1Plutzky J (2000) Emerging concepts in metabolic abnormalities associated with coronary artery disease. Curr Opin Cardiol 15, 416–421.
2Grover JK & Yadav SP (2004) Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review. J Ethnopharmacol 93, 123–132.
3Krawinkel MB & Keding GB (2006) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia): a dietary approach to hyperglycemia. Nutr Rev 64, 331–337.
4Chao CY & Huang CJ (2003) Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) extract activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and upregulates the expression of the acyl CoA oxidase gene in H4IIEC3 hepatoma cells. J Biomed Sci 10, 782–791.
5Desvergne B & Wahli W (1999) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism. Endocr Rev 20, 649–688.
6Berger JP, Akiyama TE & Meinke PT (2005) PPARs: therapeutic targets for metabolic disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci 26, 244–251.
7Chen Q, Chan LL & Li ET (2003) Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) reduces adiposity, lowers serum insulin and normalizes glucose tolerance in rats fed a high fat diet. J Nutr 133, 1088–1093.
8Chen Q & Li ET (2005) Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia) fed rats is associated with lower tissue triglyceride and higher plasma catecholamines. Br J Nutr 93, 747–754.
9Chan LL, Chen Q, Go AG, Lam EK & Li ET (2005) Reduced adiposity in bitter melon (Momordica charantia)-fed rats is associated with increased lipid oxidative enzyme activities and uncoupling protein expression. J Nutr 135, 2517–2523.
10Arner P (2005) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes – role of the adipokines. Curr Mol Med 5, 333–339.
11Lambe KG & Tugwood JD (1996) A human peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γ is activated by inducers of adipogenesis, including thiazolidinedione drugs. Eur J Biochem 239, 1–7.
12Hsu SC & Huang CJ (2006) Reduced fat mass in rats fed a high oleic acid-rich safflower oil diet is associated with changes in expression of hepatic PPAR(and adipose SREBP-1c-regulated genes. J Nutr 136, 1779–1785.
13Hirsch J & Gallian E (1968) Methods for the determination of adipose cell size in man and animals. J Lipid Res 9, 110–119.
14Folch J, Lees M & Sloane Stanley GH (1957) A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J Biol Chem 226, 497–509.
15Kozak LP & Jensen JT (1974) Genetic and developmental control of multiple forms of l-glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. J Biol Chem 249, 7775–7781.
16Morimoto C, Kameda K, Tsujita T & Okuda H (2001) Relationships between lipolysis induced by various lipolytic agents and hormone-sensitive lipase in rat fat cells. J Lipid Res 42, 120–127.
17Yeh GY, Eisenberg DM, Kaptchuk TJ & Phillips RS (2003) Systematic review of herbs and dietary supplements for glycemic control in diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 1277–1294.
18Ahmed I, Adeghate E, Sharma AK, Pallot DJ & Singh J (1998) Effects of Momordica charantia fruit juice on islet morphology in the pancreas of the streptozotocin-diabetic rat. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 40, 145–151.
19Miura T, Itoh C, Iwamoto N, et al. (2001) Hypoglycemic activity of the fruit of the Momordica charantia in type 2 diabetic mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 47, 340–344.
20Akhtar MS (1982) Trial of Momordica charantia Linn (Karela) powder in patients with maturity-onset diabetes. J Pak Med Assoc 32, 106–107.
21Shibib BA, Khan LA & Rahman R (1993) Hypoglycaemic activity of Coccinia indica and Momordica charantia in diabetic rats: depression of the hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase and elevation of both liver and red-cell shunt enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. Biochem J 292, 267–270.
22Ng TB, Wong CM, Li WW & Yeung HW (1986) Insulin-like molecules in Momordica charantia seeds. J Ethnopharmacol 15, 107–117.
23Cummings E, Hundal HS, Wackerhage H, Hope M, Belle M, Adeghate E & Singh J (2004) Momordica charantia fruit juice stimulates glucose and amino acid uptakes in L6 myotubes. Mol Cell Biochem 261, 99–104.
24De Vos P, Lefebvre AM, Miller SG, Guerre-Millo M, Wong K, Saladin R, Hamann LG, Staels B, Briggs MR & Auwerx J (1996) Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. J Clin Invest 98, 1004–1009.
25Zhang B, Graziano MP, Doebber TW, et al. (1996) Down-regulation of the expression of the obese gene by an antidiabetic thiazolidinedione in Zucker diabetic fatty rats and db/db mice. J Biol Chem 271, 9455–9459.
26Okuno A, Tamemoto H, Tobe K, et al. (1998) Troglitazone increases the number of small adipocytes without the change of white adipose tissue mass in obese Zucker rats. J Clin Invest 101, 1354–1361.
27Bogacka I, Xie H, Bray GA & Smith SR (2004) The effect of pioglitazone on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ target genes related to lipid storage in vivo. Diabetes Care 27, 1660–1667.
28Deng T, Shan S, Li PP, Shen ZF, Lu XP, Cheng Z & Ning ZQ (2006) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ transcriptionally up-regulates hormone-sensitive lipase via the involvement of specificity protein-1. Endocrinology 147, 875–884.
29Ahima RS & Flier JS (2000) Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ. Trends Endocrinol Metab 11, 327–332.
30Hotamisligil GS, Peraldi P, Budavari A, Ellis R, White MF & Spiegelman BM (1996) IRS-1-mediated inhibition of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity in TNF-α- and obesity-induced insulin resistance. Science 271, 665–668.
31Griffin ME, Marcucci MJ, Cline GW, Bell K, Barucci N, Lee D, Goodyear LJ, Kraegen EW, White MF & Shulman GI (1999) Free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance is associated with activation of protein kinase C theta and alterations in the insulin signaling cascade. Diabetes 48, 1270–1274.
32Olefsky JM (1976) The effects of spontaneous obesity on insulin binding, glucose transport, and glucose oxidation of isolated rat adipocytes. J Clin Invest 57, 842–851.
33Hu E, Kim JB, Sarraf P & Spiegelman BM (1996) Inhibition of adipogenesis through MAP kinase-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ. Science 274, 2100–2103.
34Brown MS, & Goldstein JL (1997) The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound transcription factor. Cell 89, 331–340.
35Yang VW, Christy RJ, Cook JS, Kelly TJ & Lane MD (1989) Mechanism of regulation of the 422(aP2) gene by cAMP during preadipocyte differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86, 3629–3633.
36Zhang Y, Repa JJ, Gauthier K & Mangelsdorf DJ (2001) Regulation of lipoprotein lipase by the oxysterol receptors, LXR LXRβ. J Biol Chem 276, 43018–43024.
37Raclot T, Groscolas R, Langin D & Ferre P (1997) Site-specific regulation of gene expression by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in rat white adipose tissues. J Lipid Res 38, 1963–1972.
38Nerurkar PV, Pearson L, Efird JT, Adeli K, Theriault AG & Nerurkar VR (2005) Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein gene expression and apoB secretion are inhibited by bitter melon in HepG2 cells. J Nutr 135, 702–706.
39Kim JB & Spiegelman BM (1996) ADD1/SREBP1 promotes adipocytes differentiation and gene expression linked to fatty acid metabolism. Genes Dev 10, 1096–1107.
40Palmer DG, Rutter GA & Tavare JM (2002) Insulin-stimulated fatty acid synthase gene expression does not require increased sterol response element binding protein 1 transcription in primary adipocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 291, 439–443.
41Bertile F & Raclot T (2004) mRNA levels of SREBP-1c do not coincide with the changes in adipose lipogenic gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325, 827–834.
42Sekiya M, Yahagi N, Matsuzaka T, et al. (2007) Sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1-independent regulation of lipogenic gene expression in adipocytes. J Lipid Res .
43Juvet LK, Andresen SM, Schuster GU, et al. (2003) On the role of liver X receptors in lipid accumulation in adipocytes. Mol Endocrinol 17, 172–182.
44Darimont C, Avanti O, Zbinden I, Leone-Vautravers P, Mansourian R, Giusti V & Mace K (2006) Liver X receptor preferentially activates de novo lipogenesis in human preadipocytes. Biochimie 88, 309–318.
45Stulnig TM, Steffensen KR, Gao H, Reimers M, Dahlman-Wright K, Schuster GU & Gustafsson J (2002) Novel roles of liver X receptors exposed by gene expression profiling in liver and adipose tissue. Mol Pharmacol 62, 1299–1305.