Skip to main content
×
Home

Calcium intake and vitamin D metabolism and action, in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer

  • Jean-Philippe Bonjour (a1), Thierry Chevalley (a1) and Patrice Fardellone (a2)
Abstract

An association between Ca intake and the risk of prostate cancer has been reported in some but not all epidemiological studies. Assuming that a pathophysiological relationship would underlie this association, a favoured hypothesis proposes that relatively high Ca consumption could promote prostate cancer by reducing the production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D; calcitriol), the hormonal form of vitamin D. The present review analyses the plausibility of this hypothesis by considering the quantitative relationships linking Ca intake to 1,25(OH)2D production and action in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer. Changes in the plasma level of 1,25(OH)2D in response to Ca intake are of very small magnitude as compared with the variations required to influence the proliferation and differentiation of prostate cancer cells. In most studies, 1,25(OH)2D plasma level was not found to be reduced in patients with prostate cancer. The possibility that the level of 1,25(OH)2D in prostate cells is decreased with a high-Ca diet has not been documented. Furthermore, a recent randomised placebo-controlled trial did not indicate that Ca supplementation increases the relative risk of prostate cancer in men. In conclusion, the existence of a pathophysiological link between relatively high Ca intake and consequent low production and circulation level of 1,25(OH)2D that might promote the development of prostate cancer in men remains so far an hypothesis, the plausibility of which is not supported by the analysis of available clinical data.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Calcium intake and vitamin D metabolism and action, in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Calcium intake and vitamin D metabolism and action, in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Calcium intake and vitamin D metabolism and action, in healthy conditions and in prostate cancer
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
* Corresponding author: Professor Jean-Philippe Bonjour, fax +41 22 3829973, email jean-philippe.bonjour@medecine.unige.ch
References
Hide All
Adams ND, Gray RW & Lemann J Jr (1979) The effects of oral CaCO3 loading and dietary calcium deprivation on plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D concentrations in healthy adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 48, 10081016.
Ahonen MH, Tenkanen L, Teppo L, Hakama M & Tuohimaa P (2000) Prostate cancer risk and prediagnostic serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 11, 847852.
Balaji KC, Huryk RF, Verhulst S & Fair WR (2001) Growth of heterotopic LNCaP prostate cancer tumor in nude mice is not affected by dietary calcium. Prostate 48, 265273.
Baron JA, Beach M, Mandel JS, et al. (1999) Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Calcium Polyp Prevention Study Group. N Engl J Med 340, 101107.
Baron JA, Beach M, Wallace K, Grau MV, Sandler RS, Mandel JS, Heber D & Greenberg ER (2005) Risk of prostate cancer in a randomized clinical trial of calcium supplementation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 586589.
Barreto AM, Schwartz GG, Woodruff R & Cramer SD (2000) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3, the prohormone of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, inhibits the proliferation of primary prostatic epithelial cells. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 9, 265270.
Bell NH (1998) Renal and nonrenal 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1α-hydroxylases and their clinical significance. J Bone Miner Res 13, 350353.
Bell NH, Stern PH, Pantzer E, Sinha TK & DeLuca HF (1979) Evidence that increased circulating 1 α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D is the probable cause for abnormal calcium metabolism in sarcoidosis. J Clin Invest 64, 218225.
Berndt SI, Carter HB, Landis PK, Tucker KL, Hsieh LJ, Metter EJ & Platz EA (2002) Calcium intake and prostate cancer risk in a long-term aging study: the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Urology 60, 11181123.
Braun MM, Helzlsouer KJ, Hollis BW & Comstock GW (1995) Prostate cancer and prediagnostic levels of serum vitamin D metabolites (Maryland, United States). Cancer Causes Control 6, 235239.
Caverzasio J, Montessuit C & Bonjour JP (1990) Stimulatory effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 on renal Pi transport and plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Endocrinology 127, 453459.
Chan JM & Giovannucci EL (2001) Dairy products, calcium, and vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer. Epidemiol Rev 23, 8792.
Chan JM, Pietinen P, Virtanen M, Malila N, Tangrea J, Albanes D & Virtamo J (2000) Diet and prostate cancer risk in a cohort of smokers, with a specific focus on calcium and phosphorus (Finland). Cancer Causes Control 11, 859867.
