Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Assessing dietary intake in a population undergoing a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle: the Arctic Inuit in Nunavut, Canada

  • Sangita Sharma (a1), Xia Cao (a1), Cindy Roache (a2), Annie Buchan (a3), Rhonda Reid (a3) and Joel Gittelsohn (a4)...
Abstract

The aims of the present study were to (1) characterise the diets of adult Inuit; (2) highlight foods for a nutritional and lifestyle intervention programme; (3) develop a quantitative FFQ (QFFQ) to evaluate the programme and monitor changes in dietary intake in this population over time. A dietary survey using single 24-h dietary recalls was conducted among Inuit aged between 19 and 87 years in two communities in Nunavut, Canada. Eighty-seven subjects completed the recalls (response rate was approximately 73 %). The mean energy intake for men and women was 9530 and 6939 kJ, respectively. The intakes of dietary fibre and the majority of vitamins and minerals (especially vitamins A, D, and E, total folate and Ca) were far below the recommendations. Traditional foods contributed 40 and 42 %, respectively, to protein and Fe intakes. Non-nutrient-dense store-bought foods were consumed much more frequently than the nutrient-dense traditional foods. Foods high in fat and sugar were highlighted, and will be replaced by healthier, more nutrient-dense alternatives to address the dietary inadequacies for the nutritional intervention programme. A 154-item QFFQ was developed and pilot tested in the Arctic Inuit. The present study highlighted foods to be targeted for a nutritional and lifestyle intervention programme not previously undertaken in this population. This QFFQ is culturally appropriate and specific for evaluating the effectiveness of the programme, as well as monitoring nutritional transition in this population.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Assessing dietary intake in a population undergoing a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle: the Arctic Inuit in Nunavut, Canada
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Assessing dietary intake in a population undergoing a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle: the Arctic Inuit in Nunavut, Canada
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Assessing dietary intake in a population undergoing a rapid transition in diet and lifestyle: the Arctic Inuit in Nunavut, Canada
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Sangita Sharma, fax +1 808 586 2982, email sangita_sharma@unc.edu
References
Hide All
1Takano T (2005) Connections with the land: land skills courses in Igloolik, Nunavut. Ethnography 64, 463486.
2Condon R, Wenzel G & Collings P (1998) Modern food sharing networks and community integration in the central Canadian Arctic. Arctic 51, 301326.
3Condon R, Collings P & Wenzel G (1995) The best part of life: subsistence hunting, ethnicity, and economic adaptation among young adult Inuit males. Arctic Med Res 48, 3146.
4deGonzague B, Receveur O, Wedll D, et al. (1999) Dietary intake and body mass index of adults in 2 Ojibwe communities. J Am Diet Assoc 99, 710716.
5Receveur O, Boulay M & Kuhnlein HV (1997) Decreasing traditional food use affects diet quality for adult Dene/Metis in 16 communities of the Canadian Northwest Territories. J Nutr 127, 21792186.
6Draper HH (1977) The aboriginal Eskimo diet in modern perspective. Am Anthropol 79, 309316.
7Young TK, Reading J, Elias B, et al. (2000) Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Canada's First Nations: status of an epidemic in progress. Can Med Assoc J 163, 561566.
8Ebbesson SO, Ebbesson LO, Swenson M, et al. (2005) A successful diabetes prevention study in Eskimos: The Alaska Siberia Project. Int J Circumpolar Health 64, 409424.
9Kuhnlein HV, Receveur O, Soueida R, et al. (2004) Arctic indigenous peoples experience the nutrition transition with changing dietary patterns and obesity. J Nutr 134, 14471453.
10Nobmann ED, Byers T, Lanier AP, et al. (1992) The diet of Alaska Native adults: 1987–1988. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 10241032.
11Murphy NJ, Schraer CD, Thiele MC, et al. (1995) Dietary change and obesity associated with glucose intolerance in Alaska Natives. J Am Diet Assoc 95, 676682.
12Whiting SJ & Mackenzie ML (1998) Assessing the changing diet of indigenous peoples. Nutr Rev 56, 248250.
13Campbell ML, Diamant RM, Macpherson BD, et al. (1997) The contemporary food supply of three northern Manitoba Cree communities. Can J Public Health 88, 105108.
14Batal M, Gray-Donald K, Kuhnlein HV, et al. (2005) Estimation of traditional food intake in indigenous communities in Denendeh and the Yukon. Int J Circumpolar Health 64, 4654.
15Ebbesson SO, Risica PM, Ebbesson LO, et al. (2005) Omega-3 fatty acids improve glucose tolerance and components of the metabolic syndrome in Alaskan Eskimos: The Alaska Siberia Project. Int J Circumpolar Health 64, 396408.
16Department of Health and Social Services, Government of Nunavut (2007) Nunavut report on comparable health indicatorshttp://www.gov.nu.ca/health/PIRCenglishlow.pdf (accessed 20 June 2007).
17Bjerregaard P & Young TK (1998) The Circumpolar Inuit: Health of a Population in Transition. Copenhagen: Munksgaard International Publishers Ltd.
18Gittelsohn J, Harris S, Whitehead S, et al. (1995) Developing diabetes interventions in an Ojibwa-Cree community in northern Ontario: linking qualitative and quantitative data. Chron Dis Can 16, 157164.
19Brassard P, Robinson E & Dumont C (1993) Descriptive epidemiology of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the James Bay Cree population of Quebec, Canada. Arctic Med Res 52, 4754.
20Seymour JD, Yaroch AL & Serdula M (2004) Impact of nutrition environmental interventions on point-of-purchase behavior in adults: a review. Prev Med 39, Suppl. 2, 108s136s.
21Solomons NW & Valdes-Ramos R (2002) Dietary assessment tools for developing countries for use in multi-centric, collaborative protocols. Public Health Nutr 5, 955968.
22Taren D, Dwyer J, Freedman L, et al. (2002) Dietary assessment methods: where do we go from here? Public Health Nutr 5, 10011003.
23Willett W (1998) Nutritional Epidemiology, 2nd ed.New York: Oxford University Press.
25NASCO Company, 901 Janesville Ave, Fort Atkinson, WI 53538. Available at:http://www.eNASCO.com.
26Aquatronic Baker's Dream Scale (2005) Tonbridge, Kent: Salter Houseware, Ltd..
27Nutribase Clinical Nutrition Manager v. 5.18. (2004) Phoenix, AZ: CyberSoft Inc.
28SAS version 9.1. (2005) Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc.
29Schumacher C, Davidson M & Ehrsam G (2003) Cardiovascular disease among Alaska natives: a review of the literature. Int J Circumpolar Health 62, 343362.
30Lebrun JB, Moffatt MEK, Mundy RJT, et al. (1993) Vitamin D deficiency in a Manitoba community. Can J Public Health 84, 394396.
31Moffatt M (1991) Nutritional deficiencies and native infants. Can J Pediatr 20, 5.
32Moffatt M (1989) Nutritional problems of native Canadian mothers and children. Can Family Phys 35, 377382.
33Nobmann ED, Ponce R, Mattil C, Devereux R, et al. (2005) Dietary intakes vary with age among Eskimo adults of Northwest Alaska in the GOCADAN study, 2000–2003. J Nutr 135, 856862.
34Gilbert TJ, Percy CA, Sugarman JR, et al. (1992) Obesity among Navajo adolescents. Relationship to dietary intake and blood pressure. Am J Dis Child 146, 289295.
35Bersamin A, Luick BR, Ruppert E, et al. (2006) Diet quality among Yup'ik Eskimos living in rural communities is low: The Center for Alaska Native Health Research Pilot Study. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 10551063.
36Ebbesson SO, Adler AI, Risica PM, et al. (2005) Cardiovascular disease and risk factors in three Alaskan Eskimo populations: The Alaska–Siberia Project. Int J Circumpolar Health 64, 365386.
37Lazar MA (2005) How obesity causes diabetes: not a tall tale. Science 307, 373375.
38Institute of Medicine of the National Academies (2005) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrates, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
39Derouich M & Boutayeb A (2002) The effect of physical exercise on the dynamics of glucose and insulin. J Biomech 35, 911917.
40Risica PM, Schraer C, Ebbesson SO, et al. (2000) Overweight and obesity among Alaskan Eskimos of the Bering Straits Region: The Alaska Siberia Project. Int J Obesity Relat Metab Disorders 24, 939944.
41Risica PM, Ebbesson SO, Schraer CD, et al. (2000) Body fat distribution in Alaskan Eskimos of the Bering Straits region: The Alaskan Siberia Project. Int J Obesity Relat Metab Disorders 24, 171179.
42Blanchet C, Dewailly E, Ayotte P, et al. (2000) Contribution of selected traditional and market foods to the diet of Nunavik Inuit women. Can J Diet Pract Res 61, 5059.
43Thouez JP, Rannou A & Foggin P (1989) The other face of development: native population, health status and indicators of malnutrition – the case of the Cree and Inuit in northern Quebec. Soc Sci Med 29, 965974.
44Taylor R, Ram P, Zimmet P, et al. (1984) Physical activity and prevalence of diabetes in Melanesian and Indian men in Fiji. Diabetologia 27, 578582.
45King H, Taylor R, Zimmet P, et al. (1984) Non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in a newly independent Pacific nation: the Republic of Kiribati. Diabetes Care 7, 409415.
46Ebbesson SO, Schraer CD, Risica PM, et al. (1998) Diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance in three Alaskan Eskimo populations. The Alaska–Siberia Project. Diabetes Care 21, 563569.
47Heller CA (1949) The Alaskan Eskimo and the white man's diet. J Home Econ 41, 177178.
48Gross LS, Li L, Ford ES, et al. (2004) Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an ecologic assessment. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 774779.
49Liu S (2002) Intake of refined carbohydrates and whole grain foods in relation to risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. J Am College Nutr 21, 298306.
50Bell RA, Mayer-Davis EJ, Jackson Y, et al. (1997) An epidemiologic review of dietary intake studies among American Indians and Alaska Natives: implications for heart disease and cancer risk. Ann Epidemiol 7, 229240.
51Williams PL, Johnson CP, Kratzmann ML, et al. (2006) Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet? Can J Public Health 97, 430434.
52McLaughlin J, Middaugh J, Boudreau D, et al. (2005) Adipose tissue triglyceride fatty acids and atherosclerosis in Alaska natives and non-natives. Atherosclerosis 181, 353362.
53Fediuk K, Hidiroglou N, Madere R, et al. (2002) Vitamin C in Inuit traditional food and women's diets. J Food Compos Anal 15, 221235.
54Ebbesson SO, Kennish J, Ebbesson L, et al. (1999) Diabetes is related to fatty acid imbalance in Eskimos. Int J Circumpolar Health 58, 108119.
55Pan XR, Li GW, Hu YH, et al. (1997) Effects of diet and exercise in preventing NIDDM in people with impaired glucose tolerance: The Da Qing IGT and Diabetes Study. Diabetes Care 20, 537544.
56Kuhnlein HV, Soueida R & Receveur O (1996) Dietary nutrient profiles of Canadian Baffin Island Inuit differ by food source, season, and age. J Am Diet Assoc 96, 155162.
57Kinloch D, Kuhnlein H & Muir DC (1992) Inuit foods and diet: a preliminary assessment of benefits and risks. Sci Total Environ 122, 247278.
58Feskens EJ, Bowles CH & Kromhout D (1991) Inverse association between fish intake and risk of glucose intolerance in normoglycemic elderly men and women. Diabetes Care 14, 935941.
59Lardinois CL (1987) The role of omega-3 fatty acids on insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. Med Hypotheses 24, 243248.
60Ho LS, Gittelsohn J, Harris SB, et al. (2006) Development of an integrated diabetes prevention program with First Nations in Canada. Health Promot Int 21, 8897.
61Vastine AE, Gittelsohn J, Ethelbah B, et al. (2005) Formative research and stakeholder participation in intervention development. Am J Health Behav 29, 5769.
62Teufel NI (1997) Development of culturally competent food-frequency questionnaires. Am J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 4, 1173s1178s.
63Sharma S, Cao X, Gittelsohn J, et al. (2008) Dietary intake and development of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for a lifestyle intervention to reduce the risk of chronic diseases in Canadian First Nations in north-western Ontario. Public Health Nutr 11, 831840.
64Sharma S, Cao X, Harris R, et al. (2007) Dietary intake and development of a quantitative food-frequency questionnaire for the Barbados National Cancer Study. Public Health Nutr 10, 464470.
65Sharma S, Cao X, Gittelsohn J, et al. (2007) Dietary intake and a food-frequency instrument to evaluate a nutrition intervention for the Apache in Arizona. Public Health Nutr 10, 948956.
66Sharma S, Cade J, Landman J, et al. (2002) Assessing the diet of the British African-Caribbean population; frequency of consumption of foods and food portion sizes. Int J Food Sci Nutr 53, 439444.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 29
Total number of PDF views: 164 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 312 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.