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Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age

  • Sofia Vilela (a1), Andreia Oliveira (a1) (a2) (a3), Elisabete Ramos (a1) (a2) (a3), Pedro Moreira (a1) (a4), Henrique Barros (a1) (a2) (a3) and Carla Lopes (a1) (a2) (a3)...

Abstract

The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake ( ≥ median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·95), salty snacks (IRR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·65, 1·00) and sweets (IRR = 0·73, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age ( ≥ 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0·75, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·96; IRR = 0·56, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.

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Corresponding author

* Corresponding author: C. Lopes, fax +351 225 513 653, email carlal@med.up.pt

References

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Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age

  • Sofia Vilela (a1), Andreia Oliveira (a1) (a2) (a3), Elisabete Ramos (a1) (a2) (a3), Pedro Moreira (a1) (a4), Henrique Barros (a1) (a2) (a3) and Carla Lopes (a1) (a2) (a3)...

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