Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home

Altered adipocyte properties in the offspring of protein malnourished rats

  • P.R Shepherd (a1), N.J Crowther (a1), M Desai (a1), C.N Hales (a1) and S.E Ozanne (a1)...

Abstract

It is becoming well established that poor fetal and early postnatal growth can have long-term effects on adult health, including susceptibility to non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and hypertension. It is suggested that this results from poor nutrition during early life having permanent effects on the structure and metabolism of certain organs and tissues. In the present study we investigated the effect of a low-protein diet during pregnancy and lactation on adipocyte properties and glucose tolerance. Rat dams were fed on a diet containing either 200 (control) or 80 (low protein) g protein/kg during pregnancy and lactation. In addition cross-fostering techniques were employed to enable a separate evaluation of the prenatal and postnatal periods. All offspring were weaned onto a 200 g protein/kg diet at 21 d of age and then studied at 6 weeks of age. The mothers' protein supply during lactation appeared to be the most critical time window for longterm growth. In contrast, the offspring of mothers fed on a low-protein diet during pregnancy or lactation were significantly more glucose tolerant than controls, suggesting that both time windows can have long-term effects on glucose tolerance. In addition off spring of mothers fed on a lowprotein diet during pregnancy or lactation had significantly smaller adipocytes than controls. However the largest reduction in adipocyte size was observed when there was a low-protein diet during both pregnancy and lactation. The amount of insulin receptor present in adipocyte membranes was increased in the three animal groups that had been exposed to the low-protein diets while levels of the insulin responsive glucose transporter (GLUT 4) were similar in adipocyte membranes from all groups.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Altered adipocyte properties in the offspring of protein malnourished rats
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Altered adipocyte properties in the offspring of protein malnourished rats
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Altered adipocyte properties in the offspring of protein malnourished rats
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

References

Hide All
Athens, M., Valdez, R. & Stem, M. (1993). Effect of birthweight on future development of ‘syndrome X’ in aduit life. Diabetes 42, Suppl. 1, 61A Abstr.
Barker, D. J. P., Winter, P. D., Osmond, C., Margetts, B & Simmonds, S. J. (1989). Weight in infancy and death from ischaemic heart disease. Lancet ii, 577580.
Crandall, D. L., Fried, S. K., Francendese, A. A., Nickel, M. & DiGirolamo, M. (1983). Lactate release from iolated rat adipocytes: influence of cell size, glucose concentration, insulin and epinephrine. Hormone and Metabolic Research 15, 326329.
Cushman, S. W. (1970). Structure-function relationships in the adipose cell. 1. Ultrastructure of the isolated adipose cell. Journal of Cell Biology 46, 326341.
Cushman, S. W. & Salans, L. B. (1978). Determination of adipose cell size and number in suspensions of isolated rat and human adipose cells. Journal of Lipid Research 19, 269273.
Debant, A., Guerre-Millo, M., Le-Marchand-Brustel, Y., Freychett, P., Lavau, M. & Van Obberghen, E. (1987). Insulin receptor tyrosine kinase is hyperresponsive in adipocytes of youngobese Zucker rats. American Journal of Physiology 252, E273E278.
Desai, M., Crowther, N. J., Lucas, A. & Hales, C. N. (1996). Organ-selective growth in the offspring of protein restricted mothers. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 591603.
Desai, M., Crowther, N.J., Ozanne, S. E., Lucas, A. & Hales, C.N. (1995). Adult glucose and lipid metabolism may be programmed during fetal life. Biochemical Society Transactions 23, 331335.
Dole, V.P. (1956). A relation between non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and the metabolism of glucose. Journal of Clinical Investigation 35, 150155.
Eastman, N. J. & Jackson, E. (1968). Weight relationship in pregnancy 1. The bearing of maternal weight gain and pre-pregnancy weight on birthweight in full term pregnancies. Obstetric and Gynecological Surveys 23, 10031024.
Faust, I. M., Johnson, P. R., Stem, J. S. & Hirsch, J. (1978). Diet-induced adipocyte number increase in adult rats: a new model of obesity. American Journal of Physiology 235, E279E285.
Hales, C. N., Barker, D.J.P., Clark, P.M.S., Cox, L. J., Fall, C. & Winter, P. D. (1991). Fetal and infant growth and impaired glucose tolerance at age 64 years. British Medical Journal 303, 10191022.
Hales, C. N., Desai, M., Ozanne, S. E. & Crowther, N. J. (1996). Fishing in the stream of diabetes: from measuring insulin to the control of fetal organogenesis. Biochemical Society Transactions 24, 341350.
Haring, E. U. (1991). The insulin receptor: signalling mechanisms and contribution to pathogenic insulin resistance. Diabetologia 34, 848857.
Hirsch, J. & Gallian, E. (1968). Methods for the determination of adipose cell size in man and mammals. Journal of Lipid Research 9, 110119.
Lucas, A., Baker, B. A., Desai, M. & Hales, C. N. (1996). Nutrition in pregnant or lactating rats programs lipid metabolism in the offspring. British Jounuzl of Nutrition 76, 605612.
McCance, D. R., Pettitt, D. J., Hanson, R. L., Jacobsson, L.T.H., Knowle, W.C. & Bennet, P. H. (1994). Birthweight and non-insulin-dependent diabetes: ‘thrifty genotype’, ‘thrifty phenotype’, or ‘surviving small baby genotype’. British Medical Journal 38, 942945.
Ozanne, S. E., Smith, G. D., Tikerpae, J. & Hales, C. N. (1996 a). Altered regulation of hepatic glucose output in the male offspring of protein malnourished rat dams. American Journal of Physiology 270, E559E564.
Ozanne, S. E., Wang, C. L., Coleman, N. & Smith, G. D. (1996 b). Altered insulin sensitivity in the male offspring of protein malnourished rats. American Journal of Physiology 271, E1128E1134.
Shepherd, P. R., Gnudi, L., Tozzo, E., Yang, H., Leach, F. & Kahn, B. B. (1993). Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT 4 selectively in adipose tissue. Journal of Biological Chemistry 268, 2224322246.
Shepherd, P. R. & Kahn, B. B. (1994). Expression of the GLUT 4 glucose transporter in diabetes. In Molecular Biology of Diabetes, pp. 529546Draznin, B. and LeRoith, D., editors’. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
Snoeck, I., Remacle, C., Reusens, B. & Hoet, J.-J. (1990). Effect of a low protein diet during pregnancy on the fetal rat endocrine pancreas. Biology of the Neonate 57, 107118.
Tozzo, E., Shepherd, P. R., Gnudi, L. & Kahn, B. B. (1995). Transgenic GLUT 4 overexpression in fat enhances glucose metabolism: preferential effect on fatty acid synthesis. American Journal of Physiology 268, E956E964.

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed