Skip to main content
×
Home

The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review

  • George Francis (a1), Zohar Kerem (a2), Harinder P. S. Makkar (a3) and Klaus Becker (a1)
Abstract

Saponins are steroid or triterpenoid glycosides, common in a large number of plants and plant products that are important in human and animal nutrition. Several biological effects have been ascribed to saponins. Extensive research has been carried out into the membrane-permeabilising, immunostimulant, hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic properties of saponins and they have also been found to significantly affect growth, feed intake and reproduction in animals. These structurally diverse compounds have also been observed to kill protozoans and molluscs, to be antioxidants, to impair the digestion of protein and the uptake of vitamins and minerals in the gut, to cause hypoglycaemia, and to act as antifungal and antiviral agents. These compounds can thus affect animals in a host of different ways both positive and negative.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Dr K. Becker, fax +49 711 4593702, email kbecker@uni-hohenheim.de
References
Hide All
Abe H, Odashima S & Arichi S (1978 a) The effects of saikosaponins on biological membranes. 2. Changes in electron spin resonance spectra from spin labelled erythrocyte and erythrocyte ghost membranes. Planta Medica 34, 287290.
Abe H, Sakaguchi M, Konishi H, Tani T & Arichi S (1978 b) The effects of saikosaponins on biological membranes. 1. The relationship between the structures of saikosaponins and haemolytic activity. Planta Medica 34, 160166.
Al-Habori M & Raman A (1998) Antidiabetic and hypocholesterolaemic effects of fenugreek (Review). Phytotherapy Research 12, 233242.
Almawi WY & Melemedjian OK (2002) Negative regulation of nuclear factor-kappa B activation and function by glucocorticoids. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 28, 6978.
Andersen CY (2002) Possible new mechanism of cortisol action in female reproductive organs: physiological implications of the free hormone hypothesis. Journal of Endocrinology 173, 211217.
Anderson DP (1992) Immunostimulants, adjuvants and vaccine carriers in fish: applications to aquaculture. Annual Review of Fish Diseases 2, 281307.
Anthony NB, Balog JM, Staudinger FB, Wall CW, Walker RD & Huff WE (1994) Effects of a urease inhibitor and ceiling fans on ascites in broilers. 1. Environmental variability and incidence of ascites. Poultry Science 73, 801809.
Apers S, Baronikova S, Sindambiwe JB, Witvrouw M, De Clercq E, Vanden Berghe D, Van Marck E, Vlietinck A & Pieters L (2000) Antiviral, haemolytic and molluscicidal activities of triterpenoid saponins fromaesa lanceolata: establishment of structure-activity relationships. MPlanta Medica 67, 528532.
Arletti R, Benelli A, Cavazzuti E, Scarpetta G & Bertolini A (1999) Stimulating property of Turnera diffusa and Pfaffia paniculata extracts on the sexual behavior of male rats. Psychopharmacology 143, 1519.
Armah CN, Mackie AR, Roy C, Price K, Osbourn AE, Bowyer P & Ladha S (1999) The membrane-permeabilising effect of avenacin A-1 involves the reorganization of bilayer cholesterol. Biophysical Journal 76, 281290.
Attele AS, Wu JA & Yuan CS (1999) Ginseng pharmacology – Multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochemical Pharmacology 58, 16851693.
Authi KS, Rao GHR, Evenden BJ & Crawford N (1988) Action of guanosine 5'-(beta-thio)diphosphate on thrombin-induced activation and calcium mobilization in saponin-permeabilized and intact human platelets. Biochemical Journal 255, 885894.
Bae EA, Park SY & Kim DH (2000) Constitutive beta-glucosidases hydrolyzing ginsenoside R-b1 and R-b2 from human intestinal bacteria. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 23, 14811485.
Bangham AD & Horne RW (1962) Action of saponins on biological cell membranes. Nature 196, 952953.
Barr IG, Sjolander A & Cox JC (1998) ISCOMs and other saponin based adjuvants (Review). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 32, 247271.
Bei L, Hu TH, Qian ZM & Shen X (1998) Extracellular Ca2+ regulates the respiratory burst of human neutrophils. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Molecular Cell Research 1404, 475483.
Benie T, El-Izzi A, Tahiri C, Duval J & Thieulant MLTI (1990) Combretodendron africanum bark extract as an antifertility agent. I: Estrogenic effects in vivo and LH release by cultured gonadotrope cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 29, 1323.
Bloom BR (1989) Vaccines for the Third World. Nature 342, 115116.
Bomford R, Stapleton M, Winsor S, Beesley JE, Jessup EA, Price KR & Fenwick GR (1992) Adjuvanticity and ISCOM formation by structurally diverse saponins. Vaccine 10, 572577.
Bosler DA, Blümmel M, Bullerdieck P, Makkar HPS & Becker K (1997) Influence of a saponin containing feed additive on mass development and carcass evaluation of growing lambs. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition and Physiology 6, 46.
Brain K, Hadgraft J & Al-Shatalebi M (1990) Membrane modification in activity of plant molluscicides. Planta Medica 56, 663.
Bureau DP, Harris AM & Cho CY (1998) The effects of purified alcohol extracts from soy products on feed intake and growth of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 161, 2743.
Cai J, Liu M, Wang Z & Ju Y (2002) Apoptosis induced by dioscin in Hela cells. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 25, 193196.
Calvert GD & Blight L (1981) A trial of the effects of soya-bean flour and soya-bean saponins on plasma lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in hypercholesterlaemic men. British Journal of Nutrition 45, 277281.
Chao AC, Nguyen JV, Broughall M, Recchia J, Kensil CR, Daddona PE & Fix JA (1998) Enhancement of intestinal model compound transport by DS-1, a modified. Quillaja saponin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 87, 13951399.
Chavali SR, Francis T & Campbell JB (1987) An in vitro study of immunodilatory effects of some saponins. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 9, 675683.
Cheeke PR (1996) Biological effects of feed and forage saponins and their impact on animal production. In Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture, pp. 377386 [Waller GR and Yamasaki Y, editors]. New York: Plenum Press
Chen JC & Chen KW (1997) Oxygen uptake and ammonia-N excretion of juvenile. Penaeus japonicus during depuration following one-day exposure to different concentrations of saponin at different salinity levels. Aquaculture 156, 7783.
Chen JC, Xu MX, Chen LD, Chen YN & Chiu TH (1998) Effect of. Panax notoginseng saponins on sperm motility and progression in vitro. Phytomedicine 5, 289292.
Choi S, Jung SY, Kim CH, Kim HS, Rhim H, Kim SC & Nah SY (2001) Effect of Ginsenosides on voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel subtypes in bovine chromaffin cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 74, 7581.
Chou SC, Ramanathan S, Matsui A, Rojers J & Cutting WC (1971) Isolation of saponins with antifertility activity from Gleditschia horrida. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 9, 503504.
Chung E, Lee KY, Lee YJ, Lee YH & Lee SK (1998) Ginsenoside Rg1 down-regulates glucocorticoid receptor and displays synergistic effects with cAMP. Steroids 63, 421424.
Cossarni-Dunier M (1985) Effect of different adjuvants on the humoral immune response of rainbow trout. Developmental and Comparative Immunology 9, 141146.
Coulter A, Wong TY, Drane D, Bates J, Macfarlan R & Cox J (1998) Studies on experimental adjuvanted influenza vaccines: comparison of immune stimulating complexes (Iscoms (TM)) and oil-in-water vaccines. Vaccine 16, 12431253.
de Kloet ER, Reul JM, van den Bosch FR, Tonnaer JA & Saito H (1987) Ginsenoside RG1 and corticosteroid receptors in rat brain. Endocrinology Japan 34, 213220.
Delmas F, Di Giorgio C, Elias R, Gasquet M, Azas N, Mshvildadze V, Dekanosidze G, Kemertelidze E & Timon-David P (2000) Antileishmanial activity of three saponins isolated from ivy, alpha-hederin, beta-hederin and hederacolchiside A(1), as compared with their action on mammalian cells cultured in vitro. Planta Medica 66, 343347.
DeMeo MT, Mutlu EA, Keshavarzian A & Tobin MC (2002) Intestinal Permeation and Gastrointestinal Disease. Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 34, 385396.
Deng HL & Zhang JT (1991) Anti-lipid peroxilative effect of ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1. Chinese Medical Journal 104, 395398.
de Oliveira CAC, Perez AC, Merino G, Prieto JG & Alvarez AI (2001) Protective effects of. Panax ginseng on muscle injury and inflammation after eccentric exercise. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 130C, 369377.
Dollahite JW, Shaver T & Camp BJ (1962) Injected saponins as abortifacients. American Journal of Veterinary Research 23, 12611263.
Dorsaz A-C, Hostettmann M & Hostettmann K (1988) Molluscicidal saponins from. Sesbania sesban. Planta Medica 54, 225227.
El Izzi A, Benie T, Thieulant M-L, Le Men-Oliver L & Duval J (1992) Stimulation of LH release from cultured pituitary cells by saponins of Petersianthus macrocarpus: a permeabilising effect. Planta Medica 58, 229233.
El Izzi A, Duval J & Delaude C (1989) Effet d'une serie de saponines extrites de vegetaux de L'Afrique tropicale sur la liberation d'hormone luteinisante par les cellules hypophysaires en culture (Effect of a series of saponin extracts from African plants on the release of luteinizing hormone by hypophysial cells in culture). Bulletin de la Societé Royale des Sciences de Liege 58, 5356.
Enomoto Y, Ito K, Kawagoe Y, Morio Y & Yamasaki Y (1986) Positive inotropic action of saponins on isolated atrial and papillary muscles from the guinea pig. British Journal of Pharmacology 88, 259267.
Fenwick GR, Price KR, Tsukamoto C & Okubo K (1991) Saponins. In Saponins in Toxic Substances in Crop Plants, [D'Mello FJP, Duffus CM and Duffus JH, editors]. Cambridge: The Royal Society of Chemistry
Flaoyen A, Wilkins AL, Deng D & Brekke T (2001) Ovine metabolism of saponins: Evaluation of a method for estimating the ovine uptake of steroidal saponins from Narthecium ossifragum. Veterinary Research Communications 25, 225238.
Francis G, Makkar HPS & Becker K (2001 a) Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199, 197227.
Francis G, Makkar HPS & Becker K (2001 b) Effects of Quillaja saponins on growth, metabolism, egg production, and muscle cholesterol in individually reared Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 129C, 105114.
Francis G, Makkar HPS & Becker K (2002 a) Dietary supplementation with a Quillaja saponin mixture improves growth performance and metabolic efficiency in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Aquaculture 203, 311320.
Francis G, Makkar HPS & Becker K (2002 b) Effects of cyclic and regular feeding of Quillaja saponin supplemented diet on growth and metabolism of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry 24, 343350.
Fukuda K, Utsumi H, Shoji J & Hamada A (1985) Saponins can cause the agglutination of phospholipid vesicles. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 820, 199206.
Gagliardo R, Vignola AM & Mathieu M (2001) Is there a role for glucocorticoid receptor beta in asthma? Respiratory Research 2, 14.
Gee JM & Johnson IT (1988) Interactions between haemolytic saponins, bile salts and small intestinal mucosa in the rat. Journal of Nutrition 118, 13911397.
Gee JM, Price KR, Johnson IT & Rhodes MJ (1998) The relationship between saponin structure and bioactivity – a preliminary study. In Cost 98, Effects of Antinutrients on the Nutritional Value of Legume Diets no. 4, pp. 814 [Bardocz S & Pusztai A, editors]. Luxemburg: European Commission
Gee JM, Price KR, Ridout CL, Johnson IT & Fenwick GR (1989) Effects of some purified saponins on transmural potential difference in mammalian small intestine. Toxicology In Vitro 3, 8590.
Gee JM, Price KR, Ridout CL, Wortley GM, Hurrell RF & Johnson IT (1993) Saponins of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa): Effects of processing on their abundance in quinoa products and their biological effects on intestinal mucosal tissue. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 63, 201209.
Gee JM, Wal JM, Miller K, Atkinson H, Grigoriadou F, Wijnands MVW, Penninks AH, Wortley G & Johnson IT (1997) Effect of saponin on the transmucosal passage of β-lactoglobulin across the proximal small intestine of normal and β-lacoglobulin-sensitised rats. Toxicology 117, 219228.
Gee JM, Wortley GM, Johnson IT, Price KR, Rutten AAJJL, Houben GF & Penninks AH (1996) Effect of saponins and glycoalkaloids on the permeability and viability of mammalian intestinal cells and on the integrity of tissue preparations in vitro. Toxicology In Vitro 10, 117128.
Glauert AM, Dingle JT & Lucy JA (1962) Action of saponin on biological membranes. Nature 196, 953955.
Gögelein H & Hüby A (1984) Interaction of saponin and digitonin with black lipid membranes and lipid monolayers. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 773, 3238.
Grayson TH, Williams RJ, Wrathmell AB, Munn CB & Harris JE (1987) Effects of immunopotentiating agents on the immune response of rainbow trout,. Salmo gairdneri Richardson, to ERM vaccine. Journal of Fish Biology 31, Suppl. A, 195202.
Gus-Mayer S, Brunner H, Schneider-Poetsch HA & Rudiger W (1994) Avenacosidase from oat: purification, sequence analysis and biochemical characterization of a new member of the BGA family of beta-glucosidases. Plant Molecular Biology 26, 909921.
Hamburger M, Slacanin I, Hostettmann K, Dyatmiko W & Sutarjadi (1992) Acetylated saponins with molluscicidal activity from Sapindus rarak: unambiguous structure determination by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and quantitative analysis. Phytochemical Analysis 3, 231237.
Han LK, Xu BJ, Kimura Y, Zheng YN & Okuda H (2000) Platycodi radix affects lipid metabolism in mice with high fat diet-induced obesity. Journal of Nutrition 130, 27602764.
Hanausek M, Ganesh P, Walaszek Z, Arntzen CJ, Slaga TJ & Gutterman JU (2001) Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), suppress H-ras mutations and aneuploidy in a murine skin carcinogenesis model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 1155111556.
Haralampidis K, Trojanowska M & Osbourn AE (2002) Biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins in plants. Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology 75, 3149.
Haridas V, Arntzen CJ & Gutterman JU (2001 a) Avicins, a family of triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham), inhibit activation of nuclear factor-kappa B by inhibiting both its nuclear localization and ability to bind DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 1155711562.
Haridas V, Higuchi M, Jayatilake GS, Bailey D, Mujoo K, Blake ME, Arntzen CJ & Gutterman JU (2001 b) Avicins: triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham) induce apoptosis by mitochondrial perturbation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 98, 58215826.
Harris WS, Dujovne CA, Windsor SL, Gerrond LLC, Newton FA & Gelfand RA (1997) Inhibiting cholesterol absorption with CP-88,818 (beta-tigogenin cellobioside; tiqueside): Studies in normal and hyperlipidemic subjects. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology 30, 5560.
Harwood HJ Jr, Chandler CE, Pellarin LD, Bangerter FW, Wilkins RW, Long CA, Cosgrove PG, Malinow MR, Marcetta CA, Pettini JL, Savoy YE & Mayne JT (1993) Pharmacologic consequences of cholesterol absorption inhibition: alteration in cholesterol metabolism and reduction in plasma cholesterol concentration induced by the synthetic saponin β-tigogenin cellobioside (CP-88818; tiqueside). Journal of Lipid Research 34, 377395.
Hu J, Lee SO, Hendrich S & Murphy PA (2002) Quantification of the group B soyasaponins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50, 25872594.
Hu M, Konoki K & Tachibana K (1996) Cholesterol-independent membrane disruption caused by triterpenoid saponins. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta – Lipid Metabolism 1299, 252258.
Hussain I & Cheeke PR (1995) Effect of Yucca scidigera extract on rumen and blood profiles of steers fed concentrate- or roughage-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology 51, 231242.
Ikedo S, Shimoyamada M & Watanabe K (1996) Interaction between bovine serum albumin and saponin as studied by heat stability and protease digestion. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 44, 792
Ishaaya I, Birk Y, Bondi A & Tencer Y (1969) Soyabean saponins. IX. Studies of their effect on birds, mammals and cold-blooded organisms. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 20, 433436.
Ishisaki S, Iwase M & Tanaka M (1997) Enhancing effect of starfish Asterias amurensis saponin upon thermal aggregation of actomyosin from alleye pollack meat. Fisheries Science 63, 159160.
Jenkins KJ & Atwal AS (1994) Effects of dietary saponins on fecal bile acids and neutral sterols, and availability of vitamins A and E in the chick. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 5, 134138.
Jenkins PG, Harris JE & Pulsford AL (1991) Enhanced enteric uptake of human gamma globulin by Quil-A saponin in Oreochromis mossambicus. Fish and Shellfish Immunology 1, 279295.
Jie YH, Cammisuli S & Baggiolini M (1984) Immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseung C. A. MEYER in the mouse. Agents and Actions 15, 386391.
