Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 55
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Anil, S Charlton, K E Tapsell, L C Probst, Y Ndanuko, R and Batterham, M J 2016. Identification of dietary patterns associated with blood pressure in a sample of overweight Australian adults. Journal of Human Hypertension,

    Castelló, Adela Lope, Virginia Vioque, Jesús Santamariña, Carmen Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen Abad, Soledad Ederra, Maria Salas-Trejo, Dolores Vidal, Carmen Sánchez-Contador, Carmen Aragonés, Nuria Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz and Pollán, Marina 2016. Reproducibility of data-driven dietary patterns in two groups of adult Spanish women from different studies. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 116, Issue. 04, p. 734.

    Castelló, Adela Buijsse, Brian Martín, Miguel Ruiz, Amparo Casas, Ana M. Baena-Cañada, Jose M. Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto Antolín, Silvia Ramos, Manuel Muñoz, Monserrat Lluch, Ana de Juan-Ferré, Ana Jara, Carlos Lope, Virginia Jimeno, María A. Arriola-Arellano, Esperanza Díaz, Elena Guillem, Vicente Carrasco, Eva Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz Vioque, Jesús and Pollán, Marina 2016. Evaluating the Applicability of Data-Driven Dietary Patterns to Independent Samples with a Focus on Measurement Tools for Pattern Similarity. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics,

    Grieger, Jessica A Grzeskowiak, Luke E Wood, Lisa G and Clifton, Vicki L 2016. Asthma control in pregnancy is associated with pre-conception dietary patterns. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 19, Issue. 02, p. 332.

    Leventakou, V Sarri, K Georgiou, V Chatzea, V Frouzi, E Kastelianou, A Gatzou, A Kogevinas, M and Chatzi, L 2016. Early life determinants of dietary patterns in preschool children: Rhea mother–child cohort, Crete, Greece. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 70, Issue. 1, p. 60.

    Luger, Eva Aspalter, Rosa Luger, Maria Longin, Rita Rieder, Anita and Dorner, Thomas Ernst 2016. Changes of dietary patterns during participation in a web-based weight-reduction programme. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 19, Issue. 07, p. 1211.

    Thorpe, Maree G. Milte, Catherine M. Crawford, David and McNaughton, Sarah A. 2016. A comparison of the dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis and cluster analysis in older Australians. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol. 13, Issue. 1,

    Bell, Lucinda Edwards, Suzanne and Grieger, Jessica 2015. The Relationship between Dietary Patterns and Metabolic Health in a Representative Sample of Adult Australians. Nutrients, Vol. 7, Issue. 8, p. 6491.

    Günther, Anke L. B. Schulze, Matthias B. Kroke, Anja Diethelm, Katharina Joslowski, Gesa Krupp, Danika Wudy, Stefan and Buyken, Anette E. 2015. Early Diet and Later Cancer Risk: Prospective Associations of Dietary Patterns During Critical Periods of Childhood with the GH-IGF Axis, Insulin Resistance and Body Fatness in Younger Adulthood. Nutrition and Cancer, Vol. 67, Issue. 6, p. 877.

    Harris, Holly R. Bergkvist, Leif and Wolk, Alicja 2015. An estrogen-associated dietary pattern and breast cancer risk in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. International Journal of Cancer, Vol. 137, Issue. 9, p. 2149.

    Kim, Jihye Yu, Areum Choi, Bo Youl Nam, Jung Hyun Kim, Mi Kyung Oh, Dong Hoon Kim, Kirang and Yang, Yoon Jung 2015. Dietary patterns and cognitive function in Korean older adults. European Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 54, Issue. 2, p. 309.

    Koch, Manja Nöthlings, Ute and Lieb, Wolfgang 2015. Dietary patterns and fatty liver disease. Current Opinion in Lipidology, Vol. 26, Issue. 1, p. 35.

    Koch, Manja Borggrefe, Jan Schlesinger, Sabrina Barbaresko, Janett Groth, Godo Jacobs, Gunnar Lieb, Wolfgang Laudes, Matthias Müller, Manfred J Bosy-Westphal, Anja Heller, Martin and Nöthlings, Ute 2015. Association of a lifestyle index with MRI-determined liver fat content in a general population study. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol. 69, Issue. 8, p. 732.

    Menghetti, E. Strisciuglio, P. Spagnolo, A. Carletti, M. Paciotti, G. Muzzi, G. Beltemacchi, M. Concolino, D. Strambi, M. and Rosano, A. 2015. Hypertension and obesity in Italian school children: The role of diet, lifestyle and family history. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, Vol. 25, Issue. 6, p. 602.

    Moran, Lisa Grieger, Jessica Mishra, Gita and Teede, Helena 2015. The Association of a Mediterranean-Style Diet Pattern with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Status in a Community Cohort Study. Nutrients, Vol. 7, Issue. 10, p. 8553.

    Mullie, Patrick and Clarys, Peter 2015. Beer, wine and lifestyle: a cross-sectional study of the Belgian military population. Military Medical Research, Vol. 2, Issue. 1,

    Nurliyana, Abdul Razak Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib Zalilah, Mohd Shariff and Rohani, Abdullah 2015. Dietary patterns and cognitive ability among 12- to 13 year-old adolescents in Selangor, Malaysia. Public Health Nutrition, Vol. 18, Issue. 02, p. 303.

    Ryman, Tove K. Boyer, Bert B. Hopkins, Scarlett Philip, Jacques O'Brien, Diane Thummel, Kenneth and Austin, Melissa A. 2015. Characterising the reproducibility and reliability of dietary patterns among Yup'ik Alaska Native people. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 113, Issue. 04, p. 634.