Corder EH, Guess HA, Hulka BS, Friedman GD, Sadler M, Vollmer RT, Lobaugh B, Drezner MK, Vogelman JH & Orentreich N (1993) Vitamin D and prostate cancer: a prediagnostic study with stored sera. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2, 467472.
Favus MJ (2003) Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of Mineral Metabolism, 5th ed., Washington, DC: American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
Feldman D, Malloy P & Gross C (2001) Vitamin D: biology, action, and clinical implication. In Osteoporosis, pp. 257303 [Marcus R, Feldman D and Kelsey J, editors]. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Ferrari SL, Bonjour JP & Rizzoli R (2005) Fibroblast growth factor-23 relationship to dietary phosphate and renal phosphate handling in healthy young men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 15191524.
Gallagher JC, Riggs BL, Eisman J, Hamstra A, Arnaud SB & DeLuca HF (1979) Intestinal calcium absorption and serum vitamin D metabolites in normal subjects and osteoporotic patients: effect of age and dietary calcium. J Clin Invest 64, 729736.
Gann PH, Ma J, Hennekens CH, Hollis BW, Haddad JG & Stampfer MJ (1996) Circulating vitamin D metabolites in relation to subsequent development of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 5, 121126.
Gao X, LaValley MP & Tucker KL (2005) Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 17681777.
Gao X, Valley ML & Tucker KL (2006) Prospective studies of dairy and calcium intakes and prostate risk: a meta-analyisis. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 795.
Giovannucci E (2005) The epidemiology of vitamin D and cancer incidence and mortality: a review (United States). Cancer Causes Control 16, 83–95.
Giovannucci E, Liu Y, Stampfer MJ & Willett WC (2006) A prospective study of calcium intake and incident and fatal prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 203210.
Giovannucci E, Rimm EB, Wolk A, Ascherio A, Stampfer MJ, Colditz GA & Willett WC (1998) Calcium and fructose intake in relation to risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Res 58, 442447.
Grant WB (2002) An estimate of premature cancer mortality in the U.S. due to inadequate doses of solar ultraviolet-B radiation. Cancer 94, 18671875.
Gross MD (2005) Vitamin D and calcium in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer: new approaches for the identification of needs. J Nutr 135, 326–331.
Guyatt GH, Sackett DL, Sinclair JC, Hayward R, Cook DJ & Cook RJ (1995) Users' guides to the medical literature. IX. A method for grading health care recommendations. Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. JAMA 274, 18001804.
Heaney RP, Davies KM, Chen TC, Holick MF & Barger-Lux MJ (2003) Human serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol response to extended oral dosing with cholecalciferol. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 204–210.
Holick MF (1994) McCollum Award Lecture, 1994: vitamin D – new horizons for the 21st century. Am J Clin Nutr 60, 619630.
Holick MF (2003) Vitamin D: a millenium perspective. J Cell Biochem 88, 296–307.
Hsu JY, Feldman D, McNeal JE & Peehl DM (2001) Reduced 1α-hydroxylase activity in human prostate cancer cells correlates with decreased susceptibility to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3-induced growth inhibition. Cancer Res 61, 28522856.
Jacobs ET, Giuliano AR, Martinez ME, Hollis BW, Reid ME & Marshall JR (2004) Plasma levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and the risk of prostate cancer. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 89–90, 533–537.
Kalkwarf HJ & Specker BL (2002) Bone mineral changes during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrine 17, 49–53.
Kesse E, Bertrais S, Astorg P, Jaouen A, Arnault N, Galan P & Hercberg S (2006) Dairy products, calcium and phosphorus intake, and the risk of prostate cancer: results of the French prospective SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation en Vitamines et Mineraux Antioxydants) study. Br J Nutr 95, 539545.
Kristal AR, Cohen JH, Qu P & Stanford JL (2002) Associations of energy, fat, calcium, and vitamin D with prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 11, 719725.
Ma JF, Nonn L, Campbell MJ, Hewison M, Feldman D & Peehl DM (2004) Mechanisms of decreased Vitamin D 1α-hydroxylase activity in prostate cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol 221, 67–74.
Maierhofer WJ, Gray RW & Lemann J Jr (1984) Phosphate deprivation increases serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D concentrations in healthy men. Kidney Int 25, 571575.
Miller GJ (1998) Vitamin D and prostate cancer: biologic interactions and clinical potentials. Cancer Metastasis Rev 17, 353–360.
