Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Access
  • Cited by 20
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Guon, Tae-Eun and Chung, Ha Sook 2016. Effect of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract on Antioxidant and Apoptosis in A2058 Human Melanoma Cells. Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life, Vol. 26, Issue. 3, p. 207.

    Lim, T. K. 2016. Edible Medicinal and Non-Medicinal Plants.

    Lohiya, N. K. Balasubramanian, K. and Ansari, A. S. 2016. Indian folklore medicine in managing men's health and wellness. Andrologia, Vol. 48, Issue. 8, p. 894.

    Mahmoud, YI and Hegazy, HG 2016. Ginger and alpha lipoic acid ameliorate age-related ultrastructural changes in rat liver. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, Vol. 91, Issue. 2, p. 86.

    Ortega, M. T. Jeffery, B. Riviere, J. E. and Monteiro-Riviere, N. A. 2016. Toxicological effects of pet food ingredients on canine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and enterocyte-like cells. Journal of Applied Toxicology, Vol. 36, Issue. 2, p. 189.

    Patra, Jayanta Kumar Das, Gitishree Paramithiotis, Spiros and Shin, Han-Seung 2016. Kimchi and Other Widely Consumed Traditional Fermented Foods of Korea: A Review. Frontiers in Microbiology, Vol. 7,

    Saxena, Roopali Rida, Padmashree C. G. Kucuk, Omer and Aneja, Ritu 2016. Ginger augmented chemotherapy: A novel multitarget nontoxic approach for cancer management. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, Vol. 60, Issue. 6, p. 1364.

    Simon-Brown, Kelly Solval, Kevin Mis Chotiko, Aranee Alfaro, Luis Reyes, Vondel Liu, Chen Dzandu, Bennett Kyereh, Emmanuel Goldson Barnaby, Andrea Thompson, Ian Xu, Zhimin and Sathivel, Subramaniam 2016. Microencapsulation of ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract by spray drying technology. LWT - Food Science and Technology, Vol. 70, p. 119.

    Zhang, Mingzhen Viennois, Emilie Prasad, Meena Zhang, Yunchen Wang, Lixin Zhang, Zhan Han, Moon Kwon Xiao, Bo Xu, Changlong Srinivasan, Shanthi and Merlin, Didier 2016. Edible ginger-derived nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer. Biomaterials, Vol. 101, p. 321.

    Zheng, Jie Zhou, Yue Li, Ya Xu, Dong-Ping Li, Sha and Li, Hua-Bin 2016. Spices for Prevention and Treatment of Cancers. Nutrients, Vol. 8, Issue. 8, p. 495.

    Bhargava, Shipra Malhotra, Hemant Rathore, Om Singh Malhotra, Bharti Sharma, Pratibha Batra, Amla Sharma, Asha and Chiplunkar, Shubhada V. 2015. Anti-leukemic activities of alcoholic extracts of two traditional Indian medicinal plants. Leukemia & Lymphoma, Vol. 56, Issue. 11, p. 3168.

    Makanjuola, Solomon Akinremi Enujiugha, Victor Ndigwe Omoba, Olufunmilayo Sade and Sanni, David Morakinyo 2015. Optimization and prediction of antioxidant properties of a tea-ginger extract. Food Science & Nutrition, Vol. 3, Issue. 5, p. 443.

    Yang, C. Gundala, S. R. Mukkavilli, R. Vangala, S. Reid, M. D. and Aneja, R. 2015. Synergistic interactions among flavonoids and acetogenins in Graviola (Annona muricata) leaves confer protection against prostate cancer. Carcinogenesis, Vol. 36, Issue. 6, p. 656.

    Almog, Limor Lev, Efraim Schiff, Elad Linn, Shai and Ben-Arye, Eran 2014. Bridging cross-cultural gaps: monitoring herbal use during chemotherapy in patients referred to integrative medicine consultation in Israel. Supportive Care in Cancer, Vol. 22, Issue. 10, p. 2793.

    Bhandari, Prasan 2014. Dietary Botanicals for Chemoprevention of Prostate Cancer. Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 75.

    Fu, Junsheng Chen, Huadong Soroka, Dominique N. Warin, Renaud F. and Sang, Shengmin 2014. Cysteine-Conjugated Metabolites of Ginger Components, Shogaols, Induce Apoptosis through Oxidative Stress-Mediated p53 Pathway in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 62, Issue. 20, p. 4632.

    Gundala, S. R. Mukkavilli, R. Yang, C. Yadav, P. Tandon, V. Vangala, S. Prakash, S. and Aneja, R. 2014. Enterohepatic recirculation of bioactive ginger phytochemicals is associated with enhanced tumor growth-inhibitory activity of ginger extract. Carcinogenesis, Vol. 35, Issue. 6, p. 1320.

    Opara, Elizabeth and Chohan, Magali 2014. Culinary Herbs and Spices: Their Bioactive Properties, the Contribution of Polyphenols and the Challenges in Deducing Their True Health Benefits. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol. 15, Issue. 10, p. 19183.

    Sincholle, Daniel 2014. Le gingembre, un exemple d’aliment fonctionnel. Pratiques en nutrition, Vol. 10, Issue. 39, p. 38.

    Solowey, Elisha Lichtenstein, Michal Sallon, Sarah Paavilainen, Helena Solowey, Elaine and Lorberboum-Galski, Haya 2014. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity. The Scientific World Journal, Vol. 2014, p. 1.


Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer


It is appreciated far and wide that increased and regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked with noteworthy anticancer benefits. Extensively consumed as a spice in foods and beverages worldwide, ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an excellent source of several bioactive phenolics, including non-volatile pungent compounds such as gingerols, paradols, shogaols and gingerones. Ginger has been known to display anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, indicating its promising role as a chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that whole ginger extract (GE) exerts significant growth-inhibitory and death-inductory effects in a spectrum of prostate cancer cells. Comprehensive studies have confirmed that GE perturbed cell-cycle progression, impaired reproductive capacity, modulated cell-cycle and apoptosis regulatory molecules and induced a caspase-driven, mitochondrially mediated apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Remarkably, daily oral feeding of 100 mg/kg body weight of GE inhibited growth and progression of PC-3 xenografts by approximately 56 % in nude mice, as shown by measurements of tumour volume. Tumour tissue from GE-treated mice showed reduced proliferation index and widespread apoptosis compared with controls, as determined by immunoblotting and immunohistochemical methods. Most importantly, GE did not exert any detectable toxicity in normal, rapidly dividing tissues such as gut and bone marrow. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of whole GE for the management of prostate cancer.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Benefits of whole ginger extract in prostate cancer
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: R. Aneja, fax +1 404 413 5301, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1 DN Syed , N Khan , F Afaq , (2007) Chemoprevention of prostate cancer through dietary agents: progress and promise. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 21932203.

2 WG Nelson , AM De Marzo & WB Isaacs (2003) Prostate cancer. N Engl J Med 349, 366381.

3 MB Sporn (1976) Approaches to prevention of epithelial cancer during the preneoplastic period. Cancer Res 36, 26992702.

4JR Mann , MG Backlund & RN DuBois (2005) Mechanisms of disease: inflammatory mediators and cancer prevention. Nat Clin Pract Oncol 2, 202210.

5 M Kaur , C Agarwal & R Agarwal (2009) Anticancer and cancer chemopreventive potential of grape seed extract and other grape-based products. J Nutr 139, 1806S1812S.

6 D Cooke , WP Steward , AJ Gescher , (2005) Anthocyans from fruits and vegetables – does bright colour signal cancer chemopreventive activity? Eur J Cancer 41, 19311940.

7CS Yang , JM Landau , MT Huang , (2001) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by dietary polyphenolic compounds. Annu Rev Nutr 21, 381406.

8 M Traka , AV Gasper , A Melchini , (2008) Broccoli consumption interacts with GSTM1 to perturb oncogenic signalling pathways in the prostate. PLoS One 3, e2568.

9H Steinkellner , S Rabot , C Freywald , (2001) Effects of cruciferous vegetables and their constituents on drug metabolizing enzymes involved in the bioactivation of DNA-reactive dietary carcinogens. Mutat Res 480–481, 285297.

10JL Colli & CL Amling (2009) Chemoprevention of prostate cancer: what can be recommended to patients? Curr Urol Rep 10, 165171.

11WJ Craig (1999) Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am J Clin Nutr 70, Suppl. 3, 491S499S.

12 YJ Surh (2003) Cancer chemoprevention with dietary phytochemicals. Nat Rev Cancer 3, 768780.

13SM Zick , Z Djuric , MT Ruffin , (2008) Pharmacokinetics of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, and 6-shogaol and conjugate metabolites in healthy human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 19301936.

14Y Shukla & M Singh (2007) Cancer preventive properties of ginger: a brief review. Food Chem Toxicol 45, 683690.

15 S Shobana & KA Naidu (2000) Antioxidant activity of selected Indian spices. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 62, 107110.

17YJ Surh (2002) Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review. Food Chem Toxicol 40, 10911097.

18 EC Kim , JK Min , TY Kim , (2005) [6]-Gingerol, a pungent ingredient of ginger, inhibits angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 335, 300308.

19SO Kim , JK Kundu , YK Shin , (2005) [6]-Gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin. Oncogene 24, 25582567.

20 B Fuhrman , M Rosenblat , T Hayek , (2000) Ginger extract consumption reduces plasma cholesterol, inhibits LDL oxidation and attenuates development of atherosclerosis in atherosclerotic, apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. J Nutr 130, 11241131.

21RH Liu (2003) Health benefits of fruit and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. Am J Clin Nutr 78 (Suppl. 3), 517S520S.

22CS Yang (1997) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea. Nature 389, 134135.

23J Jankun , SH Selman , R Swiercz , (1997) Why drinking green tea could prevent cancer. Nature 387, 561.

25MM Nociari , A Shalev , P Benias , (1998) A novel one-step, highly sensitive fluorometric assay to evaluate cell-mediated cytotoxicity. J Immunol Methods 213, 157167.

26P Karna , S Zughaier , V Pannu , (2010) Induction of reactive oxygen species-mediated autophagy by a novel microtubule-modulating agent. J Biol Chem 285, 1873718748.

27NJ Waterhouse , JC Goldstein , O von Ahsen , (2001) Cytochrome c maintains mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP generation after outer mitochondrial membrane permeabilization during the apoptotic process. J Cell Biol 153, 319328.

28HS Lee , EY Seo , NE Kang , (2008) [6]-Gingerol inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem 19, 313319.

29CH Jeong , AM Bode , A Pugliese , (2009) [6]-Gingerol suppresses colon cancer growth by targeting leukotriene A4 hydrolase. Cancer Res 69, 55845591.

30 BB Aggarwal & S Shishodia (2006) Molecular targets of dietary agents for prevention and therapy of cancer. Biochem Pharmacol 71, 13971421.

31 SM Meeran & SK Katiyar (2008) Cell cycle control as a basis for cancer chemoprevention through dietary agents. Front Biosci 13, 21912202.

32YJ Park , J Wen , S Bang , (2006) [6]-Gingerol induces cell cycle arrest and cell death of mutant p53-expressing pancreatic cancer cells. Yonsei Med J 47, 688697.

34 A Besson , SF Dowdy & JM Roberts (2008) CDK inhibitors: cell cycle regulators and beyond. Dev Cell 14, 159169.

35 DR Green & JC Reed (1998) Mitochondria and apoptosis. Science 281, 13091312.

36 JM Adams & S Cory (1998) The Bcl-2 protein family: arbiters of cell survival. Science 281, 13221326.

37 GJ Kelloff , CC Sigman & P Greenwald (1999) Cancer chemoprevention: progress and promise. Eur J Cancer 35, 20312038.

38E Bidoli , R Talamini , C Bosetti , (2005) Macronutrients, fatty acids, cholesterol and prostate cancer risk. Ann Oncol 16, 152157.

39 S Saha , RM Smith , E Lenz , (2003) Analysis of a ginger extract by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy using superheated deuterium oxide as the mobile phase. J Chromatogr A 991, 143150.

40SD Jolad , RC Lantz , AM Solyom , (2004) Fresh organically grown ginger (Zingiber officinale): composition and effects on LPS-induced PGE2 production. Phytochemistry 65, 19371954.

41A Kato , Y Higuchi , H Goto , (2006) Inhibitory effects of Zingiber officinale Roscoe derived components on aldose reductase activity in vitro and in vivo. J Agric Food Chem 54, 66406644.

42 KK Park , KS Chun , JM Lee , (1998) Inhibitory effects of [6]-gingerol, a major pungent principle of ginger, on phorbol ester-induced inflammation, epidermal ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor promotion in ICR mice. Cancer Lett 129, 139144.

43 N Yoshimi , A Wang , Y Morishita , (1992) Modifying effects of fungal and herb metabolites on azoxymethane-induced intestinal carcinogenesis in rats. Jpn J Cancer Res 83, 12731278.

44 W Wang , CY Li , XD Wen , (2009) Plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and excretion study of 6-gingerol in rat by liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. J Pharm Biomed Anal 49, 10701074.

45The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330, 10291035.

46GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist , (1996) Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 11501155.

47 S Reagan-Shaw , M Nihal & N Ahmad (2008) Dose translation from animal to human studies revisited. FASEB J 22, 659661.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Type Description Title
Supplementary Material

Aneja Supplementary Material
Aneja Supplementary Material

 Unknown (1.1 MB)
1.1 MB