Abrams, SA & Griffin, IJ (2001) Inulin and oligofructose and calcium absorption: Human data. In Proceedings of the 3rd ORAFTI Research Conference: Recent Scientific Research on Inulin and Oligofructose, pp. 26–27Belgium: Orafti Active Food Ingredients.
Andon, MB, Lloyd, T & Matkovic, V (1994) Supplementation trials with calcium citrate malate: evidence in favour of increasing the calcium RDA during childhood and adolescence. Journal of Nutrition 124, 1412S–1417S.
Armbrecht, HJ & Wasserman, RH (1976) Enhancement of Ca2+ uptake by lactose in the rat small intestine. Journal of Nutrition 106, 1265–1272.
Berrocal, R, Chanton, S, Juillerat, MA, Scherz, JC & Jost, R (1989) Tryptic phosphopeptides from whole casein II. Physicochemical properties related to the solubilization of calcium. Journal of Dairy Research 56, 335–341.
Bonjour, JP, Carrie, AL, Ferrari, S, Clavien, H, Slosman, D & Theintz, G (1997) Calcium-enriched foods and bone mass growth in prepubertal girls: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Investigation 99, 1287–1294.
British Nutrition Foundation (1989) Calcium. London: British Nutrition Foundation.
Brommage, R, Binacua, C, Antille, S & Carrié, AL (1993) Intestinal calcium absorption in rats is stimulated by dietary lactulose and other resistant sugars. Journal of Nutrition 123, 2186–2194.
Browner, WS, Pressman, AR, Nevitt, MC & Cummings, SR (1996) Mortality following fractures in older women. The study of osteoporotic fractures. Archives of Internal Medicine 156, 1521–1525.
Cadogan, J, Eastell, R, Jones, N & Barker, ME (1997) Milk intake and bone mineral acquisition in adolescent girls: randomised, controlled intervention trial. British Medical Journal 315, 1255–1260.
Cashman, K & Flynn, A (1998) Trace elements and bone metabolism. Bibliotheca Nutrition et Dieta 54, 150–164.
Cashman, K & Flynn, A (1999) Optimal nutrition – calcium, magnesium and phosphorus. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 477–487.
Chapuy, MC, Arlot, ME, Delmas, PD & Meunier, PJ (1994) Effect of calcium and cholecalciferol treatment for three years on hip fractures in elderly women. British Medical Journal 308, 1081–1082.
Chapuy, MC, Arlot, ME, Duboeuf, F, Brun, J, Crouzet, B, Arnaud, S, Delmas, PD & Meunier, PJ (1992) Vitamin D3 and calcium to prevent hip fractures in the elderly women. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 1637–1642.
Chevalley, T, Rizzoli, R, Nydegger, V, Slosman, D, Rapin, CH, Michel, J, Vasey, H & Bonjour, JP (1994) Effects of calcium supplements on femoral bone mineral density and vertebral fracture rate in vitamin D replete elderly patients. Osteoporosis International 4, 245–252.
Cleveland, LE, Goldman, JD & Borrud, LG (1996) Data tables: results from USDA's 1994 continuing survey of food intakes by individuals and 1994 Diet and Health Knowledge Survey. Beltsville, MD: Agriculture Research Service, US Department of Agriculture.
Compston, J (1993) Osteoporosis. In The Management of Common Metabolic Bone Disorders, pp. 29–62 [Campbell, G, Compston, J and Crisp, A, editors]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Consensus Development Conference (1993) Diagnosis, prophylaxis and treatment of osteoporosis. American Journal of Medicine 95, 646–650.
Copper, C, Atkinson, EJ, Jacobsen, SJ & O'Fallon, WM (1993) A population-based study of survival following osteoporotic fractures. American Journal of Epidemiology 86, 247–253.
Coudray, C, Bellanger, J, Castíglia-Delavaud, C, Vermorel, V & Rayssignuier, Y (1997) Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc in healthy young men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 51, 375–380.
Dawson-Hughes, B (1991) Calcium supplementation and bone loss: a review of controlled clinical trials. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 54, 274S–280S.