Nomura AM, Stemmermann GN, Lee J, Kolonel LN, Chen TC, Turner A & Holick MF (1998) Serum vitamin D metabolite levels and the subsequent development of prostate cancer (Hawaii, United States). Cancer Causes Control 9, 425432.
Papapoulos SE, Clemens TL, Fraher LJ, Lewin IG, Sandler LM & O'Riordan JL (1979) 1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol in the pathogenesis of the hypercalcaemia of sarcoidosis. Lancet i, 627630.
Peehl DM & Feldman D (2003) The role of vitamin D and retinoids in controlling prostate cancer progression. Endocr Relat Cancer 10, 131–140.
Platz EA, Leitzmann MF, Hollis BW, Willett WC & Giovannucci E (2004) Plasma 1,25-dihydroxy- and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and subsequent risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Causes Control 15, 255265.
Qin LQ, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K & Sato A (2004 a) Estrogen: one of the risk factors in milk for prostate cancer. Med Hypotheses 62, 133–142.
Qin LQ, Xu JY, Wang PY, Kaneko T, Hoshi K & Sato A (2004 b) Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer: meta-analysis of case-control studies. Nutr Cancer 48, 22–27.
Renehan AG, Zwahlen M, Minder C, O'Dwyer ST, Shalet SM & Egger M (2004) Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, IGF binding protein-3, and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Lancet 363, 13461353.
Rodriguez C, McCullough ML, Mondul AM, Jacobs EJ, Fakhrabadi-Shokoohi D, Giovannucci EL, Thun MJ & Calle EE (2003) Calcium, dairy products, and risk of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort of United States men. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 12, 597–603.
Schuurman AG, van den Brandt PA, Dorant E & Goldbohm RA (1999) Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in The Netherlands Cohort Study. Br J Cancer 80, 11071113.
Schwartz GG & Hulka BS (1990) Is vitamin D deficiency a risk factor for prostate cancer? (Hypothesis). Anticancer Res 10, 13071311.
Schwartz GG, Whitlatch LW, Chen TC, Lokeshwar BL & Holick MF (1998) Human prostate cells synthesize 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 from 25-hydroxyvitamin D3. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 7, 391–395.
Severi G, English DR, Hopper JL & Giles GG (2006 a) Re: Prospective studies of dairy product and calcium intakes and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 98, 794795, author reply 795.
Severi G, Morris HA, MacInnis RJ, English DR, Tilley WD, Hopper JL, Boyle P & Giles GG (2006 b) Circulating insulin-like growth factor-I and binding protein-3 and risk of prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 11371141.
Sonn GA, Aronson W & Litwin MS (2005) Impact of diet on prostate cancer: a review. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis 8, 304–310.
Tavani A, Bertuccio P, Bosetti C, Talamini R, Negri E, Franceschi S, Montella M & La Vecchia C (2005) Dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, phosphorus and the risk of prostate cancer. Eur Urol 48, 27–33.
Tavani A, Gallus S, Franceschi S & La Vecchia C (2001) Calcium, dairy products, and the risk of prostate cancer. Prostate 48, 118121.
Tseng M, Breslow RA, Graubard BI & Ziegler RG (2005) Dairy, calcium, and vitamin D intakes and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Epidemiologic Follow-up Study cohort. Am J Clin Nutr 81, 11471154.
Tuohimaa P, Tenkanen L, Ahonen M, et al. (2004) Both high and low levels of blood vitamin D are associated with a higher prostate cancer risk: a longitudinal, nested case-control study in the Nordic countries. Int J Cancer 108, 104–108.
Woo TC, Choo R, Jamieson M, Chander S & Vieth R (2005) Pilot study: potential role of vitamin D (cholecalciferol) in patients with PSA relapse after definitive therapy. Nutr Cancer 51, 32–36.
Young MV, Schwartz GG, Wang L, Jamieson DP, Whitlatch LW, Flanagan JN, Lokeshwar BL, Holick MF & Chen TC (2004) The prostate 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1 α-hydroxylase is not influenced by parathyroid hormone and calcium: implications for prostate cancer chemoprevention by vitamin D. Carcinogenesis 25, 967971.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

British Journal of Nutrition
  • ISSN: 0007-1145
  • EISSN: 1475-2662
  • URL: /core/journals/british-journal-of-nutrition
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 1
Total number of PDF views: 21 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 92 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.