Johnson IT, Gee JM, Price K, Curl C & Fenwick GR (1986) Influence of saponins on gut permeability and active nutrient transport in vitro. Journal of Nutrition 116, 22702277.
Johnston NL, Quarles CL & Fagerberg DJ (1982) Broiler performance with DSS40 Yucca saponin in combination with monensin. Poultry Science 61, 10521054.
Johnston NL, Quarles CL, Fagerberg DJ & Caveny DD (1981) Evaluation of Yucca saponin on broiler performance and ammonia suppression. Poultry Science 60, 22892292.
Kai L, Wang ZF & Xiao JS (1998) L-type calcium channel blockade mechanisms of panaxadiol saponins against anoxic damage of cerebral cortical neurons isolated from rats. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 19, 455458.
Kensil CR (1996) Saponins as vaccine adjuvants. Critical Reviews in Therapeutic Drug Carrier Systems 13, 155.
Killeen GF, Madigan CA, Connolly CR, Walsh GA, Clark C, Hynes MJ, Timmins BF, James P, Headon DR & Power RF (1998) Antimicrobial saponins of Yucca Schidigera and the implications of their in vitro properties for their in vivo impact. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 31783186.
Kim DH, Jung JS, Suh HW, Huh SO, Min SK, Son BK, Park JH, Kim ND, Kim YH & Song DK (1998 a) Inhibition of stress-induced plasma corticosterone levels by Ginsenosides in mice: involvement of nitric oxide. Neuroreport 9, 22612264.
Kim DW, Bang KH, Rhee YH, Lee KT & Park HJ (1998 b) Growth inhibitory activities of kalopanaxsaponins A and I against human pathogenic fungi. Archives of Pharmacal Research 21, 688691.
Kim SJ, Kim YY, Ko KH, Hong EK, Han YB, Kang BH & Kim H (1998 c) Butanol extract of 1: 1 mixture of Phellodendron cortex and Aralia cortex stimulates PI3-kinase and ERK2 with increase of glycogen levels in HepG2 cells. Phytotherapy Research 12, 255260.
Kim YH, Park KH & Rho HM (1996) Transcriptional activation of the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase gene through the AP2 site by ginsenoside Rb2 extracted from a medicinal plant, Panax ginseng. Journal of Biological Chemistry 271, 2453924543.
Kim YR, Lee SY, Shin BA & Kim KM (1999) Panax ginseng blocks morphine-induced thymic apoptosis by lowering plasma corticosterone level. General Pharmacology 32, 647652.
Kishor N & Sati OP (1990) A new molluscicidal spirostanol glycoside of Yucca alufolia. Journal of Natural Products 53, 15571559.
Klita PT, Mathison GW & Fenton TW (1996) Effect of alfalfa root saponins on digestive function in sheep. Journal of Animal Science 74, 11441156.
Konoshima T, Takasaki M, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Duc NM, Kasai R & Yamasaki K (1998) Anti-tumor-promoting activity of majonoside-R2 from Vietnamese ginseng, Panax vietnamensis HA et GRUSHV. (I). Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 21, 834838.
Krogdahl A, Roem A & Baeverfjord G (1995) Effects of soybean saponin, raffinose and soybean alcohol extract on nutrient digestibilities, growth and intestinal morphology in Atlantic salmon. In Quality in Aquaculture. Proceedings of the International Conference of Aquaculture '95 and the Satellite Meeting Nutrition and Feeding of Cold Water Species, Trondheim, Norway, 9–12 August 1995. European Aquaculture Society Special Publication no 23, pp. 118119 [Svennevig N and Krogdahl A, editors]. Gent, Belgium: European Aquaculture Society
Kuroda M, Mimaki Y, Hasegawa F, Yokosuka A, Sashida Y & Sakagami H (2001) Steroidal glycosides from the bulbs of Camassia leichtlinii and their cytotoxic activities. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 49, 726731.
Kuznetzova TA, Anisimov MM & Popov AM (1982) A comparative study in vitro of physiological activity of triterpene glycosides of marine invertebrates of echinoderm type. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 73C, 4143.
Lacaille-Dubois MA, Hanquet B, Cui ZH, Lou ZC & Wagner H (1999) A new biologically active acylated triterpene saponin from Silene fortunei. Journal of Natural Products 62, 133136.
Lee YJ, Chung E, Lee KY, Lee YH, Huh B & Lee SK (1997) Ginsenoside-Rg1, one of the major active molecules from Panax ginseng, is a functional ligand of glucocorticoid receptor. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 133, 135140.
Lee KT, Sohn IC, Kim DH, Choi JW & Kwon SH (2000 a) Hypoglycaemic and hypolipidemic effects of tectorigenin and kaikasaponin III in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat and their antioxidant activity in vitro. Archives of Pharmacal Research 23, 461466.
Lee KT, Sohn IC, Park HJ, Kim DW & Jung GO (2000 b) Essential moiety for antimutagenic and cytotoxic activity of hederagenin monodesmosides and bisdesmosides isolated from the stem bark of Kalopanax pictus. Planta Medica 66, 329332.
Lee SJ, Ko WG, Kim JH, Sung JH, Lee SJ, Moon CK & Lee BH (2000 c) Induction of apoptosis by a novel intestinal metabolite of ginseng saponin via cytochrome c-mediated activation of caspase-3 protease. Biochemical Pharmacology 60, 677685.
Lee SJ, Son KH, Chang HW, Kang SS & Kim HP (1998) Antiinflammatory activity of Lonicera japonica. Phytotherapy Research 12, 445447.
Lemma A (1965) A preliminary report on the molluscicidal property of endod (Phytolacca dodecandra). Ethiopian Medical Journal 3, 187.
Liu WK, Xu SX & Che CT (2000) Anti-proliferative effect of ginseng saponins on human prostate cancer cell line. Life Sciences 67, 12971306.
