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    Rocha, Júlio C. MacDonald, Anita and Trefz, Friedrich 2013. Is overweight an issue in phenylketonuria?. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Vol. 110, p. S18.


    Martinez-Mayorga, Karina and Montes, Carolina Peña 2016. Epi-Informatics.


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    Pena, M J de Almeida, M F van Dam, E Ahring, K Bélanger-Quintana, A Dokoupil, K Gokmen-Ozel, H Lammardo, A M MacDonald, A Robert, M and Rocha, J C 2016. Protein substitutes for phenylketonuria in Europe: access and nutritional composition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, Issue. 7, p. 785.


    Gokmen Ozel, H. Lammardo, A.M. Motzfeldt, K. Robert, M. Rocha, J.C. van Rijn, M. Ahring, K. Bélanger-Quintana, A. MacDonald, A. and Dokoupil, K. 2013. Use of sapropterin in the management of phenylketonuria: Seven case reports. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, Vol. 108, Issue. 2, p. 109.


    Anjema, Karen Hofstede, Floris C. Bosch, Annet M. Rubio–Gozalbo, M. Estela de Vries, Maaike C. Boelen, Carolien C.A. van Rijn, Margreet and van Spronsen, Francjan J. 2016. The neonatal tetrahydrobiopterin loading test in phenylketonuria: what is the predictive value?. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, Vol. 11, Issue. 1,


    Kochhar, Jaspreet Singh Chan, Sui Yung Ong, Pei Shi and Kang, Lifeng 2012. Clinical therapeutics for phenylketonuria. Drug Delivery and Translational Research, Vol. 2, Issue. 4, p. 223.


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Adjusting diet with sapropterin in phenylketonuria: what factors should be considered?

  • Anita MacDonald (a1), Kirsten Ahring (a2), Katharina Dokoupil (a3), Hulya Gokmen-Ozel (a4), Anna Maria Lammardo (a5), Kristina Motzfeldt (a6), Martine Robert (a7), Júlio César Rocha (a8), Margreet van Rijn (a9) and Amaya Bélanger-Quintana (a10)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0007114511000298
  • Published online: 05 April 2011
Abstract

The usual treatment for phenylketonuria (PKU) is a phenylalanine-restricted diet. Following this diet is challenging, and long-term adherence (and hence metabolic control) is commonly poor. Patients with PKU (usually, but not exclusively, with a relatively mild form of the disorder) who are responsive to treatment with pharmacological doses of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) have either lower concentrations of blood phenylalanine or improved dietary phenylalanine tolerance. The availability of a registered formulation of BH4 (sapropterin dihydrochloride, Kuvan®) has raised many practical issues and new questions in the dietary management of these patients. Initially, patients and carers must understand clearly the likely benefits (and limitations) of sapropterin therapy. A minority of patients who respond to sapropterin are able to discontinue the phenylalanine-restricted diet completely, while others are able to relax the diet to some extent. Care is required when altering the phenylalanine-restricted diet, as this may have unintended nutritional consequences and must be undertaken with caution. New clinical protocols are required for managing any dietary change while maintaining control of blood phenylalanine, ensuring adequate nutrition and preventing nutritional deficiencies, overweight or obesity. An accurate initial evaluation of pre-sapropterin phenylalanine tolerance is essential, and the desired outcome from treatment with sapropterin (e.g. reduction in blood phenylalanine or relaxation in diet) must also be understood by the patient and carers from the outset. Continuing education and support will be required thereafter, with further adjustment of diet and sapropterin dosage as a young patient grows.

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Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: A. MacDonald, fax +44 121 333 8021, email anita.macdonald@bch.nhs.uk
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