits for Mental Health and Wellbeing (pp. 7394). Melbourne: Nova Science.Google Scholar
MILLS, J. (2007) Instrumental Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
PICKVANCE, R. (2005) A Gamelan Manual: A player's Guide to the Central Javanese Gamelan. London: Jaman Mas Books.Google Scholar
SCHIPPERS, H. (2006) Tradition, authenticity and context: The case for a dynamic approach. British Journal of Music Education, 23 (3), 333349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SLOBIN, M. (1979) Code switching and code superimposition in music. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, 63 (1), 114.Google Scholar
SLOBODA, J.A. (1985) The Musical Mind: The Cognitive Psychology of Music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
SOLĺS, T. (2004) (Ed.) Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensembles. London: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SORRELL, N. (1990) A Guide to the Gamelan. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
SORRELL, N. (2007) Issues of pastiche and illusions of authenticity in gamelan-inspired composition. Indonesia and the Malay World, 35 (101), 3148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
STEPTOE, S. (2001) Gamelan music in Britain. Contemporary Theatre Review, Special issue: Indonesian performing arts: Tradition and transition, 11 (2). Retrieved from Scholar
SUMARSAM (1988/2002) Introduction to Javanese gamelan. Scholar
SUSILO, H. (2004) “A bridge to Java”: Four decades teaching gamelan in America. In Solís, T. (Ed.) Performing Ethnomusicology: Teaching and Representation in World Music Ensembles (pp. 5368). London: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
TITON, J. T. (1995) Bi-musicality as metaphor. Journal of American Folklore, 108, 287297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
WADE, B. C. (2004) Thinking Musically: Experiencing Music, Expressing Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar