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The American Heart Association advisory on n-6 fatty acids: evidence based or biased evidence?

  • Philip C. Calder (a1)
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4 Holman, RT, Johnson, SB & Hatch, TF (1982) A case of human linolenic acid deficiency involving neurological abnormalities. Am J Clin Nutr 35, 617623.
5 Katan, MB, Zock, PL & Mensink, RP (1995) Dietary oils, serum lipoproteins, and coronary heart disease. Am J Clin Nutr 61, 1368S1373S.
6 Report of the Panel on DRVs of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) of the Department of Health (1991) Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for Food Energy and Nutrients for the UK. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 41. London: The Stationery Office.
7 Mosfegh, A, Goldman, J & Cleveland, L (2005) What We Eat in America, NHANES 2001–2002. Usual Nutrient Intake from Foods as Compared to Dietary Reference Intakes. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service.
8 Henderson, L, Gregory, J, Irving, K, et al. (2003) The National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults Aged 19 to 64 Years – Energy, Protein, Carbohydrate, Fat and Alcohol Intake. London: The Stationery Office.
9 Tsimikas, S, Philis-Tsimikas, A, Alexopoulos, S, et al. (1999) LDL isolated from Greek subjects on a typical diet or from American subjects on an oleate-supplemented diet induces less monocyte chemotaxis and adhesion when exposed to oxidative stress. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 19, 122130.
10 Welsch, CW (1992) Relationship between dietary fat and experimental mammary tumorigenesis: a review and critique. Cancer Res 52, 2040s2048s.
11 Report of the Cardiovascular Review Group of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy (COMA) of the Department of Health (1994) Nutritional Aspects of Cardiovascular Disease. Report on Health and Social Subjects no. 46. London: The Stationery Office.
12 Calder, PC (2004) n-3 Fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin Sci 107, 111.
13 Saravanan, P, Davidson, NC, Schmidt, EB, et al. (2010) Cardiovascular effects of marine omega-3 fatty acids. Lancet 376, 540550.
14 Calder, PC & Yaqoob, P (2009) Understanding omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Postgrad Med 121, 148157.
15 Simopoulos, AP (2002) The importance of the ratio of omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids. Biomed Pharmacother 56, 365379.
16 Lands, WE (2003) Primary prevention in cardiovascular disease: moving out of the shadows of the truth about death. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 13, 154164.
17 Harris, WS, Mozaffarian, D, Rimm, E, et al. (2009) n-6 fatty acids and risk for cardiovascular disease: a science advisory from the American Heart Association Nutrition Subcommittee of the Council on Nutrition. Physical Activity, and Metabolism; Council on Cardiovascular Nursing; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention. Circulation 119, 902907.
18 Ramsden, CE, Hibbeln, JR, Majchrzak, SF, et al. (2010) n-6 Fatty acid-specific and mixed polyunsaturate dietary interventions have different effects on CHD risk: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 104, 15861600.

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