Hostname: page-component-cd4964975-598jt Total loading time: 0 Render date: 2023-03-31T22:43:49.835Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "useRatesEcommerce": false } hasContentIssue true

Appetite sensations as a marker of overall intake

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  08 March 2007

Vicky Drapeau
Division of Kinesiology, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4
John Blundell
Department of Psychology, Leeds University, Leeds, UK, LS2 9JT
Fanny Therrien
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University and Laval Hospital Research Center, Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4
Claire Lawton
Department of Psychology, Leeds University, Leeds, UK, LS2 9JT
Denis Richard
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Laval University and Laval Hospital Research Center, Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4
Angelo Tremblay*
Division of Kinesiology, Laval University, Ste-Foy, Quebec, Canada, G1K 7P4
*Corresponding author: Dr A. Tremblay, fax +1 418 656 2441, email
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


HTML view is not available for this content. However, as you have access to this content, a full PDF is available via the ‘Save PDF’ action button.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of appetite sensations to characterize individual overall energy intake. A group of men (n 28) and women (n 23) was recruited to record their ‘desire to eat’, ‘hunger’, ‘fullness’ and ‘prospective food consumption’ (PFC) on visual analogue scales before a standardized meal test, immediately after and every 10 min for a period of 1 h after the meal. The 1 h post-meal area under the curve (1 h AUC) and the satiety quotient (SQ) were calculated for all appetite sensations. In a second visit, all participants were invited to eat three meals in order to measure total energy intake (TEI) and food preferences. Metabolic rate (MR) was also assessed to derive daily relative energy intake (REI) by subtracting this variable from TEI (TEI−MR=REI). The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores were also calculated for all participants. One h AUC for fullness was the appetite sensation most strongly associated with TEI and REI (r−0·42, P≤0·003 and r−0·32, P≤0·05, respectively). SQ for fullness was the only predictor of TEI and REI (r−0·42, P≤0·0003 and r−0·30, P≤0·05, respectively). Restraint, disinhibition and hunger scores were not associated with appetite sensation variables. These results suggest that the fullness dimension seems to be a useful appetite sensation to predict long-term TEI and REI. Thus, assessment of appetite sensation such as fullness in response to a fixed load may be useful to evaluate individual overall energy intake.

Research Article
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 2005


Asbeck, I, Mast, M, Bierwag, A, Westenhofer, J, Acheson, KJ & Muller, MJ (2002) Severe underreporting of energy intake in normal weight subjects: use of an appropriate standard and relation to restrained eating. Public Health Nutr 5, 683690.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Barkeling, B, Rossner, S & Sjoberg, A (1995) Methodological studies on single meal food intake characteristics in normal weight and obese men and women. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 19, 284290.Google ScholarPubMed
Bjorvell, H, Aly, A, Langius, A & Nordstrom, G (1994) Indicators of changes in weight and eating behaviour in severely obese patients treated in a nursing behavioural program. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 18, 521525.Google Scholar
Boschi, V, Iorio, D, Margiotta, N, D'Orsi, P & Falconi, C (2001) The Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire in the evaluation of eating behaviour in subjects seeking participation in a dietotherapy programme. Ann Nutr Metab 45, 7277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Buhl, KM, Gallagher, D, Hoy, K, Matthews, DE & Heymsfield, SB (1995) Unexplained disturbance of body weight regulation: diagnostic outcome assessed by doubly labeled water and body composition analyses in obese patients reporting low energy intakes. Am J Diet Assoc 95, 13931400.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Clark, MM, Marcus, BH, Pera, V & Niaura, RS (1994) Changes in eating inventory scores following obesity treatment. Int J Eat Disord 15, 401405.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Castro, J (1993) Independence of genetic influences on body size, daily intake, and meal patterns of humans. Physiol Behav 54, 633639.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
de Castro, J (1999) Heritability of hunger relationships with food intake in free-living humans. Physiol Behav 67, 249258.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Doucet, E, St-Pierre, S, Almeras, N & Tremblay, A (2003) Relation between appetite ratings before and after a standard meal and estimates of daily energy intake in obese and reduced obese individuals. Appetite 40, 137143.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Flint, A, Raben, A, Blundell, JE & Astrup, A (2000) Reproducibility, power and validity of visual analogue scales in assessment of appetite sensations in single test meal studies. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 24, 3848.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Foster, GD, Wadden, TA, Swain, RM, Stunkard, AJ, Platte, P & Vogt, RA (1998) The Eating Inventory in obese women: clinical correlates and relationship to weight loss. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 778785.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Green, SM, Delargy, H, Joanes, D & Blundell, JE (1997) A satiety quotient: a formulation to assess the satiating effect of food. Appetite 29, 291303.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Haugen, HA, Melanson, EL, Tran, ZV, Kearney, JT & Hill, JO (2003) Variability of measured resting metabolic rate. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 11411145.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heitmann, BL & Lissner, L (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals – is it specific or non-specific?. Br Med J 311, 986989.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Hill, AJ & Blundell, JE (1986) The effects of a high-protein or high-carbohydrate meal on subjective motivation to eat and food preferences. Nutr Behav 3, 133144.Google Scholar
Hulshof, T, De Graaf, C & Weststrate, JA (1993) The effects of preloads varying in physical state and fat content on satiety and energy intake. Appetite 21, 273286.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Jéquier, E & Tappy, L (1999) Regulation of body weight in humans. Physiol Rev 79, 451480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Johnson, RK, Goran, MI & Poehlman, ET (1994) Correlates of over- and underreporting of energy intake in healthy older men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 59, 12861290.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kiernan, M, King, AC, Stefanick, ML & Killen, JD (2001) Men gain additional psychological benefits by adding exercise to a weight-loss program. Obes Res 9, 770777.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kissileff, HR (1984) Satieting efficiency and strategy for conducting food loading experiments. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 8, 129135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Klem, ML, Wing, RR, McGuire, MT, Seagle, HM & Hill, JO (1998) Psychological symptoms in individuals successful at long-term maintenance of weight loss. Health Psychol 17, 336345.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Laessle, RG, Tuschl, RJ, Kotthaus, BC & Pirke, KM (1989) A comparison of the validity of three scales for the assessment of dietary restraint. J Abnorm Psychol 98, 504507.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lafay, L, Basdevant, A, Charles, MA, Vray, M, Balkau, B, Borys, JM, Eschwege, E & Romon, M (1997) Determinants and nature of dietary underreporting in a free-living population: the Fleurbaix Laventie Ville Sante (FLVS) Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 21, 567573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lawton, CL, Burley, VJ, Wales, JK & Blundell, JE (1993) Dietary fat and appetite control in obese subjects: weak effects on satiety. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 17, 409416.Google ScholarPubMed
Lichtman, SW, Pisarska, K, Berman, ER, Pestone, M, Dowling, H, Offenbacher, E, Weisel, H, Heshka, S, Matthews, DE & Heymsfield, SB (1992) Discrepancy between self-reported and actual caloric intake and exercise in obese subjects. N Engl J Med 327, 18931898.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lluch, A (1995) Identification des conduites alimentaires par approches nutritionnelles et psychométriques: implications thérapeutiques et préventives dans l'obésité humaine (Identification of food intake behaviors by nutritional and psychometric means: implications for prevention and treatment of human obesity). Thesis, Université Henri Poincaré, Nancy.Google Scholar
Lohman, T, Roche, A & Martorell, R (1988) The Airlie (VA) consensus. In Standardization of Anthropometric Measurements, pp. 3980 [Lonman, T, Roche, A and Martorell, R, editors]. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers.Google Scholar
Mattes, R (1990) Hunger ratings are not a valid proxy measure of reported food intake in humans. Appetite 15, 103113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Pannemans, DL & Westerterp, KR (1993) Estimation of energy intake to feed subjects at energy balance as verified by doubly labelled water: a study in the elderly. Eur J Clin Nutr 47, 490496.Google ScholarPubMed
Pekkarinen, T, Takala, I & Mustajoki, P (1996) Two year maintenance of weight loss after a VLCD and behavioural therapy for obesity: correlation to the scores of questionnaires measuring eating behaviour. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 20, 332337.Google ScholarPubMed
Perneger, TV (1998) What's wrong with Bonferroni adjustments. Br Med J 316, 12361238.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Porrini, M, Crovetti, R, Testolin, G & Silva, S (1995) Evaluation of satiety sensations and food intake after different preloads. Appetite 25, 1730.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Provencher, V, Drapeau, V, Tremblay, A, Despres, JP & Lemieux, S (2003) Eating behaviors and indexes of body composition in men and women from the Quebec family study. Obes Res 11, 783792.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Schoeller, DA (1995) Limitations in the assessment of dietary energy intake by self-report. Metabolism 44, 1822.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Siri, WE (1956) The gross composition of the body. Adv Biol Med Phys 4, 239280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Stubbs, RJ, Hughes, DA, Johnstone, AM, Rowley, E, Reid, C, Elia, M, Stratton, R, Delargy, H, King, N & Blundell, JE (2000) The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. Br J Nutr 84, 405415.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Stunkard, AJ & Messick, S (1985) The three-factor eating questionnaire to measure dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger. J Psychosom Res 29, 7183.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Tuomisto, T, Tuomisto, MT, Hetherington, M & Lappalainen, R (1998) Reasons for initiation and cessation of eating in obese men and women and the affective consequences of eating in every day situations. Appetite 30, 211222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wadden, TA, Berkowitz, RI, Vogt, RA, Steen, SN, Stunkard, AJ & Foster, GD (1997) Lifestyle modification in the pharmacologic treatment of obesity: a pilot investigation of a potential primary care approach. Obes Res 5, 218226.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Weir, JB (1949) New methods for calculating metabolic rate with special reference to protein metabolism. J Physiol 109, 19.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Westerterp, K, Verboeket-van, de, Venne, WPHG, Meijer, JAL & Hoor, F (1991) Self-reported intake as a measure for energy intake. A validation against the doubly labelled water. Obes Res 91, 1722.Google Scholar
Yeomans, MR (1996) Palatability and the microstructure of eating in humans: the appetiser effect. Appetite 26, 119133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar