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Associations between obesity candidate gene polymorphisms (fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor (LEPR)) and dietary intake in pregnant women

  • Maisa C. Martins (a1) (a2), Janet Trujillo (a1), Ana Amélia Freitas-Vilela (a1) (a3), Dayana R. Farias (a1) (a2), Eliane L. Rosado (a4), Cláudio J. Struchiner (a5) and Gilberto Kac (a1)...

Genetic variants associated with dietary intake may be important as factors underlying the development of obesity. We investigated the associations between the obesity candidate genes (fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), leptin (LEP) and leptin receptor) and total energy intake and percentage of energy from macronutrients and ultra-processed foods before and during pregnancy. A sample of 149 pregnant women was followed up in a prospective cohort in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A FFQ was administered at 5–13 and 30–36 weeks of gestation. Genotyping was performed using real-time PCR. Associations between polymorphisms and the outcomes were investigated through multiple linear regression and ANCOVA having pre-pregnancy dietary intake as a covariate. The A-allele of FTO-rs9939609 was associated with a −6·5 % (95 % CI −12·3, −0·4) decrease in the percentage of energy from protein and positively associated with the percentage of energy from carbohydrates before pregnancy (β=2·6; 95 % CI 0·5, 4·8) and with a 13·3 % (95 % CI 0·7, 27·5) increase in the total energy intake during pregnancy. The C-allele of MC4R-rs17782313 was associated with a −7·6 % (95 % CI −13·8, −1·0) decrease in the percentage of energy from protein, and positively associated with the percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods (β=5·4; 95 % CI 1·1, 9·8) during pregnancy. ANCOVA results revealed changes in dietary intake from pre-pregnancy to pregnancy for FTO-rs9939609 (percentage of energy from ultra-processed foods, P=0·03), MC4R-rs17782313 (total energy intake, P=0·02) and LEP-rs7799039 (total energy intake, P=0·04; percentage of energy from protein, P=0·04). These findings suggest significant associations between FTO-rs9939609, MC4R-rs17782313 and LEP-rs7799039 genes and the components of dietary intake in pregnant women.

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*Corresponding author: G. Kac, email
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