Dawson-Hughes, B (1996) Calcium insufficiency and fracture risk. Osteoporosis International 3, S37–S41.
Dawson-Hughes, B, Dallal, GE, Krall, EA, Sadowski, L, Sahyoun, N & Tannenbaum, S (1990) A controlled trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on bone density in post-menopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 323, 878–883.
Department of Health (1991) Calcium. In Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report in Health and Social Subjects no. 41. pp. 150–157London: HM Stationery Office.
Department of Health (1998) Nutrition and Bone Health with Reference to Calcium and Vitamin D. Dietary Reference Values for Food Energy and Nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report in Health and Social Subjects no. 49. London: HM Stationery Office.
Dibba, B, Prentice, A, Poskitt, EME & Cole, TJ (1998) Calcium supplementation increases the bone mineral status of Gambian children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 57, 73A.
Dibba, B, Prentice, A, Stirling, D & Poskitt, EME (1999) Effect of calcium supplementation on plasma osteocalcin concentration of Gambian children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 61A.
Elders, PJM, Lips, P, Netelenbos, JC, Van Ginkel, FC, Khoe, E, van der Vijgh, WJF & van der Stelt, PF (1994) Long-term effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in perimenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 9, 938–970.
Elffors, I, Allander, E, Kanis, JA, Gullberg, B, Johnell, O, Dequeker, J, Dilsen, G, Gennari, C, Lopes Vaz, AA & Lyritis, G (1994) The variable incidence of hip fracture in Southern Europe; The Medos study. Osteoporosis International 4, 253–263.
European Commission (1993) Calcium. In Nutrient and Energy Intakes of the European Community. Report of the Scientific Committee for Food (31st series), pp. 136–145, Luxembourg: Official Publications of the European Communities.
European Commission (1998) Report on osteoporosis in the European Community: Action for Prevention. Office for Official Publications for the European Commission, Luxembourg.
Flynn, A & Cashman, K (1999) Calcium fortification of foods. In Mineral Fortification of Foods, pp. 18–53 [Hurrell, R, editor]. Surrey: Leatherhead Food RA.
Hansen, M, Sandström, B, Jensen, M & Sørensen, SS (1997) Effect of casein phosphopeptides on zinc and calcium absorption from bread meals. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 11, 143–149.
Hansen, M, Sandström, B, Jensen, M & Sørensen, SS (1997) Casein phosphopeptides improve zinc and calcium absorption from rice-based but not from whole-grain infant cereal. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 24, 56–62.
Hansen, MA, Overgaard, K, Riis, BJ & Christiansen, C (1991) Role of peak bone mass and bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis: 12-year study. British Medical Journal 303, 961–964.
Heaney, RP, Saito, Y & Orimo, H (1994) Effect of casein phosphopeptides on absorbability of co-ingested calcium in normal postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone Mineral Metabolism 12, 77–81.
Heaney, RP (1997) The roles of calcium and vitamin D in skeletal health: an evolutionary perspective. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture 20, 4–12.
Heseker, H, Adolf, T, Eberhardt, W, Hartmann, S, Herwig, A, Kuber, W, Matiakse, B, Moch, KJ, Schneider, R & Zipp, A (1992) Food and nutrient intakes of adults in the German Federal Republic. In VERA-Schriftenriche, vol. 3; pp. 188–189 [W Kubler, HJ Anders, W Heeschen and D Kohlmeier, editors]. Neiderkleen: Fleck Verlag
Institute of Medicine (1997) Dietary Reference Intakes: Calcium, Magnesium, Phophorus, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Washington, DC: Food and Nutrition Board, National Academy Press.
Irish Nutrition and Dietetic Institute (1990) Irish National Nutrition Survey. Dublin: INDI.
Johnell, O, Gullberg, B, Allander, E & Kanis, JA (1992) The apparent incidence of hip fracture in Europe: A study of national register sources. Osteoporosis International 2, 298–302.
Johnston, CC Jr, Miller, JZ, Slemenda, CW, Reister, TK, Hui, S, Christian, JC & Peacock, M (1992) Calcium supplementation and increases in bone mineral density in children. The New England Journal of Medicine 327, 82–87.
Kanders, B, Dempster, DW & Lindsay, R (1988) Interaction of calcium nutrition and physical activity on bone mass in young women. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 3, 145–149.
Kennefick, S & Cashman, KD (2000) Investigation of an in vitro model for predicting the effect of food components on calcium availability from meals. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 51, 45–54.
Kitts, DD & Yuan, YV (1973) Casein phosphopeptides and calcium bioavailability. Trends in Food Science and Technology 3, 31–35.
Lee, WTK, Leung, SSF, Leung, DMY & Cheng, JCY (1996) A follow-up study on the effects of calcium-supplement withdrawl and puberty on bone acquisition of children. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 64, 71–77.
Lee, WTK, Leung, SSF, Wang, SH, Xu, YC, Zeng, WP, Lau, J, Oppenheimer, SJ & Cheng, JCY (1994) Double-blind, controlled calcium supplementation and bone mineral accretion in children accustomed to a low-calcium diet. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 60, 744–750.
Lengemann, FW (1959) The site of action of lactose in the enhancement of calcium utilization. Journal of Nutrition 69, 23–27.
Lloyd, TM, Andon, MB, Rollings, N, Martel, JK, Landis, JR, Demers, LM, Eggli, DF, Keisekhorst, K & Kulin, HE (1993) Calcium supplementation and bone mineral density in adolescent girls. Journal of the American Medical Association 270, 841–844.
Looker, AC, Orwoll, ES, Johnston, CC Jr, Lindsay, RL, Wahner, HW, Dunn, WL, Calvo, MS, Harris, TB & Heyse, SP (1997) Prevalence of low femoral bone density in older US adults from NHANES III. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 12, 1761–1768.
Mackerras, D & Lumley, T (1997) First-and second-year effects in trials of calcium supplementation on the loss of bone density in postmenopausal women. Bone 21, 527–533.
Massey, LK & Whiting, SJ (1996) Dietary salt, urinary calcium and bone loss. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 11, 731–736.
Mellander, O (1950) The physiologic importance of the casein phosphopeptide calcium salt, II: peroral calcium dosage of infants. Acta Societae Medica (Uppsala) 55, 247–255.
Melton, LJ, Chrischilles, EA, Cooper, C, Lane, AW & Riggs, BL (1992) How many women have osteoporosis? Journal of Bone Mineral Research 7, 1005–1010.
Michaelsen, KF, Astrup, AV, Mosekilde, L, Richelsen, B, Schroll, M & Sorensen, OH (1994) The importance of nutrition for the prevention of osteoporosis. Ugeskr Laeger 156, 958–960.
Miller, DD (1989) Calcium in the diet: Food sources, recommended intakes, and nutritional bioavailability. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research 33, 103–156.
Morrison, NA, Qi, JC, Tokita, A, Kelly, PJ, Crofts, L, Nguyen, TV, Sambrook, PN & Eisman, JA (1994) Predicators of bone density from vitamin D receptor alleles. Nature 367, 284–287.
National Institutes of Health (1994) NIH Consensus Statement 12:4. Optimal Calcium Intake. Bethesda, MD: NIH.
National Research Council (1989 a) Recommended Dietary Allowances: 10th edition. Report of the Subcommittee on the Tenth Edition of the RDA. Food and Nutrition Board and the Commission on Life Sciences, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
National Research Council (1989 b) Diet and Health: Implications for Reducing Chronic Disease Risk. Report of the Committee on Diet and Health, Food and Nutrition Board, Commission on Life Sciences. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
Nelson, ME, Fisher, EC, Dilmanian, TA, Dallal, GE & Evans, WJ (1991) A 1-year walking program and increased dietary calcium in post-menopausal women: effects in bone. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 53, 1304–1311.
Nordin, BE (1997) Calcium in health and disease. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture 20, 13–26.
Polley, KJ, Nordin, BE, Baghurst, PA, Walker, CJ & Chatterton, BE (1987) Effect of calcium supplementation on forearm bone mineral content in postmenopausal women: a prospective, sequential controlled trial. Journal of Nutrition 117, 1929–1935.