    Alkerwi, Ala'a 2014. Diet quality concept. Nutrition, Vol. 30, Issue. 6, p. 613.

    Barbaresko, Janett Siegert, Sabine Koch, Manja Aits, Imke Lieb, Wolfgang Nikolaus, Susanna Laudes, Matthias Jacobs, Gunnar and Nöthlings, Ute 2014. Comparison of two exploratory dietary patterns in association with the metabolic syndrome in a Northern German population. British Journal of Nutrition, Vol. 112, Issue. 08, p. 1364.


An approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis

  • Matthias B. Schulze (a1), Kurt Hoffmann (a1), Anja Kroke (a1) and Heiner Boeing (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 March 2007

Exploratory factor analysis might work well in elucidating the major dietary patterns prevailing in specific study populations. However, patterns extracted in one study population and their associations with disease risk cannot be reproduced with this data-specific method in other study populations. To construct less population-dependent pattern variables of similar content as original exploratory patterns, we proposed to derive so-called simplified pattern variables. They represent the sum of the unweighted standardised food variables which loaded high at the pattern of interest. Data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study suggest that these simplified pattern variables might adequately approximate factor analysis-based dietary patterns. A simplified pattern variable based on the six highest loading food variables showed a correlation >0·95 with the originally derived factor score, which consisted of forty-seven food variables. Moreover, simplified pattern variables might adequately approximate patterns across different study populations. A simplified pattern variable showed similar factor loadings, ranging from 0·34 to 0·52, as well as similar associations with nutrient intake as a ‘western’ pattern originally reported from an US study population. These simplified pattern variables can subsequently be used to study pattern associations with disease risk, especially in multi-centre studies. It is therefore an approach that might overcome one of the most frequently claimed limitations of factor analyses applied in epidemiology: their non-comparable risk estimates.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      An approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      An approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      An approach to construct simplified measures of dietary patterns from exploratory factor analysis
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr Matthias B. Schulze, fax +49 33200 88 444, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

H Boeing , J Wahrendorf & N Becker (1999) EPIC-Germany – A source for studies into diet and risk of chronic diseases. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 43, 195204.

AL Comrey (1988) Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 56, 754761.

LI Dehne , C Klemm , G Henseler & E Hermann-Kunz (1999) The German Food Code and Nutrient Data Base (BLS II.2). European Journal of Epidemiology 15, 355359.

TT Fung , WC Willett , MJ Stampfer , JE Manson & FB Hu (2001) Dietary patterns and the risk of coronary heart disease in women. Archives of Internal Medicine 161, 18571862.

M Gex-Fabry , L Raymond & O Jeanneret (1988) Multivariate analysis of dietary patterns in 939 Swiss adults: sociodemographic parameters and alcohol consumption profiles. International Journal of Epidemiology 17, 548555.

TA Glass , CF Mendes de Leon , TE Seeman & LF Berkman (1997) Beyond single indicators of social networks: a LISREL analysis of social ties among the elderly. Social Science and Medicine 44, 15031517.

FB Hu (2002) Dietary pattern analysis: a new direction in nutritional epidemiology. Current Opinion in Lipidology 13, 39.

FB Hu , JE Manson , MJ Stampfer , G Colditz , S Liu , CG Solomon & WC Willett (2001) Diet, lifestyle, and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. New England Journal of Medicine 345, 790797.

AK Kant (1996) Indexes of overall diet quality: a review. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 96, 785791.

AK Kant , A Schatzkin , BI Graubard & C Schairer (2000) A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. Journal of the American Medical Association 283, 21092115.

ET Kennedy , J Ohls , S Carlson & K Fleming (1995) The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 95, 11031108.

SE McCann , JR Marshall , JR Brasure , S Graham & JL Freudenheim (2001) Analysis of patterns of food intake in nutritional epidemiology: food classification in principal components analysis and the subsequent impact on estimates for endometrial cancer. Public Health Nutrition 4, 989997.

ME Martinez , JR Marshall & L Sechrest (1998) Invited commentary: Factor analysis and the search for objectivity. American Journal of Epidemiology 148, 1719.

E Randall , JR Marshall , J Brasure & S Graham (1992) Dietary patterns and colon cancer in western New York. Nutrition and Cancer 18, 265276.

E Riboli & R Kaaks (1997) The EPIC Project: rationale and study design. European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. International Journal of Epidemiology 26 Suppl. 1, S6S14.

ML Slattery , KM Boucher , BJ Caan , JD Potter & KN Ma (1998) Eating patterns and risk of colon cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology 148, 416.

N Slimani , M Fahey , AA Welch , E Wirfält , C Stripp , E Bergström , J Linseisen , MB Schulze , C Bamia , Y Chloptsios , F Veglia , S Panico , HB Bueno-de-Mesquita , MC Ocké & M Brustad (2002) Diversity of dietary patterns observed in the EPIC project. Public Health Nutrition (in press).

MJ Stampfer , FB Hu , JE Manson , EB Rimm & WC Willett (2000) Primary prevention of coronary heart disease in women through diet and lifestyle. New England Journal of Medicine 343, 1622.

A Trichopoulou , A Kouris-Blazos , ML Wahlqvist , C Gnardellis , P Lagiou , E Polychronopoulos , T Vassilakou , L Lipworth & D Trichopoulos (1995) Diet and overall survival in elderly people. British Medical Journal 311, 14571460.

WC Willett (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *