Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults

  • Kentaro Murakami (a1) (a2) (a3), Tracy A. McCaffrey (a1) and M. Barbara E. Livingstone (a1)

Abstract

Inconsistent associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) and body fatness may be partly due to differences in the underlying dietary patterns or energy under-reporting. In the present study, we examined the cross-sectional associations of dietary GI and GL with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity, accounting for energy under-reporting. The subjects were 1487 British adults aged 19–64 years. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d weighed dietary record. Breads and potatoes were the positive predictive foods for dietary GI, while fruit, other cereals and dairy products were the negative predictors. These foods were similarly identified in the analysis of only acceptable reporters (AR; ratio of reported energy intake:estimated energy requirement within 0·665–1·335) and under-reporters (UR; ratio < 0·665). Dietary GL was closely correlated with carbohydrate intake. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that dietary GI was independently associated with a higher risk of general obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) and central obesity (waist circumference ≥ 102 cm in men and ≥ 88 cm in women). Dietary GL was also associated with general (only women) and central obesity. Similarly, in the analysis of AR, the GI showed positive associations with general and central obesity, and, only in women, the GL showed positive associations with general and central obesity. Conversely, in the analysis of UR, the associations were generally weaker and many of them failed to reach statistical significance. In conclusion, we found independent positive associations of dietary GI and GL with general and central obesity in British adults.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults
      Available formats
      ×

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Associations of dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load with food and nutrient intake and general and central obesity in British adults
      Available formats
      ×

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: Dr K. Murakami, fax +44 28 7032 3023, email k.murakami@ulster.ac.uk

References

Hide All
1Ludwig, DS (2002) The glycemic index: physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. JAMA 287, 24142423.
2Stevenson, EJ, Williams, C, Mash, LE, et al. (2006) Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 354360.
3Pereira, MA, Swain, J, Goldfine, AB, et al. (2004) Effects of a low-glycemic load diet on resting energy expenditure and heart disease risk factors during weight loss. JAMA 292, 24822490.
4Augustin, LS, Franceschi, S, Jenkins, DJ, et al. (2002) Glycemic index in chronic disease: a review. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 10491071.
5Lau, C, Toft, U, Tetens, I, et al. (2006) Association between dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and body mass index in the Inter99 study: is underreporting a problem? Am J Clin Nutr 84, 641645.
6Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Okubo, H, et al. (2007) Dietary fiber intake, dietary glycemic index and load, and body mass index: a cross-sectional study of 3931 Japanese women aged 18–20 years. Eur J Clin Nutr 61, 986995.
7Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y, et al. (2006) Dietary glycemic index and load in relation to metabolic risk factors in Japanese female farmers with traditional dietary habits. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 11611169.
8Youn, S, Woo, HD, Cho, YA, et al. (2012) Association between dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and the prevalence of obesity in Korean men and women. Nutr Res 32, 153159.
9Finley, CE, Barlow, CE, Halton, TL, et al. (2010) Glycemic index, glycemic load, and prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. J Am Diet Assoc 110, 18201829.
10Ma, Y, Olendzki, B, Chiriboga, D, et al. (2005) Association between dietary carbohydrates and body weight. Am J Epidemiol 161, 359367.
11Du, H, van der, ADL, van Bakel, MME, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index, glycaemic load and subsequent changes of weight and waist circumference in European men and women. Int J Obes 33, 12801288.
12Hare-Bruun, H, Flint, A & Heitmann, BL (2006) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to changes in body weight, body fat distribution, and body composition in adult Danes. Am J Clin Nutr 84, 871879.
13Du, H, van der, ADL, van Bakel, MME, et al. (2008) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to food and nutrient intake and metabolic risk factors in a Dutch population. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 655661.
14Mendez, MA, Covas, MI, Marrugat, J, et al. (2009) Glycemic load, glycemic index, and body mass index in Spanish adults. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 316322.
15Milton, JE, Briche, B, Brown, IJ, et al. (2007) Relationship of glycaemic index with cardiovascular risk factors: analysis of the National Diet and Nutrition Survey for people aged 65 and older. Public Health Nutr 10, 13211335.
16Liese, AD, Schulz, M, Fang, F, et al. (2005) Dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, carbohydrate and fiber intake, and measures of insulin sensitivity, secretion, and adiposity in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis study. Diabetes Care 28, 28322838.
17Rossi, M, Bosetti, C, Talamini, R, et al. (2010) Glycemic index and glycemic load in relation to body mass index and waist to hip ratio. Eur J Nutr 49, 459464.
18Sahyoun, NR, Anderson, AL, Kanaya, AM, et al. (2005) Dietary glycemic index and load, measures of glucose metabolism, and body fat distribution in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 547552.
19Schulz, M, Liese, AD, Mayer-Davis, EJ, et al. (2005) Nutritional correlates of dietary glycaemic index: new aspects from a population perspective. Br J Nutr 94, 397406.
20van Bakel, MM, Kaaks, R, Feskens, EJ, et al. (2009) Dietary glycaemic index and glycaemic load in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 63, Suppl. 4, S188S205.
21Mayer-Davis, EJ, Dhawan, A, Liese, AD, et al. (2006) Towards understanding of glycaemic index and glycaemic load in habitual diet: associations with measures of glycaemia in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study. Br J Nutr 95, 397405.
22Foster-Powell, K, Holt, SH & Brand-Miller, JC (2002) International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2002. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 556.
23Atkinson, FS, Foster-Powell, K & Brand-Miller, JC (2008) International tables of glycemic index and glycemic load values: 2008. Diabetes Care 31, 22812283.
24Louie, JCY, Flood, V, Turner, N, et al. (2010) Methodology for adding glycemic index values to 24-hour recalls. Nutrition 27, 5964.
25Livingstone, MBE & Black, AE (2003) Markers of the validity of reported energy intake. J Nutr 133, Suppl. 3, 895S920S.
26Mattisson, I, Wirfalt, E, Aronsson, CA, et al. (2005) Misreporting of energy: prevalence, characteristics of misreporters and influence on observed risk estimates in the Malmo Diet and Cancer cohort. Br J Nutr 94, 832842.
27Lutomski, JE, van den Broeck, J, Harrington, J, et al. (2011) Sociodemographic, lifestyle, mental health and dietary factors associated with direction of misreporting of energy intake. Public Health Nutr 14, 532541.
28Subar, AF, Kipnis, V, Troiano, RP, et al. (2003) Using intake biomarkers to evaluate the extent of dietary misreporting in a large sample of adults: the OPEN study. Am J Epidemiol 158, 113.
29Rosell, MS, Hellenius, MLB, De Faire, UH, et al. (2003) Associations between diet and the metabolic syndrome vary with the validity of dietary intake data. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 8490.
30Heitmann, BL & Lissner, L (1995) Dietary underreporting by obese individuals: is it specific or non-specific? BMJ 311, 986989.
31Murakami, K, Sasaki, S, Takahashi, Y, et al. (2008) Misreporting of dietary energy, protein, potassium and sodium in relation to body mass index in young Japanese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 62, 111118.
32Nielsen, BM, Nielsen, MM, Toubro, S, et al. (2009) Past and current body size affect validity of reported energy intake among middle-aged Danish men. J Nutr 139, 23372343.
33Black, AE (2000) The sensitivity and specificity of the Goldberg cut-off for EI:BMR for identifying diet reports of poor validity. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 395404.
34Tooze, JA, Krebs-Smith, SM, Troiano, RP, et al. (2012) The accuracy of the Goldberg method for classifying misreporters of energy intake on a food frequency questionnaire and 24-h recalls: comparison with doubly labeled water. Eur J Clin Nutr 66, 569576.
36World Health Organization (2000) Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of a WHO Consultation. WHO Technical Report Series no. 894. Geneva: WHO.
37Ashwell, M, Gunn, P & Gibson, S (2012) Waist-to-height ratio is a better screening tool than waist circumference and BMI for adult cardiometabolic risk factors: systematic review and meta-analysis. Obes Rev 13, 275286.
38Smithers, G (1993) MAFF's nutrient databank. Nutr Food Sci 93, 1619.
39Food Standards Agency (2002) McCance and Widdowson's The Composition of Foods, 6th ed.Cambridge: Royal Society of Chemistry.
40van Bakel, MM, Slimani, N, Feskens, EJ, et al. (2009) Methodological challenges in the application of the glycemic index in epidemiological studies using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. J Nutr 139, 568575.
41Flood, A, Subar, AF, Hull, SG, et al. (2006) Methodology for adding glycemic load values to the National Cancer Institute Diet History Questionnaire database. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 393402.
42Ainsworth, BE, Haskell, WL, Herrmann, SD, et al. (2011) 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43, 15751581.
43Institute of Medicine (2002) Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
44Huang, TT, Roberts, SB, Howarth, NC, et al. (2005) Effect of screening out implausible energy intake reports on relationships between diet and BMI. Obes Res 13, 12051217.
45Black, AE & Cole, TJ (2000) Within- and between-subject variation in energy expenditure measured by the doubly-labelled water technique: implications for validating reported dietary energy intake. Eur J Clin Nutr 54, 386394.
46Willett, WC, Howe, GR & Kushi, LH (1997) Adjustment for total energy intake in epidemiologic studies. Am J Clin Nutr 65, Suppl. 4, 1220S1228S.
47Okubo, H, Sasaki, S, Hirota, N, et al. (2006) The influence of age and body mass index to relative accuracy of energy intake among Japanese adults. Public Health Nutr 9, 651657.
48Barnard, JA, Tapsell, LC, Davies, PSW, et al. (2002) Relationship of high energy expenditure and variation in dietary intake with reporting accuracy on 7 day food records and diet histories in a group of healthy adult volunteers. Eur J Clin Nutr 56, 358367.
49Mendez, MA, Popkin, BM, Buckland, G, et al. (2011) Alternative methods of accounting for underreporting and overreporting when measuring dietary intake–obesity relations. Am J Epidemiol 173, 448458.
50Bingham, S, Luben, R, Welch, A, et al. (2008) Associations between dietary methods and biomarkers, and between fruits and vegetables and risk of ischaemic heart disease, in the EPIC Norfolk Cohort Study. Int J Epidemiol 37, 978987.
51George, SM, Thompson, FE, Midthune, D, et al. (2012) Strength of the relationships between three self-reported dietary intake instruments and serum carotenoids: the Observing Energy and Protein Nutrition (OPEN) Study. Public Health Nutr 15, 10001007.
52Henry, CJK, Lightowler, HJ, Strik, CM, et al. (2005) Glycaemic index values for commercially available potatoes in Great Britain. Br J Nutr 94, 917921.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed