Skip to main content
×
Home

The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals

  • Anita Mofidi Najjar (a1), Patricia M. Parsons (a1), Alison M. Duncan (a1), Lindsay E. Robinson (a1), Rickey Y. Yada (a2) and Terry E. Graham (a1)...
Abstract

Structural characteristics and baking conditions influence the metabolic responses to carbohydrate-containing foods. We hypothesized that consumption of whole wheat or sourdough breads would have a favourable effect on biomarkers of glucose homeostasis after first and second meals, compared with those for white bread. Ten overweight volunteers consumed 50 g available carbohydrate of each of the four breads (white, whole wheat, sourdough, whole wheat barley) followed 3 h later by a standard second meal. Blood was sampled for 3 h following bread ingestion and a further 2 h after the second meal for determination of glucose, insulin, paracetamol (indirect marker of gastric emptying), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Glucose and GLP-1 responses to sourdough bread were lower (P < 0·05) than whole wheat and whole wheat barley breads. Glucose area under the curve (AUC) for sourdough bread was lower than those for whole wheat (P < 0·005) and whole wheat barley (P < 0·03) breads for the entire study. GIP AUC after sourdough bread ingestion was lower compared to white (P < 0·004) and whole wheat barley (P < 0·002) breads following the second meal. There were no significant differences in insulin and paracetamol concentrations among the test breads. Ultra-fine grind whole wheat breads did not result in postprandial responses that were lower than those of white bread, but sourdough bread resulted in lower glucose and GLP-1 responses compared to those of these whole wheat breads following both meals.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The acute impact of ingestion of breads of varying composition on blood glucose, insulin and incretins following first and second meals
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Terry E. Graham, fax +1 519 763 5902, email terrygra@uoguelph.ca
References
Hide All
1Abbott WG, Howard BV, Christin L, Freymond D, Lillioja S, Boyce VL, Anderson TE, Bogardus C & Ravussin E (1988) Short-term energy balance: relationship with protein, carbohydrate, and fat balances. Am J Physiol 255, E332E337.
2Graham TE & Adamo KB (1999) Dietary carbohydrate and its effects on metabolism and substrate stores in sedentary and active individuals. Can J Appl Physiol 24, 393415.
3Gray-Donald K, Jacobs-Starkey L & Johnson-Down L (2000) Food habits of Canadians: reduction in fat intake over a generation. Can J Public Health 91, 381385.
4Phillips S, Jacobs SL & Gray-Donald K (2004) Food habits of Canadians: food sources of nutrients for the adolescent sample. Can J Diet Pract Res 65, 8184.
5Hoebler C, Karinthi A, Chiron H, Champ M & Barry JL (1999) Bioavailability of starch in bread rich in amylose: metabolic responses in healthy subjects and starch structure. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 360366.
6Holm J & Bjorck I (1992) Bioavailability of starch in various wheat-based bread products: evaluation of metabolic responses in healthy subjects and rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 420429.
7Liljeberg H, Granfeldt Y & Bjorck I (1992) Metabolic responses to starch in bread containing intact kernels versus milled flour. Eur J Clin Nutr 46, 561575.
8Snow P & O'Dea K (1981) Factors affecting the rate of hydrolysis of starch in food. Am J Clin Nutr 34, 27212727.
9Wursch P & Pi-Sunyer FX (1997) The role of viscous soluble fiber in the metabolic control of diabetes. A review with special emphasis on cereals rich in beta-glucan. Diabetes Care 20, 17741780.
10Liljeberg H & Bjorck I (1998) Delayed gastric emptying rate may explain improved glycaemia in healthy subjects to a starchy meal with added vinegar. Eur J Clin Nutr 52, 368371.
11Liljeberg HG, Lonner CH & Bjorck IM (1995) Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans. J Nutr 125, 15031511.
12Liljeberg HG & Bjorck IM (1996) Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt. Am J Clin Nutr 64, 886893.
13Ostman EM, Liljeberg Elmstahl HG & Bjorck IM (2002) Barley bread containing lactic acid improves glucose tolerance at a subsequent meal in healthy men and women. J Nutr 132, 11731175.
14Burcelin R (2005) The incretins: a link between nutrients and well-being. Br J Nutr 93, Suppl. 1, S147S156.
15Drucker DJ (2006) The biology of incretin hormones. Cell Metab 3, 153165.
16Holst JJ & Gromada J (2004) Role of incretin hormones in the regulation of insulin secretion in diabetic and nondiabetic humans. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 287, E199E206.
17Axelsen M, Arvidsson LR, Lonnroth P & Smith U (1999) Breakfast glycaemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of bedtime dietary carbohydrates. Eur J Clin Nutr 53, 706710.
18Clark CA, Gardiner J, McBurney MI, Anderson S, Weatherspoon LJ, Henry DN & Hord NG (2006) Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eur J Clin Nutr 60, 11221129.
19Liljeberg HG, Akerberg AK & Bjorck IM (1999) Effect of the glycemic index and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based breakfast meals on glucose tolerance at lunch in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 647655.
20Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ, Ocana AM, Rao VA & Collier GR (1988) Second-meal effect: low-glycemic-index foods eaten at dinner improve subsequent breakfast glycemic response. Am J Clin Nutr 48, 10411047.
21Matsuda M & DeFronzo RA (1999) Insulin sensitivity indices obtained from oral glucose tolerance testing: comparison with the euglycemic insulin clamp. Diabetes Care 22, 14621470.
22Willems M, Quartero AO & Numans ME (2001) How useful is paracetamol absorption as a marker of gastric emptying? A systematic literature study. Dig Dis Sci 46, 22562262.
23Ostman E, Granfeldt Y, Persson L & Bjorck I (2005) Vinegar supplementation lowers glucose and insulin responses and increases satiety after a bread meal in healthy subjects. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 983988.
24Ostman EM, Nilssont M, Liljeberg-Elmstahl HG, Molin G & Bjorck I (2002) The effect of lactic acid on blood glucose and insulin responses to cereal products: mechanistic studies in healthy subjects and in vitro. J Cereal Sci 36, 339346.
25Egan JM, Meneilly GS, Habener JF & Elahi D (2002) Glucagon-like peptide-1 augments insulin-mediated glucose uptake in the obese state. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 87, 37683773.
26Juntunen KS, Niskanen LK, Liukkonen KH, Poutanen KS, Holst JJ & Mykkanen HM (2002) Postprandial glucose, insulin, and incretin responses to grain products in healthy subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 75, 254262.
27Bakhøj S, Flint A, Holst JJ & Tetens I (2003) Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing. Eur J Clin Nutr 57, 12541261.
28Tabatabai A & Li S (2000) Dietary fiber and type 2 diabetes. Clin Excell Nurse Pract 4, 272276.
29Jenkins DJ, Jenkins AL, Wolever TM, Rao AV & Thompson LU (1986) Fiber and starchy foods: gut function and implications in disease. Am J Gastroenterol 81, 920930.
30Jenkins DJ, Axelsen M, Kendall CW, Augustin LS, Vuksan V & Smith U (2000) Dietary fibre, lente carbohydrates and the insulin-resistant diseases. Br J Nutr 83, Suppl. 1, S157S163.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 36
Total number of PDF views: 169 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 636 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 15th December 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.