Lu CD & Jorgensen NA (1987) Alfalfa saponins affect site and extent of nutrient digestion in ruminants. Journal of Nutrition 117, 919927.
Ma LY & Xiao PG (1998) Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on platelet aggregation in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion or in vitro and on lipid fluidity of platelet membrane. Phytotherapy Research 12, 138140.
McAllister TA, Annett CB, Cockwill CL, Olson ME, Wang Y & Cheeke PR (2001) Studies on the use of Yucca schidigera to control giardiosis. Veterinary Parasitology 97, 8599.
McGhee JR, Mestecky J, Dertzbaugh MT, Eldridge JH, Hirasawa M & Kiyono H (1992) The mucosal immune system: from fundamental concepts to vaccine development. Vaccine 10, 7588.
McManus OB, Harris GH & Giangiacombo KM (1993) An activator of calcium-dependent potassium channels isolated from a medicinal herb. Biochemistry 32, 61286133.
Mader TL & Brumm MC (1987) Effect of feeding sarsasaponin in cattle and swine diets. Journal of Animal Science 65, 915.
Maharaj K, Froh KH & Campbell JB (1986) Immune responses of mice to inactivated rabies vaccine administered orally: potentiation by Quillaja saponin. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 32, 414420.
Makkar HPS, Aregheore EM & Becker K (1999) Effects of saponins and plant extracts containing saponins on the recovery of ammonia during urea ammoniation of wheat straw and fermentation kinetics of the treated straw. Journal of Agricultural Science, Cambridge 132, 313321.
Makkar HPS & Becker K (1996) Effect of Quillaja saponins on in vitro rumen fermentation. In Saponins Used in Food and Agriculture, pp. 377386 [Waller GR and Yamasaki Y, editors]. New York: Plenum Press
Marino SD, Iorizzi M, Palagiano E, Zollo F & Roussakis C (1998) Starfish saponins. 55. Isolation, structure elucidation, and biological activity of steroid oligoglycosides from an antarctic starfish of the family Asteriidae. Journal of Natural Products 61, 13191327.
Marston A, Wolfender JL & Hostettmann K (2000) Analysis and isolation of saponins from plant material. In Saponins in Food, Feedstuffs and Medicinal Plants, Annual Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society, pp. 112 [Oleszek W and Marston A, editors]. Oxford and London: Clarendon Press.
Matsuda H, Li Y, Yamahara J & Yoshikawa M (1999 a) Inhibition of gastric emptying by triterpene saponin, momordin Ic, in mice: Roles of blood glucose, capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves, and central nervous system. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 289, 729734.
Matsuda H, Li YH, Murakami T, Yamahara J & Yoshikawa M (1999 b) Structure-related inhibitory activity of oleanolic acid glycosides on gastric emptying in mice. Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry 7, 323327.
Matsuda H, Murakami K, Ninomiya K, Yamahara J & Yoshikawa M (1997) Effects of escins 1a, 1b, 11a, and 11b from horse chestnut, the seeds of Aesculus hippocastanum L, on acute inflammation in animals. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 20, 10921095.
Matsuura M (2001) Saponins in garlic as modifiers of the risk of cardiovascular disease. Journal of Nutrition 131, 1000S1005S.
Meagher LP, Smith BL & Wilkins AL (2001) Metabolism of diosgenin-derived saponins: implications for hepatogenous photosensitization diseases in ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology 91, 157170.
Melzig MF, Bader G & Loose R (2001) Investigations of the mechanism of membrane activity of selected triterpenoid saponins. Planta Medica 67, 4348.
Mengoni F, Lichtner M, Battinelli L, Marzi M, Mastroianni CM, Vullo V & Mazzanti G (2002) In vitro anti-HIV activity of oleanolic acid on infected human mononuclear cells. Planta Medica 68, 111114.
Menin L, Panchichkina M, Keriel C, Olivares J, Braun U, Seppert EK & Saks VA (2001) Macrocompartmentation of total creatine in cardiomyocytes revisited. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 220, 149159.
Menzies GS, Howland K, Rae MT & Bramley TA (1999) Stimulation of specific binding of [3H]-progesterone to bovine luteal cell-surface membranes: specificity of digitonin. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology 153, 5769.
Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Kameyama A, Yokosuka A & Sashida Y (1998a) Steroidal saponins from the underground parts of Ruscus aculeatus and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells. Phytochemistry 48, 485493.
Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Kameyama A, Yokosuka A & Sashida Y (1998b) Steroidal saponins from the rhizomes of Hosta sieboldii and their cytostatic activity on HL-60 cells. Phytochemistry 48, 13611369.
Mimaki Y, Yokosuka A, Kuroda M & Sashida Y (2001) Cytotoxic activities and structure-cytotoxic relationships of steroidal saponins. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 24, 12861289.
Miyakoshi M, Tamura Y, Masuda H, Mizutani K, Tanaka O, Ikeda T, Ohtani K, Kasai R & Yamasaki K (2000) Antiyeast steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera (Mohave yucca), a new anti-food-deteriorating agent. Journal of Natural Products 63, 332338.
Monder C, Stewart PM, Lakshmi V, Valentino R, Burt D & Edwards CRW (1989) Licorice inhibits corticosteroid 11β-dehydrogenase of rat kidney and liver: in vivo and in vitro studies. Endocrinology 125, 10461053.
Morehouse LA, Bangerter FW, DeNinno MP, Inskeep PB, McCarthy PA, Pettini JL, Savoy YE, Sugarman ED, Wilkins RW, Wilson TC, Woody HA, Zaccaro LM & Chandler CE (1999) Comparison of synthetic saponin cholesterol absorption inhibitors in rabbits: evidence for a non-stoichiometric, intestinal mechanism of action. Journal of Lipid Research 40, 464474.