Prentice, A (1997) Is nutrition important in osteoporosis? Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 357–367.
Prince, R, Devine, A, Dick, I, Criddle, A, Kerr, D, Kent, N, Price, R & Randell, A (1995) The effects of calcium supplementation (milk or tablets) and exercise on bone density in postmenopausal women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 10, 1068–1075.
Recker, RR, Hinders, S, Davies, KM, Heaney, RP, Stegman, MR, Lappe, JM & Kimmel, DB (1996) Correcting calcium nutritional deficiency prevents spine fractures in elderly women. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1961–1966.
Reid, DM & New, SA (1997) Nutritional influences on bone mass. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 56, 977–987.
Reid, IR, Ames, RW, Evans, MC, Gamble, GD & Sharpe, SJ (1995) Long-term effects of calcium supplementation on bone loss and fractures in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Medicine 98, 331–335.
Reid, IR, Ames, RW, Evans, MC, Gamble, GD & Sharpe, SJ (1993) Effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in post-menopausal women. New England Journal of Medicine 328, 460–464.
Riis, B, Thomsen, K & Christiansen, C (1987) Does calcium supplementation prevent postmenopausal bone loss? A double-blind, controlled clinical study. New England Journal of Medicine 316, 173–177.
Rubinacci, A, Divieti, P, Polo, RM, Zampino, M, Resimini, G & Tenni, R (1996) Effect of an oral calcium load on urinary markers of collagen breakdown. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation 19, 719–726.
Schurch, M, Rizzoli, R, Mermillod, B, Vasey, H, Michel, J & Bonjour, J (1996) A prospective study on socioeconomic aspects of fracture of the proximal femur. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 11, 1935–1942.
Shortt, C & Flynn, A (1990) Sodium-calcium inter-relationships with specific reference to osteoporosis. Nutrition Research Reviews 3, 101–115.
Smith, EL, Gilligan, C, Smith, PE & Sempos, CT (1989) Calcium supplementation and bone loss in middle-aged women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 50, 833–842.
Suzuki, K, Endo, Y, Uehara, M, Yamada, H, Goto, S, Imamura, M & Shiozu, S (1985) Effect of lactose, lactulose and sorbitol on mineral utilization and intestinal flora. Journal of the Japanese Society of Nutrition and Food Science 38, 39–42.
Teegarden, D, Proulx, WR, Martin, BR, Zhao, J, McCabe, GP, Lyle, RM, Peacock, M, Slemenda, C, Johnston, CC Jr & Weaver, CM (1995) Peak bone mass in young women. Journal of Bone Mineral Research 10, 711–715.
Välimäki, MJ, Kärkkäinen, M & Lamberg-Allardt, C et al. , (1994) Exercise, smoking and calcium intake during adolescence and early adulthood as determinants of peak bone mass. British Medical Journal 309, 230–235.
Van den Heuvel, EGHM, Schaafsma, G, Muys, T & Van Dokkum, W (1998) Nondigestible oligosaccharides do not interfere with calcium and nonheme-iron absorption in young, healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 445–451.
Van den Heuvel, EGHM, Muys, T, van Dokkum, W & Schaafsma, G (1999) Oligofructose stimulates calcium absorption in adolescents. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 69, 544–548.
Van Dokkum, W (1995) The intake of selected minerals and trace elements in European countries. Nutrition Research Reviews 8, 271–302.
Weaver, CM (2000) The growing years and prevention of osteoporosis in later life. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 59, 303–306.
Welten, D, Kemper, HCG, Post, GB & Van Staveren, W (1995) A meta-analysis of the effect of calcium and bone mass in young and middle aged females and males. Journal of Nutrition 125, 2802–2813.
West, DW (1991) Phosphopeptides and calcium absorption. In Proceedings of XXIII International Dairy Congress 2, pp. 1208–1216. Brussels: International Dairy Federation.
World Health Organisation (1994) Assessment of Fracture Risk and its Application to Screening for Postmenopausal Osteoporosis. Technical Report Series 843. Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Ziegler, EE & Fomon, SJ (1983) Lactose enhances mineral absorption in infancy. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2, 288–294.