Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-6f6fcd54b-vl5pb Total loading time: 0.361 Render date: 2021-05-11T11:53:31.070Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: {}

Mindfulness for singers: The effects of a targeted mindfulness course on learning vocal technique

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  24 June 2015

Anne-Marie L. Czajkowski
Affiliation:
School of Music, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UKA.M.L.Czajkowski@gmail.com, A.E.Greasley@leeds.ac.uk
Alinka E. Greasley
Affiliation:
School of Music, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UKA.M.L.Czajkowski@gmail.com, A.E.Greasley@leeds.ac.uk
Corresponding

Abstract

This paper reports the development and implementation of a unique Mindfulness for Singers (MfS) course designed to improve singers' vocal technique. Eight university students completed the intervention. Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) scores showed general improvement across all five facets of mindfulness. Qualitative results showed benefits of daily mindfulness exercises on breathing, micro-muscular awareness, vocal tone, text communication and problem solving. Exercises also positively affected teacher/pupil relationships, concentration and focus in lessons and practice. Teachers identified six of the eight participants in a blind controlled study indicating that vocal students at any level would benefit greatly from a mindfulness course as a holistic intervention.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © Cambridge University Press 2015 

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below.

References

BAER, R. A. (2003) Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: a conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10, 125143.Google Scholar
BAER, R. A., SMITH, G. T. & ALLEN, K. B. (2004) Assessment of mindfulness by self-report: the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11, 191206.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
BAER, R. A., SMITH, G. T., HOPKINS, J., KRIETEMEYER, J. & TONEY, L. (2006) Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 2745.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
BAER, R. A., SAMUEL, D. B. & LYKINS, E. L. B. (2011) Differential item functioning on the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire is minimal in demographically matched meditators and nonmeditators. Assessment, 18, 310.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
BEAUCHEMIN, J., HUTCHINS, T. L. & PATTERSON, F. (2008) Mindfulness meditation may lessen anxiety, promote social skills, and improve academic performance among adolescents with learning disabilities. Complementary Health Practice Review, 13, 3445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BISHOP, S. R., LAU, M., SHAPIRO, S., CARLSON, L., ANDERSON, N. D., CARMODY, J., SEGAL, Z. V., ABBEY, S., SPECA, M., VELTING, D. & DEVINS, G. (2004) Mindfulness: a proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 11, 230241.Google Scholar
BRAUN, V. & CLARKE, V. (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BROWN, K. W. & RYAN, R. M. (2003) The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 822848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
BROWN, K. W., RYAN, R. M. & CRESWELL, J. D. (2007) Mindfulness: theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18, 211237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
BUCHHELD, N., GROSSMAN, P. & WALACH, H. (2001) Measuring mindfulness in insight meditation (Vipassana) and meditation-based psychotherapy: the development of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Journal for Meditation and Meditation Research, 1, 1134.Google Scholar
BURNETT, R. (2009) Mindfulness in Schools. Learning lessons from the adults – secular and Buddhist. http://westallen.typepad.com/files/mindfulness-in-schools-burnett.pdf.Google Scholar
CCMS (2014) About Us. The Centre for Contemplative Mind in Society. http://www.contemplativemind.org/about.Google Scholar
CHADWICK, P., HEMBER, M., SYMES, J., PETERS, E., KUIPERS, E. & DAGNAN, D. (2008) Responding mindfully to unpleasant thoughts and images: reliability and validity of the Southampton Mindfulness Questionnaire (SMQ). British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47, 451455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
COWDREY, F. A. & PARK, R. J. (2012) The role of experiential avoidance, rumination and mindfulness in eating disorders. Eating Behaviors, 13, 100105.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
CRESWELL, J. D., WAY, B. M., EISENBERGER, N. I. & LIEBERMAN, M. D. (2007) Neural correlates of dispositional mindfulness during affect labeling. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69, 560565.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
CZAJKOWSKI, A.-M. L. (2013) Mindfulness for Singers: The effects of an 8-week mindfulness course on vocal pedagogy and performance. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Leeds.Google Scholar
DE LA CRUZ, O. L. & RODRÍGUEZ-CARVAJAL, R. (2014) Mindfulness and music: a promising subject of an unmapped field. International Journal of Behavioral Research & Psychology, 2 (301). http://scidoc.org/articles%20pdf/ijbrp/IJBRP-02-301.pdf.Google Scholar
DESMOND, C. T. (2009) The effects of mindful awareness teaching practices in the Wellness Works in Schools(TM) program on the cognitive, physical and social behaviors of students with learning and emotional disabilities in an urban, low income middle school. Research Report, Millersville University. http://www.wellnessworksinschools.com/WWResearchReport2009.pdf.Google Scholar
ELLIOTT, M. (2010) Singing and mindfulness. Journal of Singing, 67 (1). http://www.faqs.org/periodicals/201009/2123488621.html.Google Scholar
ESCH, T. (2014) The neurobiology of meditation and mindfulness. In Schmidt, S. & Walach, H. (Eds.), Meditation – Neuroscientific Approaches and Philosophical Implications (Vol. 2, pp. 153173). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FARB, N. A., SEGAL, Z. V. & ANDERSON, A. K. (2013) Mindfulness meditation training alters cortical representations of interoceptive attention. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 8, 1526.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
FELDMAN, G., HAYES, A., KUMAR, S., GREESON, J. & LAURENCEAU, J.-P. (2007) Mindfulness and emotion regulation: the development and initial validation of the cognitive and affective mindfulness scale-revised (CAMS-R). Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 177190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FISHBEIN, M., MIDDLESTADT, S. E., OTTATI, V., STRAUSS, S. & ELLIS, A. (1998) Medical problems among ISCOM musicians: overview of national survey. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 3, 18.Google Scholar
FLOOK, L., SMALLEY, S. L., KITIL, M. J., GALLA, B. M., KAISER-GREENLAND, S., LOCKE, J., ISHIJIMA, E. & KASARI, C. (2010) Effects of mindful awareness practices on executive functions in elementary school children. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 26, 70--95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FRANK, J. L., JENNINGS, P. A. & GREENBERG, M. T. (2013) Mindfulness-based interventions in school settings: an introduction to the special issue. Research in Human Development, 10, 205210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
FRUZZETTI, A. E. & ERIKSON, K. R. (2009) Mindfulness and acceptance interventions in cognitive-behavioral therapy. In Dobson, K. S. (Ed.), Handbook of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapies, 3rd Edition (pp. 347374). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
GARRISON INSTITUTE REPORT (2005) Contemplation and Education: A Survey of Programs using Contemplative Techniques in K-12 Educational Settings: A Mapping Report. New York, NY: The Garrison Institute.Google Scholar
GAUNT, H. (2008) One-to-one tuition in a conservatoire: the perceptions of instrumental and vocal teachers. Psychology of Music, 36, 215245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
GAYLORD, S. A., PALSSON, O. S., GARLAND, E. L., FAUROT, K. R., COBLE, R. S., MANN, J. D., FREY, W., LENIEK, K. & WHITEHEAD, W. E. (2011) Mindfulness training reduces the severity of irritable bowel syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 106, 16781688.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
GEMBRIS, H. & HEYE, A. (2011) Health problems of professional musicians in symphony orchestras. In Shipton, M. & Himonides, E. (Eds.), Proceedings of the SEMPRE Music, Health and Well-being conference, Sidney De Haan Research Centre for Arts and Health (pp. 5859). Canterbury: Canterbury Christ Church University.Google Scholar
GILUK, T. L. (2010) Mindfulness-based stress reduction: facilitating work outcomes through experienced affect and high-quality relationships. Doctoral dissertation. http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/674/.Google Scholar
GINSBORG, J., SPAHN, C. & WILLIAMON, A. (2012) Health promotion in higher music education. In MacDonald, R. A. R., Kreutz, G. & Mitchell, L. (Eds), Music Health & Well-being (pp. 356366). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
GOLDIN, P. R. & GROSS, J. J. (2010) Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on emotion regulation in social anxiety disorder. Emotion, 10, 8391.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
GREPMAIR, L., MITTERLEHNER, F., LOEW, T., BACHLER, E., ROTHER, W. & NICKEL, M. (2007) Promoting mindfulness in psychotherapists in training influences the treatment results of their patients: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 332338.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
