This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1 S Wild , G Roglic , A Green , (2004) Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030. Diabetes Care 27, 1047–1053.
3 A Ceriello (2005) Postprandial hyperglycemia and diabetes complications: is it time to treat? Diabetes 54, 1–7.
4 LR Chia , EA Schlenk & J Dunbar-Jacob (2006) Effect of personal and cultural beliefs on medication adherence in the elderly. Drugs Aging 23, 191–202.
5 L Shane-McWhorter & LH Oderda (2007) Importance of cultural issues in managing a patient with diabetes. Consult Pharm 22, 431–437.
6 EA Ryan , ME Pick & C Marceau (2001) Use of alternative medicines in diabetes mellitus. Diabet Med 18, 242–245.
7 JK Grover & SP Yadav (2004) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 93, 123–132.
10 WT Cefalu , J Ye & ZQ Wang (2008) Efficacy of dietary supplementation with botanicals on carbohydrate metabolism in humans. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 8, 78–81.
11 KE Yuwai , KS Rao , C Kaluwin , (1991) Chemical composition of Momordica charantia L. fruits. J Agric Food Chem 39, 1762–1763.
12 MK Chang , EJ Conkerton , DC Chapital , (1996) Chinese melon (Momordica charantia L.) seed: composition and potential use. J Am Oil Chem Soc 73, 263–265.
13 CI Chang , CR Chen , YW Liao , (2006) Cucurbitane-type triterpenoids from Momordica charantia. J Nat Prod 71, 1327–1330.
14 L Harinantenaina , M Tanaka , S Takaoka , (2006) Momordica charantia constituents and antidiabetic screening of the isolated major compounds. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 54, 1017–1021.
15 QY Li , HB Chen , ZM Liu , (2007) Cucurbitane triterpenoids from Momordica charantia. Magn Reson Chem 45, 451–456.
16 MJ Tan , JM Ye , N Turner , (2008) Antidiabetic activities of triterpenoids isolated from bitter melon associated with activation of the AMPK pathway. Chem Biol 15, 263–273.
17 C Day , T Cartwright , J Provost , (1990) Hypoglycaemic effect of Momordica charantia extracts. Planta Med 56, 426–429.
19 L Ali , AK Khan , MI Mamun , (1993) Studies on hypoglycemic effects of fruit pulp, seed, and whole plant of Momordica charantia on normal and diabetic model rats. Planta Med 59, 408–412.
20 S Sarkar , M Pranava & R Marita (1996) Demonstration of the hypoglycemic action of Momordica charantia in a validated animal model of diabetes. Pharmacol Res 33, 1–4.
21 AP Jayasooriya , M Sakono , C Yukizaki , (2000) Effects of Momordica charantia powder on serum glucose levels and various lipid parameters in rats fed with cholesterol-free and cholesterol-enriched diets. J Ethnopharmacol 72, 331–336.
22 BA Leatherdale , RK Panesar , G Singh , (1981) Improvement in glucose tolerance due to Momordica charantia (karela). BMJ 282, 1823–1824.
23 T Uebanso , H Arai , Y Taketani , (2007) Extracts of Momordica charantia suppress postprandial hyperglycemia in rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 53, 482–488.
28 T Miura , C Itoh , N Iwamoto , (2001) Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 47, 340.
30 MF McCarty (2004) Does bitter melon contain an activator of AMP-activated kinase? Med Hypotheses 63, 340–343.
32 CY Chuang , C Hsu , CY Chao , (2006) Fractionation and identification of 9c, 11t, 13t-conjugated linolenic acid as an activator of PPARα in bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.). J Biomed Sci 13, 763–772.
34 CC Shih , CH Lin & WL Lin (2008) Effects of Momordica charantia on insulin resistance and visceral obesity in mice on high-fat diet. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 81, 134–143.
35 S Yibchok-Anun , S Adisakwattana , CY Yao , (2006) Slow acting protein extract from fruit pulp of Momordica charantia with insulin secretagogue and insulinomimetic activities. Biol Pharm Bull 29, 1126–1131.
36 VS Baldwa , CM Bhandari , A Pangaria , (1977) Clinical trials in patients with diabetes mellitus of an insulin-like compound obtained from plant source. Ups J Med Sci 82, 39–41.
38 Y Srivastava , H Venkatakrishna-Bhatt & Y Verma (1993) Antidiabetic and adaptogenic properties of Momordica charantia extract: an experimental and clinical evaluation. Phytother Res 7, 285–289.
40 P Khanna , SC Jain , A Panagariya , (1981) Hypoglycemic activity of polypeptide-p from a plant source. J Nat Prod 44, 648–655.
42 J Welihinda , EH Karunanayake , MH Sheriff , (1986) Effect of Momordica charantia on the glucose in maturity onset diabetes. J Ethnopharmacol 17, 277–282.
43 JK Grover & SR Gupta (1990) Hypoglycemic activity of seeds of Momordica charantia. Eur J Pharmacol 183, 1026–1027.
45 GY Yeh , DM Eisenberg , TJ Kaptchuk , (2003) Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 1277–1294.
48 AM Dans , MV Villarruz , CA Jimeno , (2007) The effect of Momordica charantia capsule preparation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus needs further studies. J Clin Epidemiol 60, 554–559.
49 AR Jadad , RA Moore , D Carroll , (1996) Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary? Control Clin Trials 17, 1–12.
51 A Raman (1996) Anti-diabetic properties and phytochemistry of Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceace). Phytomedicine 2, 349–362.
55 VP Dixit , P Khanna & SK Bhargava (1978) Effects of Momordica charantia L. fruit extract on the testicular function of dog. Planta Med 34, 280–286.
56 WY Chan , PP Tam & HW Yeung (1984) The termination of early pregnancy in the mouse by β-momorcharin. Contraception 29, 91–100.
57 SO Leung , HW Yeung & KN Leung (1987) The immunosuppressive activities of two abortifacient proteins isolated from the seeds of bitter melon (Momordica charantia). Immunopharmacology 13, 159–171.