Morrissey JP & Osbourn AE (1999) Fungal resistance to plant antibiotics as a mechanism of pathogenesis. Microbiological and Molecular Biological Reviews 63, 708724.
Mowat AM, Smith RE, Donachie AM, Furrie E, Grdic D & Lycke N (1999) Oral vaccination with immune stimulating complexes. Immunology Letters 65, 133140.
Muir AD, Ballantyne KD & Hall TW (2000) LC-MS and LC-MS/MS analysis of saponins and sapogenins – comparison of ionization techniques and their usefulness in compound identification. In Saponins in Food, Feedstuffs and Medicinal Plants, Annual Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society, pp. 3542 [Oleszek W and Marston A, editors]. Oxford and London: Clarendon Press
Mujoo K, Haridas V, Hoffmann JJ, Wachter GA, Hutter LK, Lu Y, Blake ME, Jayatilake GS, Bailey D, Mills GB & Gutterman JU (2001) Triterpenoid saponins from Acacia victoriae (Bentham) decrease tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. Cancer Research 61, 54865490.
Murakami T, Nakamura J, Matsuda H & Yoshikawa M (1999) Bioactive saponins and glycosides. XV. Saponin constituents with gastroprotective effect from the seeds of tea plant, Camellia sinensis L var. assamica Pierre, cultivated in Sri Lanka: Structures of assamsaponins A, B, C, D, and E. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 47, 17591764.
Namba T, Yoshsaki M, Tomimori T, Kobashi K, Mitsui K & Hase J (1973) Haemolytic and protective activity of ginseng saponins. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 21, 459461.
Newbold CJ, El Hassan SM, Wang J, Ortega ME & Wallace RJ (1997) Influence of foliage from African multipurpose trees on activity of rumen protozoa and bacteria. British Journal of Nutrition 78, 237249.
Nguyen TD, Villard PH, Barlatier A, Elsisi AE, Jouve E, Duc NM, Sauze C, Durand A & Lacarelle B (2000) Panax vietnamensis protects mice against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity without any modification of CYP2E1 gene expression. Planta Medica 66, 714719.
Oakenfull DG (1986) Aggregation of bile acids and saponins in aqueous solution. Australian Journal of Chemistry 39, 16711683.
Oakenfull DG & Sidhu GS (1990) Could saponins be a useful treatment for hypercholesterolemia? European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 44, 7988.
Oda K, Matsuda H, Murakami T, Katayama S, Ohgitani T & Yoshikawa M (2000) Adjuvant and haemolytic activities of 47 saponins derived from medicinal and food plants. Biological Chemistry 381, 6774.
Odenyo AA, Osuji PO & Karanfil O (1997) Effects of multipurpose tree (MPT) supplements on ruminant ciliate protozoa. Animal Feed Science and Technology 67, 169180.
Oh YJ & Sung MK (2001) Soybean saponins inhibit cell proliferation by suppressing PKC activation and induce differentiation of HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Nutrition and Cancer 39, 132138.
Ohana P, Delmer DP, Carlson RW, Glushka J, Azadi P, Bacic T & Benziman M (1998) Identification of a novel triterpenoid saponin from Pisum sativum as a specific inhibitor of the diguanylate cyclase of Acetobacter xylinum. Plant and Cell Physiolology 39, 144152.
Oleszek W, Nowacka J, Gee JM, Wortley G & Johnson IT (1994) Effects of some purified alfalfa (Medicago sativa) saponins on transmural potential difference in mammalian small intestine. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 65, 3539.
Onning G, Wang Q, Westrom BR, Asp NG & Karlsson SW (1996) Influence of oat saponins on intestinal permeability in vitro and in vivo in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 76, 141151.
Park HJ, Kwon SH, Lee JH, Lee KH, Miyamoto K & Lee KT (2001) Kalopanaxsaponin A is a basic saponin structure for the anti-tumor activity of hederagenin monodesmosides. Planta Medica 67, 118121.
Pawar R, Gopalakrishnan C & Bhutani KK (2001) Dammarane triterpene saponin from Bacopa monniera as the superoxide inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells. Planta Medica 67, 752754.
Petit PR, Sauvaire Y, Ponsin G, Manteghetti M, Fave A & Ribes G (1993) Effects of a fenugreek seed extract on feeding behaviour in the rat: metabolic endocrine correlates. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behaviour 45, 369374.
Petit PR, Sauvaire YD, Hillairebuys DM, Leconte OM, Baissac YG, Ponsin GR & Ribes GR (1995) Steroid saponins from fenugreek seeds – extraction, purification, and pharmacological investigation on feeding behavior and plasma cholesterol. Steroids 60, 674680.
Pillion DJ, Amsden JA, Kensil CR & Recchia J (1996) Structure-Function relationship among Quillaja saponins serving as excipients for nasal and ocular delivery of insulin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 85, 518524.
Plock A, Sokolowska-Kohler W & Presber W (2001) Application of flow cytometry and microscopical methods to characterize the effect of herbal drugs on Leishmania spp. Experimental Parasitology 97, 141153.
Plohmann B, Bader G, Hiller K & Franz G (1997) Immunomodulatory and antitumoral effects of triterpenoid saponins. Pharmazie 52, 953957.
Podolak I, Elas M & Cieszka K (1998) In vitro antifungal and cytotoxic activity of triterpene saponosides and quinoid pigments from Lysimachia vulgaris L. Phytotherapy Research 12, S70S73.
Potter SM, Jimenez-Flores R, Pollack J, Lone TA & Berber-Jimenez MD (1993) Protein saponin interaction and its influence on blood lipids. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 41, 12871291.
Price KR, Morgan C, Gee JM, Wortley G, Johnson IT & Fenwick GR (1994) Structure activity relationships for saponins and gut permeability, In Proceedings of the International Euro Food TOX IV Conference `Bioactive substances in food of plant origin', 1994, vol. 2, pp. 382385. Olsztyn, Poland: Polish Academy of Sciences, Centre for Agrotechnology and Veterinary Sciences
Punnonen R & Lukola A (1980) Oestrogen-like effect of ginseng. British Medical Journal 281, 1110.
Quin G-W & Xu R-S (1998) Recent advances in bioactive natural products from Chinese medicinal plants. Medical Research Reviews 18, 375382.
Rao AV & Sung M-K (1995) Saponins as anticarcinogens. Journal of Nutrition 125, 717S724S.
Recchia J, Lurantos MHA, Amsden JA, Storey J & Kensil CR (1995) A semisynthetic Quillaja saponin as a drug delivery agent for aminoglycosaide antibiotics. Pharmaceutical Research 12, 19171923.
Rhiouani H, Settaf A, Lyoussi B, Cherrah Y & Lacaille-Dubois A (1999) Effects of saponins from Herniaria glabra on blood pressure and renal function in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Therapie 54, 735739.
Riguera R (1997) Isolating bioactive compounds from marine organisms. Journal of Marine Biotechnology 5, 187193.
Ronnberg B, Fekadu M, Behboudi S, Kenne L & Morein B (1997) Effects of carbohydrate modification of Quillaja saponaria Molina QH-B fraction on adjuvant activity, cholesterol-binding capacity and toxicity. Vaccine 15, 18201826.
Roy PK & Munshi JD (1989) Effect of saponin extracts on oxygen uptake and haematology of an air-breathing climbing perch, Anabas testudineus (Bloch). Journal of Freshwater Biology 1, 167172.
Roy PK, Munshi JD & Dutta HM (1990) Effect of saponin extracts on morpho-history and respiratory physiology of an air breathing fish, Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch). Journal of Freshwater Biology 2, 135145.
Rudakewich M, Ba F & Benishin CG (2001) Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions of Ginsenosides Rb(1) and Rg(1). Planta Medica 67, 533537.
Santos WR, Bernardo RR, Pecanha LMT, Palatnic M, Parente JP & de Sousa CB (1997) Haemolytic activities of plant saponins and adjuvants. Effect of Periandra mediterranea saponin on the humoral response to the FML antigen of Leishmania donovani. Vaccine 15, 10241029.
Sasaki S, Sumino K, Hamajima K, Fukushima J, Ishii N, Kawamoto S, Mohri H, Kensil CR & Okuda K (1998) Induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 by a DNA vaccine formulated with QS-21 saponin adjuvant via intramuscular and intranasal routes. Journal of Virology 72, 49314939.
Schopke T (2000) Non-NMR methods for structure elucidation of saponins. In Saponins in Food, Feedstuffs and Medicinal Plants, Annual Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society, pp. 106113 [Oleszek W and Marston A, editors]. Oxford and London: Clarendon Press.
Seeman P (1974) Ultrastructure of membrane lesions in immune lysis, osmotic lysis and drug-induced lysis. Federation Proceedings 33, 21162124.
Seeman P, Cheng D & Iles GH (1973) Structure of membrane holes in osmotic and saponin hemolysis. Journal of Cell Biology 56, 519527.
Segal R, Shatkovsky P & Milo-Goldzweig I (1974) On the mechanism of saponin hemolysis -1. Hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond. Biochemical Pharmacology 23, 973981.
Sen S, Makkar HPS & Becker K (1998) Alfalfa saponins and their implication in animal nutrition. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 131140.
Shim I, Javaid JI & Kim SE (2000) Effect of ginseng total saponin on extracellular dopamine release elicited by local infusion of nicotine into the striatum of freely moving rats. Planta Medica 66, 705708.
Shimoyamada M, Ikedo S, Ootsubo R & Watanabe K (1998) Effects of soybean saponins on chymotryptic hydrolyses of soybean proteins. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 46, 47934797.
Shimoyamada M, Suzuki M, Sonta H, Maruyama M & Okubo K (1990) Antifungal activity of saponin fraction obtained from Asparagus Officinalis L. and its active principle. Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 54, 25532557.
Sim JS, Kitts WD & Bragg DB (1984) Effect of dietary saponin on egg cholesterol level and laying hen performance. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 64, 977984.
Sindambiwe JB, Calomme M, Geerts S, Pieters L, Vlietinck AJ & Vanden Berghe DA (1998) Evaluation of biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from Maesa lanceolata. Journal of Natural Products 61, 585590.
Sjolander A, Cox JC & Barr IG (1998) ISCOMs: an adjuvant with multiple functions (Review). Journal of Leukocyte Biology 64, 713723.
So HS, Yoon HS, Kwoon YS, Sung JH, Lee TG, Park EN, Cho HS, Lee BM, Cho JM & Ryu WS (1997) Effect of a novel saponin adjuvant derived from Quillaja saponaria on immune response to recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen. Molecular Biology of Cells 7, 176186.
Southon S, Johnson IT, Gee JM & Price KR (1988) The effect of Gypsophylla saponins in the diet on mineral status and plasma cholesterol concentration in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 59, 4955.
Staprans I, Rapp JH, Pan XM, Kim KY & Feingold KR (1994) Oxidized lipids in the diet are a source of oxidized lipid in chylomicrons of human serum. Arteriosclerosis and Thrombosis 14, 19001905.
Stark A & Madar Z (1993) The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on bile acid absorption and cholesterol level in rats. British Journal of Nutrition 69, 277287.
Steurer S, Wurglics M, Likussar W, Burmistrov K, Michelitsch A & Schubert-Zsilavecz M (1999) Lack of correlation between surface and interfacial activities of saponins and their haemolytic properties. Pharmazie 54, 766767.
Stolzenberg SJ & Parkhurst RM (1976) Blastocidal and contraceptive actions by an extract and compounds from endod (Phytolacca dodecandra). Contraception 14, 3951.
Story JA, LePage SL & Petro MS (1984) Interactions of alfalfa plant and sprout saponins with cholesterol in vitro and in cholesterol-fed rats. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 39, 917929.
Sugano M, Goto S, Yamada Y, Yoshido K, Hashimoto Y, Matsuo T & Kimoto M (1990) Cholesterol lowering activity of various undigested fractions of soybean protein in rats. Journal of Nutrition 120, 977985.
Takechi M, Matsunami S, Nishizawa J, Uno C & Tanaka Y (1999) Haemolytic and antifungal activities of saponins or anti-ATPase and antiviral activities of cardiac glycosides. Planta Medica 65, 585586.
Takechi M & Tanaka Y (1995a) Structure-activity relationship of synthetic methyl urosylate glycosides. Phytochemistry 34, 675.
Takechi M & Tanaka Y (1995b) Haemolytic and time course differences between steroid and triterpenoid saponins. Planta Medica 61, 7677.
Tamura K, Honda H, Mimaki Y, Sashida Y & Kogo H (1997) Inhibitory effects of a new steroidal saponin, OSW-1, on ovarian function in rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 121, 17961802.
Teferedegne B (2000) New perspectives on the use of tropical plants to improve ruminant nutrition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 209214.
Terapunduwat S & Tasaki I (1986) Effect of dietary saponin on the performance and plasma cholesterol level of chicks and the alleviation of saponin toxicity by cholesterol supplementation. Japanese Journal of Zootechnical Science 57, 524533.
Tewary PV, Chaturvedi C & Pandey VB (1973) Antifertility activity of Costus speciosus Sm. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 35, 114115.
Traore F, Faure R, Ollivier E, Gasquet M, Azas N, Debrauwer L, Keita A, Timon-David P & Balansard G (2000) Structure and antiprotozoal activity of triterpenoid saponins from Glinus oppositifolius. Planta Medica 66, 368371.
Ursini F, Zamburlini A, Cazzolato G, Maiorino M, Bon GB & Sevanian A (1998) Postprandial plasma lipid hydroperoxides: a possible link between diet and atherosclerosis. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 25, 250252.
Wakabayashi C, Hasegawa H, Murata J & Saiki I (1997) In vivo antimetastatic action of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins is based on their intestinal bacterial metabolites after oral administration. Oncology Research 9, 411417.
Wakabayashi C, Murakami K, Hasegawa H, Murata J & Saiki I (1998) An intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponins has the ability to induce apoptosis in tumor cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 246, 725730.
Wallace RJ, Arthaud L & Newbold CJ (1994) Influence of Yucca shidigera extract on ruminal ammonia concentrations and ruminal microorganisms. Applied Environmental Microbiology 60, 17621767.
Wang Y, McAllister TA, Yanke LJ & Cheeke PR (2000a) Effect of steroidal saponin from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal microbes. Journal of Applied Microbiology 88, 887896.
Wang YX, McAllister TA, Yanke LJ, Xu ZJ, Cheeke PR & Cheng KJ (2000 b) In vitro effects of steroidal saponins from Yucca schidigera extract on rumen microbial protein synthesis and ruminal fermentation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 80, 21142122.
Woldemichael GM & Wink M (2001) Identification and biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from Chenopodium quinoa. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49, 23272332.
Wolff SP & Nourooz-Zadeh J (1996) Hypothesis: UK consumption of dietary lipid hydroperoxides – a possible contributory factor to atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis 119, 261263.
World Health Organization (1996) The World Health Report. Geneva: WHO.
Wu Z, Sadik M & Sleiman FT (1994) Influence of Yucca extract on ruminal metabolism in cows. Journal of Animal Science 72, 10381042.
Yamasaki Y, Ito K, Enomoto Y & Sutko JL (1987) Alterations by saponins of passive calcium permeability and sodium-calcium exchange activity of canine cardiac sarcolemnal vesicles. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 897, 481487.
Yoshikawa M, Murakami T, Kishi A, Kageura T & Matsuda H (2001) Medicinal flowers. III. Marigold (1): hypoglycaemic, gastric emptying inhibitory, and gastroprotective principles and new oleanane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, calendasaponins A, B, C, and D, from Egyptian Calendula officinalis. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 49, 863870.
Yoshiki Y, Kudou S & Okubo K (1998) Relationship between chemical structures and biological activities of triterpenoid saponins from soybean (Review). Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 62, 22912299.
Yoshiki Y & Okubo K (1995) Active oxygen scavenging activity of DDMP (2,3-dihydro-2, 5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4H-pyran-4-one) saponin in soybean seed. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 59, 15561557.
Yoshikoshi M, Kahara T, Yoshiki Y, Ito M, Furukawa Y, Okubo K & Amarowicz R (1995) Metabolism and nonabsorption of soybean hypocotyl saponins in the rat model. Acta Alimentaria 24, 355364.
Yui S, Ubukata K, Hodono K, Kitahara M, Mimaki Y, Kuroda M, Sashida Y & Yamazaki M (2001) Macrophage-oriented cytotoxic activity of novel triterpene saponins extracted from roots of Securidaca inappendiculata. International Immunopharmacology 1, 19892000.
Zhang YW, Dou DQ, Zhang L, Chen YJ & Yao XS (2001) Effects of Ginsenosides from Panax ginseng on cell-to-cell communication function mediated by gap junctions. Planta Medica 67, 417422.
Zhao RZ & McDaniel WF (1998) Ginseng improves strategic learning by normal and brain-damaged rats. NeuroReport 9, 16191624.
Zilversmit DB (1979) Atherogenesis: a postprandial phenomenon. Circulation 60, 473485.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 2971 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 3138 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 18th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.