GROSSMAN, P., NIEMANN, L., SCHMIDT, S. & WALACH, H. (2004) Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefits: a meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 57, 3543.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
HALLAM, S. (2001) The development of metacognition in musicians: implications for education. British Journal of Music Education, 18, 2739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
HENNELLY, S. (2011) The immediate and sustained effects of the .b mindfulness programme on adolescents' social and emotional well-being and academic functioning. Unpublished Master's thesis, University of Cambridge. http://mindfulnessinschools.org/images/files/keyDocuments/Immediate_and_sustained_effects_of__b.pdf.Google Scholar
HOFMANN, S. G., SAWYER, A. T., WITT, A. A. & OH, D. (2010) The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: a meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78, 169183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
HRIBAR, K. (2012) Mindfulness-based intervention to improve psychological wellbeing and musical performance among music students. Unpublished MPhil dissertation, University of Cambridge.Google Scholar
HUPPERT, F. A. & JOHNSON, D. M. (2010) A controlled trial of mindfulness training in schools: the importance of practice for an impact on well-being. Journal of Positive Psychology, 5, 264274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IVES-DELIPERI, V. L., SOLMS, M. & MEINTJES, E. M. (2011) The neural substrates of mindfulness: an fMRI investigation. Social Neuroscience, 6, 231242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
JHA, A. P., STANLEY, E. A., KIYONAGA, A., WONG, L. & GELFAND, L. (2010) Examining the protective effects of mindfulness training on working memory capacity and affective experience. Emotion, 10, 5464.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
KABAT-ZINN, J. (1990) Full Catastrophe Living: How to Cope with Stress, Pain and Illness using Mindfulness Meditation. New York, NY: Dell.Google Scholar
KABAT-ZINN, J. (1994) Wherever you Go There you Are: Mindfulness Meditation in Everyday Life. New York: Hyperion.Google Scholar
KAUFMAN, K. A., GLASS, C. R. & ARNKOFF, D. B. (2009) Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): a new approach to promote flow in athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 3, 334356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
KUYKEN, W., WEARE, K., UKOUMUNNE, O. C., VICARY, R., MOTTON, N., BURNETT, R., CULLEN, C., HENNELLY, S. & HUPPERT, F. (2013) Effectiveness of the Mindfulness in Schools Programme: non-randomised controlled feasibility study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 203, 126131.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LANGER, E. J. (2010) Imagining the future of leadership: a call for mindful leadership. 28 April. Harvard Business Review. http://blogs.hbr.org/imagining-the-future-of-leadership/2010/04/leaders-timeto-wake-up.html.Google Scholar
LANGER, E. J., RUSSEL, T. & EISENKRAFT, N. (2009) Orchestral performance and the footprint of mindfulness. Psychology of Music, 37, 125136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LEANDERSON, R. & SUNDBERG, J. (1988) Breathing for singing. Journal of Voice, 2, 212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
LILJA, J. L., FRODI-LUNDGREN, A., HANSE, J. J., JOSEFSSON, T., LUNDH, L.-G., SKÖLD, C., HANSEN, E. & BROBERG, A. G. (2011) Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire – reliability and factor structure: a Swedish version. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 40, 291303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
LOVAS, D. A. & BARSKY, A. J. (2010) Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for hypochondriasis, or severe health anxiety: a pilot study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 931935.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
MELL, M. R. (2010) Body, mind, spirit: in pursuit of an integral philosophy of music teaching and learning. Doctoral dissertation. http://digital.library.temple.edu/cdm/ref/collection/p245801coll10/id/94537.Google Scholar
MOORE, Z. E. (2009) Theoretical and empirical developments of the Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) approach to performance enhancement. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 4, 291302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NAPOLI, M. (2004) Mindfulness training for teachers: a pilot program. Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine, 9, 3142.Google Scholar
NAPOLI, M., KRECH, P. R. & HOLLEY, L. C. (2005) Mindfulness training for elementary school students: The Attention Academy. Journal of Applied School Psychology, 21, 99125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
NICE (2010) CG90 Depression in Adults: Full Guideline. NICE Guidance/Clinical Guidelines. http://www.nice.org.uk/.Google Scholar
OYAN, S. (2006) Mindfulness meditation: creative musical performance through awareness. Doctoral dissertation. http://etd.lsu.edu/docs/available/etd-03312006-164516/unrestricted/Oyan_dis.pdf.Google Scholar
PALMER, A. J. (2006) Music education and spirituality: a philosophical exploration II. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 14, 143158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
PALMER, A. J. (2010) Spirituality in music education: transcending culture, exploration III. Philosophy of Music Education Review, 18, 152170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
RERUP, C. & LEVINTHAL, D. (2014) Situating the concept of organizational mindfulness: the multiple dimensions of organizational learning. In Becke, G. (Ed.), Mindful Change in Times of Permanent Reorganization (pp. 3348). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
ROESER, R. W., SKINNER, E., BEERS, J. & JENNINGS, P. A. (2012) Mindfulness training and teachers' professional development: an emerging area of research and practice. Child Development Perspectives, 6, 167173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
SAME (2014) About SAME. Spirituality and Music Education (SAME). http://spirituality4mused.org/?page_id=5.Google Scholar
SARATH, E. (2013) Improvisation, Creativity, and Consciousness: Jazz as Integral Template for Music, Education and Society. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
SCHOEBERLEIN, D. (2009) Mindful Teaching and Teaching Mindfulness: A Guide for Anyone who Teaches Anything. Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.Google Scholar
SEGAL, Z. V., WILLIAMS, J. M. G. & TEASDALE, J. D. (2002) Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Depression: A New Approach to Preventing Relapse. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
STEWART, W. (2014) 'Mindfulness' courses for pupils being considered by government, minister reveals. 12 March. TES Connect. http://news.tes.co.uk/b/news/2014/03/12/39-mindfulness-39-courses-forpupils-being-considered-by-government-minister-reveals.aspx.Google Scholar
STEYN, M. H. (2013) The impact of psychological skills and mindfulness training on the psychological well-being of undergraduate music students. Master's thesis. http://repository.up.ac.za/handle/2263/33367.Google Scholar
SUNDBERG, J. (1992) Breathing behavior during singing. STL-QPSR, 33, 4964.Google Scholar
TANG, Y.-Y., MA, Y., WANG, J., FAN, Y., FENG, S., LU, Q., YU, Q., SUI, D., ROTHBART, M. K., FAN, M. & POSNER, M. I. (2007) Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 104, 1715217156.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
THOMPSON, B. L. & WALTZ, J. (2010) Mindfulness and experiential avoidance as predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder avoidance symptom severity. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24, 409415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
UEBELACKER, L. A., TREMONT, G., EPSTEIN-LUBOW, G., GAUDIANO, B. A., GILLETTE, T., KALIBATSEVA, Z. & MILLER, I. W. (2010) Open trial of Vinyasa yoga for persistently depressed individuals: evidence of feasibility and acceptability. Behavior Modification, 34, 247264.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
VEEHOF, M. M., OSKAM, M.-J., SCHREURS, K. M. G. & BOHLMEIJER, E. T. (2011) Acceptance-based interventions for the treatment of chronic pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain®, 152, 533542.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
VEEHOF, M. M., TEN KLOOSTER, P. M., TAAL, E., WESTERHOF, G. J. & BOHLMEIJER, E. T. (2011) Psychometric properties of the Dutch Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ) in patients with fibromyalgia. Clinical Rheumatology, 30, 10451054.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
WILLIAMS, M. & PENMAN, D. (2011) Mindfulness: A Practical Guide to Finding Peace in a Frantic World. London: Piatkus.Google Scholar

Linked content

Please note a has been issued for this article.

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Mindfulness for singers: The effects of a targeted mindfulness course on learning vocal technique
Available formats
×

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Mindfulness for singers: The effects of a targeted mindfulness course on learning vocal technique
Available formats
×

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Mindfulness for singers: The effects of a targeted mindfulness course on learning vocal technique
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response


Your details


Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *