1Henderson, L, Gregory, J & Swan, G (2002) National Diet and Nutrition Survey: Adults aged 19 to 64 years, vol. 2: Energy, Protein, Fat and Carbohydrate Intake. London: The Stationery Office.
2Clement, Y (2009) Can green tea do that? A literature review of the clinical evidence. Prev Med 49, 83–87.
3Inoue, M, Tajima, K, Hirose, K, et al. (1998) Tea and coffee consumption and the risk of digestive tract cancers: data from a comparative case-referent study in Japan. Cancer Causes Control 9, 209–216.
4Iwai, N, Ohshiro, H, Kurozawa, Y, et al. (2002) Relationship between coffee and green tea consumption and all-cause mortality in a cohort of a rural Japanese population. J Epidemiol 12, 191–198.
5Nakachi, K, Matsuyama, S, Miyake, S, et al. (2000) Preventive effects of drinking green tea on cancer and cardiovascular disease: epidemiological evidence for multiple targeting prevention. Biofactors 13, 49–54.
6Nakachi, K, Eguchi, H & Imai, K (2003) Can teatime increase one's lifetime? Ageing Res Rev 2, 1–10.
7Wu, AH, Yu, MC, Tseng, CC, et al. (2003) Green tea and risk of breast cancer in Asian Americans. Int J Cancer 106, 574–579.
8Kuriyama, S, Shimazu, T, Ohmori, K, et al. (2006) Green tea consumption and mortality due to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes in Japan: the Ohsaki Study. JAMA 296, 1255–1265.
9Arab, L, Liu, W & Elashoff, D (2009) Green and black tea consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis. Stroke 40, 1786–1792.
10Gardner, EJ, Ruxton, CHS & Leeds, AR (2007) Black tea – helpful or harmful? A review of the evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 3–18.
11Hoshiyama, Y, Kawaguchi, T, Miura, Y, et al. (2002) A prospective study of stomach cancer death in relation to green tea consumption in Japan. Br J Cancer 87, 309–313.
12Li, Q, Kakizaki, M, Kuriyama, S, et al. (2008) Green tea consumption and lung cancer: the Ohsaki Study. Br J Cancer 99, 1179–1184.
13Imai, K, Suga, K & Nakachi, K (1997) Cancer-preventive effects of drinking green tea among a Japanese population. Prev Med 26, 769–775.
14Ide, R, Fujino, Y, Hoshiyama, Y, et al. (2007) A prospective study of green tea consumption and oral cancer incidence in Japan. Ann Epidemiol 17, 821–826.
15Sasazuki, S, Inoue, M, Hanaoka, T, et al. (2004) Green tea consumption and subsequent risk of gastric cancer by site: the JPHC Study. Cancer Causes Control 15, 483–491.
16Sasazuki, S, Kodama, H, Yoshimasu, K, et al. (2000) Relation between green tea consumption and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis among Japanese men and women. Ann Epidemiol 10, 401–408.
17Lee, JE, Hunter, DJ, Spiegelman, D, et al. (2007) Intakes of coffee, tea, milk soda and juice and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 13 prospective studies. Int J Cancer 121, 2246–2253.
18Ascherio, A, Weisskopf, MG, O'Reilly, EJ, et al. (2004) Coffee consumption, gender and Parkinson's disease mortality in the Cancer Prevention Study II Cohort: the modifying effects of estrogen. Am J Epidemiol 160, 977–984.
19Yang, G, Shu, XO, Li, H, et al. (2007) Prospective cohort study of green tea consumption and colorectal cancer risk in women. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 1219–1223.
20Rimm, EB & Stampfer, MJ (2004) Diet, lifestyle, and longevity – the next steps? JAMA 292, 1490–1492.
21Thompson, ME, Fong, GT, Hammond, D, et al. (2006) Methods of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) four country survey. Tobacco Control 15, Suppl. III, iii12–iii18.
23Gu, D (2008) General data assessment of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey in 2002. In Healthy Longevity in China: Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Dimensions, pp. 38–59 [, editors]. Dordrecht: Springer Publisher.
24Herzog, AR & Rodgers, WL (1992) The use of survey method in research on older Americans. In The Epidemiologic Study of the Elederly, pp. 60–90 [, editors]. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
25Gu, D & Dupre, ME (2008) Assessment of reliability of mortality and morbidity in the 1998–2002 CLHLS waves. In Healthy Longevity in China: Demographic, Socioeconomic, and Psychological Dimensions, pp. 99–115 [, editors]. Dordrecht: Springer.
26Katz, S, Ford, AB, Moskowitz, RW, et al. (1963) Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA 185, 914–919.
27Folstein, MF, Folsein, SE, McHugh, RR, et al. (1975) “Mini-Mental state”: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of pattern for clinician. J Psychol Res 12, 189–198.
28Zeng, Y, Vaupel, JW, Xiao, Z, et al. (2002) Sociodemographic and health profiles of oldest-old in China. Popul Dev Rev 28, 251–273.
29Zhang, Z (2006) Gender differentials in cognitive impairment and decline of the oldest old in China. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 61, S107–S115.
30Abellan van Kan, G, Rolland, Y, Berhman, H, et al. (2008) The I.A.N.A. task force on frailty assessment of older people in clinical practice. J Nutr Health Aging 12, 29–37.
31Bergman, H, Ferrucci, L, Guralnik, J, et al. (2007) Frailty: an emerging research and clinical paradigm – issues and controversies. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62, 731–737.
32Gu, D, Dupre, ME, Sautter, J, et al. (2009) Frailty and mortality among Chinese at advanced ages. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 64B, 279–289.
33Kulminski, A, Yashin, A, Ukraintseva, S, et al. (2006) Accumulation of heath disorders as a systemic measure of aging: findings from the NLTCS data. Mech Ageing Dev 127, 840–848.
34Mitnitski, AB, Song, X, Skoog, I, et al. (2005) Relative fitness and frailty of elderly men and women in developed countries and their relationship with mortality. J Am Geriatr Soc 35, 2184–2189.
35Goggins, WB, Woo, J, Sham, A, et al. (2005) Frailty index as a measure of biological age in a Chinese population. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 60, M1046–M1051.
36Gu, D (2009) The validity of health deficit index among Chinese old adults. Popul Eco 5, 52–57.
37Gu, D, Zhang, Z & Zeng, Y (2009) Access to healthcare services makes a difference in healthy longevity among older Chinese adults. Soc Sci Med 68, 210–219.
38Ferrucci, L, Turchi, A, Fumagallo, S, et al. (2003) Sex-related differences in the length of disability prior to death in older persons. Aging Clin Exp Res 15, 310–314.
39Liang, J, Bennett, J, Sugisawa, H, et al. (2003) Gender differences in old age mortality: roles of health behavior and baseline health status. J Clin Epidemiol 56, 572–582.
40Strawbridge, WJ, Shema, SJ, Cohen, RD, et al. (2001) Religious attendance increases survival by improving and maintaining good health behaviors, mental health, and social relationships. Ann Behav Med 23, 68–74.
41Stuck, AE, Walthert, JM, Nikolaus, T, et al. (1999) Risk factors for functional status decline in community-living elderly people: a systematic literature review. Soc Sci Med 48, 445–489.
42Hayward, MD & Pienta, AM (1997) Inequality in men's mortality: the socioeconomic status gradient and geographic context. J Health Soc Behav 38, 313–330.
43Hwang, H & Tajkane, Y (2004) A multivariate reduced-rank growth curve model with unbalanced data. Psychometrika 69, 65–79.
44Allison, PD (2002) Missing Data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
45Landerman, LR, Land, KC & Pieper, CF (1997) An empirical evaluation of the predictive mean matching method for imputing missing values. Soc Methods Res 26, 3–33.
46Winship, C & Radbill, L (1994) Sampling weights and regression analysis. Soc Methods Res 23, 230–257.
47Hertog, MG, Sweetnam, PM, Fehily, AM, et al. (1997) Antioxidant flavonols and ischemic heart disease in a Welsh population of men: the Caerphilly Study. Am J Clin Nutr 65, 1489–1494.
48Mojžišová, G & Kuchta, M (2001) Dietary flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease. Physiol Res 50, 529–535.
49Weisburger, JH & Chung, FL (2002) Mechanisms of chronic disease causation by nutritional factors and tobacco products and their prevention by tea polyphenols. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 1145–1154.
50Aneja, R, Odoms, K, Denenberg, AG, et al. (2004) Theaflavin, a black tea extract, is a novel anti-inflammatory compound. Crit Care Med 32, 2097–2103.
51Ju, J, Hong, J, Zhou, JN, et al. (2005) Inhibition of intestinal tumorigenesis in Apcmin/t mice by ( − )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, the major catechin in green tea. Cancer Res 65, 10623–10631.
52Dufresne, CJ & Farnworth, ER (2001) A review of the latest findings on the health promotion properties of tea. J Nutr Biochem 12, 404–421.
53Rietveld, A & Wiseman, S (2003) Antioxidant effects of tea: evidence from human clinical trials. Am Soc Nutr Sci 133, 3285S–3292S.
54Heiss, ML & Heiss, RJ (2007) The Story of Tea: A Cultural History and Drinking Guide. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.
55Hercberg, S, Galan, P, Preziosi, P, et al. (2004) The SU.VI.MAX Study: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the health effects of antioxidant vitamins and minerals. Arch Intern Med 164, 2335–2343.
56Snel, J, Koppes, LLJ & Twisk, JW (2009) Sensitivity to coffee and subjective health. Act Nerv Super Rediviva 51, 61–68.
57Shim, JS, Kang, MH, Kim, YH, et al. (1995) Chemopreventive effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) among cigarette smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 4, 387–391.
58Higdon, JV & Frei, B (2005) Is there a gender difference in the effect of antioxidants on cancer risk? Br J Nutr 94, 139–140.
59Waters, DJ, Chiang, EC, Cooley, DM, et al. (2004) Making sense of sex and supplements: differences in the anticarcinogenic effects of selenium in men and women. Mutat Res 551, 91–107.
60Feinglass, J, Lin, S, Thompson, J, et al. (2007) Baseline health, socioeconomic status, and 10-year mortality among older middle-aged Americans: findings from the health and retirement study, 1992–2002. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 62, S209–S217.
61Boedhi-Darmojo, R (2002) Trends in dietary habits of the elderly: the Indonesian case. Asia Pacific J Clin Nutr 11, 351–354.