1Urso ML & Clarkson PM (2003) Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology 189, 41–54.
2Sacheck JM, Milbury PE, Cannon JG, et al. (2003) Effect of vitamin E and eccentric exercise on selected biomarkers of oxidative stress in young and elderly men. Free Radic Biol Med 34, 1575–1588.
3Clarkson PM & Thompson HS (2000) Antioxidants: what role do they play in physical activity and health. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 637–646.
4Finaud J, Lac G & Filaire E (2006) Oxidative stress: relationship with exercise and training. Sports Med 4, 327–358.
5Bloomer RJ, Fisher-Wellman KH, Hammond KG, et al. (2009) Dietary supplement increases plasma norepinephrine, lipolysis, and metabolic rate in resistance trained men. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 6, 10–19.
6Halliwell B & Whiteman M (2004) Measuring reactive species and oxidative damage in vivo and in cell culture: how should you do it and what do the results mean? Br J Clin Pharmacol 142, 231–255.
7Vollaard NB, Shearman JP & Cooper CE (2005) Exercise-induced oxidative stress: myths, realities and physiological relevance. Sports Med 35, 1045–1062.
8Mastaloudis A, Morrow JD, Hopkins DW, et al. (2004) Antioxidant supplementation prevents exercise-induced lipid peroxidation, but not inflammation, in ultramarathon runners. Free Radic Biol Med 36, 1329–1341.
9Subudhi AW, Jacobs KA, Hagobian TA, et al. (2004) Antioxidant supplementation does not attenuate oxidative stress at high altitude. Aviat Space Environ Med 75, 881–888.
10Davison GW, Hughes CM & Bell RA (2005) Exercise and mononuclear cell DNA damage: the effects of antioxidant supplementation. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 15, 480–492.
11Kerksick CM, Kreider RB & Willoughby DS (2010) Intramuscular adaptations to eccentric exercise and antioxidant supplementation. Amino Acids 39, 219–232.
12Vina J, Gomez-Cabrera MC & Borras C (2010) Fostering antioxidant defences: up-regulation of antioxidant genes or antioxidant supplementation? Br J Nutr 98, 36–40.
13Lyall KA, Hurst SM, Cooney JM, et al. (2009) Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 297, 70–81.
14Steinkellner H, Rabot S, Freywald C, et al. (2001) Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutat Res 1, 285–297.
15Gill CI, Haldar S, Boyd LA, et al. (2007) Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 504–510.
16Boyd LA, McCann MJ, Hashim Y, et al. (2006) Assessment of the anti-genotoxic, anti-proliferative, and anti-metastatic potential of crude watercress extract in human colon cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 55, 232–241.
17Samman S, Sivarajah G, Man JC, et al. (2003) A mixed fruit and vegetable concentrate increases plasma antioxidant vitamins and folate and lowers plasma homocysteine in men. J Nutr 33, 2188–2193.
18Dill DB & Costill DL (1974) Calculation of percentage changes in volumes of blood, plasma, and red cells in dehydration. J Appl Physiol 1, 247–248.
19Singh NP, McCoy MT, Tice RR, et al. (1988) A simple technique for quantification of low levels of DNA damage in individual cells. Exp Cell Res 175, 184–191.
20Collins AR, Oscoz AA, Brunborg G, et al. (2008) The comet assay: topical issues. Mutagenesis 23, 143–151.
21Wolff SP (1994) Ferrous ion oxidation in presence of ferric ion indicator xylenol orange for measurement of hypoperoxides. Methods Enzymol 233, 183–189.
22Thurnham DI, Smith E & Flora PS (1988) Concurrent liquid-chromatographic assay of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, lycopene, and beta-cryptoxanthin in plasma, with tocopherol acetate as internal standard. Clin Chem 34, 377–381.
23Altman DG (1980) Statistics and ethics in medical research: III How large a sample? Br Med J 281, 1336–1338.
24Fogarty MC, Hughes CM, Burke G, et al. (2011) Exercise-induced lipid peroxidation: implications for deoxyribonucleic acid damage and systemic free radical generation. Environ Mol Mutagen 52, 35–42.
25Hartmann A, Plappert U, Raddatz K, et al. (1994) Does physical activity induce DNA damage? Mutagenesis 9, 269–272.
26Poulsen HE, Loft S & Vistisen K (1996) Extreme exercise and oxidative DNA modification. J Sports Sci 14, 343–346.
27Radak Z, Apor P, Pucsok J, et al. (2003) Marathon running alters the DNA base excision repair in human skeletal muscle. Life Sci 72, 1627–1633.
28Gomez-Cabrera MC, Vina J & Ji LL (2009) Interplay of oxidants and antioxidants during exercise: implications for muscle health. Phys Sportsmed 37, 116–123.
29Nikolaidis MG & Jamurtas AZ (2009) Blood as a reactive species generator and redox status regulator during exercise. Arch Biochem Biophys 490, 77–84.
30Pedersen BK, Rohde T & Zacho M (1996) Immunity in athletes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 36, 236–245.
31Niess AM, Baumann M, Roecker K, et al. (1998) Effects of intensive endurance exercise on DNA damage in leucocytes. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 38, 111–115.
32Guetens G, De Boeck G, Highley M, et al. (2002) Oxidative DNA damage: biological significance and methods of analysis. Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 39, 331–457.
33Powers SK & Jackson MJ (2008) Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiol Rev 88, 1243–1276.
34Radak Z & Goto S (2000) Oxidative modification of proteins and DNA. In Free Radicals in Exercise and Aging, 1st ed., pp. 177 [Radak Z, editor]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
35Bracken RM, Linnane DM & Brooks S (2009) Plasma catecholamine and nephrine responses to brief intermittent maximal intensity exercise. Amino Acids 36, 209–217.
36Halliwell B & Gutteridge J (2007) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 4th ed.London: Oxford University Press.
37Davison GW, Morgan RM, Hiscock N, et al. (2006) Manipulation of systemic oxygen flux by acute exercise and normobaric hypoxia: implications for reactive oxygen species generation. Clin Sci 110, 133–141.
38Davison GW, Ashton T, Davies B, et al. (2008) In vitro electron paramagnetic resonance characterisation of free radical: relevance to exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and implications of ascorbate prohylaxis. Free Radic Res 42, 1–8.
39Marnett LJ (2002) Oxy radicals, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Toxicology 181, 219–222.
40Lushchak VI (2007) Free radical oxidation of proteins and its relationship with functional state of organisms. Biochemistry Mosc 72, 809–827.
41Alessio HM, Hagerman AE, Fulkerson BK, et al. (2000) Generation of reactive oxygen species after exhaustive aerobic and isometric exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 32, 1576–1581.
42Bloomer RJ, Goldfarb AH, Wideman L, et al. (2005) Effects of acute aerobic and anaerobic exercise on blood markers of oxidative stress. J Strength Cond Res 19, 276–285.
43O'Neill ME, Carroll Y, Corridan B, et al. (2001) A European carotenoid database to assess carotenoid intakes and its use in a five-country comparative study. Br J Nutr 85, 499–507.
44Conaway CC, Yang YM & Chung FL (2002) Isothiocyanates as cancer chemopreventive agents: their biological activities and metabolism in rodents and humans. Curr Drug Metab 3, 233–255.
45Sies H & Stahl W (1995) Vitamins E and C, beta-carotene, and other carotenoids as antioxidants. Am J Clin Nutr 62, 1315–1321.
46Packer L, Witt EH & Tritschler HJ (1995) Alpha-lipoic acid as a biological antioxidant. Free Radic Biol Med 19, 227–250.
47Haegele AD, Gillette C & O'Neill C (2000) Plasma xanthophyll carotenoids correlate inversely with indices of oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 421–425.
48Long W 3rd, Wells K, Englert V, et al. (2008) Does prior acute exercise affect post exercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal? Nutr Metab 5, 2–5.
49Pincemail J, Deby C, Camus G, et al. (1988) Tocopherol mobilisation during intensive exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol 57, 189–191.
50Davison GW, George L, Jackson SK, et al. (2002) Exercise, free radicals, and lipid peroxidation in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med 33, 1543–1551.
51McClean C, Clegg M, Shafat A, et al. (2011) The impact of acute moderate intensity exercise on arterial regional stiffness, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in healthy males. Res Sports Med 19, 1–13.